click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

2002 FIFA World Cup

The 2002 FIFA World Cup was the 17th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national association football teams organized by FIFA. It was held from 31 May to 30 June 2002 at sites in South Korea and Japan, with its final match hosted by Japan at International Stadium in Yokohama. A field of 32 teams qualified for this World Cup, the first to be held in Asia, the first to be held outside of the Americas or Europe, as well as the first to be jointly-hosted by more than one nation. China, Ecuador and Slovenia made their World Cup debuts; the tournament had several upsets and surprise results, which included the defending champions France being eliminated in the group stage after earning a single point and second favourites Argentina being eliminated in the group stage. South Korea managed to reach the semi-finals, beating Spain and Portugal en route, thus becoming the first team from outside Europe and the Americas to reach the last four of a World Cup. However, the most potent team at the tournament, prevailed, winning the final against Germany 2–0, making them the first and only country to have won the World Cup five times.

The victory qualified Brazil for the 2003 and subsequently 2005 FIFA Confederations Cups, its fourth and fifth Confederations Cup appearance in a row. In the third place play-off match against South Korea, Turkey won 3–2, taking third place in only their second FIFA World Cup, scored the fastest goal in the FIFA World Cup history; the 2002 World Cup was the last one to use the golden goal rule. South Korea and Japan were selected as hosts by FIFA on 31 May 1996. South Korea and Mexico presented three rival bids. South Korea's entry into the race was seen by some as a response to the bid of political and sporting rival Japan. FIFA leaders were split on whom to favor as host as politics within the world governing body held sway. With Mexico regarded as a long shot, the battle to host the tournament came down to Japan and South Korea; the two Asian rivals went on a massive and expensive PR blitz around the world, prompting Sultan Ahmad Shah, the head of the Asian Football Confederation, to step in.

FIFA boss Joao Havelange had long backed the Japanese bid, but his rival in FIFA, UEFA chief Lennart Johansson, sought to undermine Havelange's plans. UEFA and the AFC viewed cohosting between the two Asian rivals as the best option. Japan was faced with a choice of having no World Cup or half a World Cup and they reluctantly chose to go along with co-hosting. South Korea and Japan were chosen unanimously as co-hosts in preference to Mexico; this was the first World Cup to be hosted by more than one country, the second being the 2026 World Cup, which will be hosted by the United States and Canada. The general secretary of South Korea's bidding committee, Song Young-shik, stated that FIFA was interested in staging some matches in North Korea in order to aid Korean reunification, but it was ruled out. At the time the decision was made, Japan had never qualified for a World Cup finals; the only other countries to have been awarded a World Cup without having competed in a final tournament are Italy in 1934 and Qatar in 2022.

The unusual choice of host proved an issue for football fans in Europe, used to watching international matches on or close to their time zone. With games taking place in the European morning, some schools and businesses chose to open late on match days or set up communal watching events before the start of work. 199 teams attempted to qualify for the 2002 World Cup. The qualification process began with the preliminary draw held in Tokyo on 7 December 1999. Defending champions France and co-hosts South Korea and Japan qualified automatically and did not have to play any qualification matches; this was the final World Cup in which the defending champions qualified automatically.14 places were contested by UEFA teams, five by CAF teams, four by CONMEBOL teams, four by AFC teams and three by CONCACAF teams. The remaining two places were decided by playoffs between AFC and UEFA and between CONMEBOL and OFC. Four nations qualified for the finals for the first time: China, Ecuador and Slovenia; as of 2019, this was the last time the Republic of Ireland and China qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Australia and Switzerland failed to qualify.

Turkey qualified for the first time since 1954, Poland and Portugal both qualified for the first time since 1986 and Costa Rica and Uruguay qualified for the first time since 1990. Sweden and the Republic of Ireland returned after missing the 1998 World Cup. 1998 semi-finalists the Netherlands, three-time participants in the 1990s Romania and Norway, Bulgaria and Morocco, who had participated in the previous two finals tournaments, failed to qualify, while South Korea set a record by appearing in a fifth successive finals tournament, the first nation from outside Europe or the Americas to achieve this feat. All seven previous World Cup-winning nations qualified, which broke the record of most previous champions at a tournament before the record was broken again in 2014; the highest ranked team not to qualify was Colombia, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was China PR. The following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament: South Korea and Japan each provided 10 venues, the vast m

GRO J1655-40

GRO J1655-40 is a binary star consisting of an evolved F-type primary star and a massive, unseen companion, which orbit each other once every 2.6 days in the constellation of Scorpius. Gas from the surface of the visible star is accreted onto the dark companion, which appears to be a stellar black hole with several times the mass of the Sun; the optical companion of this low-mass X-ray binary is a subgiant F star. Along with GRS 1915+105, GRO J1655-40 is one of at least two galactic "microquasars" that may provide a link between the supermassive black holes believed to power extragalactic quasars and more local accreting black hole systems. In particular, both display the radio jets characteristic of many active galactic nuclei; the distance from the Solar System is about 11,000 light years, or half-way from the Sun to the Galactic Center, but a closer distance of ~2800 ly is not ruled out. GRO J1655-40 and its companion are moving through the Milky Way at around 112 km/s, in a galactic orbit that depends on its exact distance, but is interior to the "Solar circle", d~8,500 pc, within 150 pc of the galactic plane.

For comparison, the Sun and other nearby stars have typical speeds on the order of 20 km/s relative to the average velocity of stars moving with the galactic disk's rotation in the solar neighborhood, which supports the idea that the black hole formed from the collapse of the core of a massive star. As the core collapsed, its outer layers exploded as a supernova; such explosions seem to leave the remnant system moving through the galaxy with unusually high speed. The outburst source was found to exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations whose frequency increases monotonically during the rising phase of the outburst and with monotonically decreasing frequency in the declining phase of the outburst; this can be modeled assuming propagation of an oscillating shock wave: going closer to the black hole due to rise in the Keplerian component rate in the rising phase and going away from the black hole as viscosity is withdrawn in the declining phase. The shock appears to be propagating at a speed of a few meters per second.

List of nearest black holes https://web.archive.org/web/20070808205214/http://blackholes.stardate.org/directory/factsheet.php?id=11 Simbad "GRO J1655-40: NASA's Chandra Answers Black Hole Paradox". Chandra X-ray Observatory. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. June 21, 2006. Retrieved 2010-04-24

Branch (banking)

A branch, banking center or financial center is a retail location where a bank, credit union, or other financial institution offers a wide array of face-to-face and automated services to its customers. During the 3rd century banks in Persia and in other territories started to issue letters of credit known as Sakks checks in today’s language, that could be traded in cooperative houses or offices throughout the Persian territories. In the period from 1100-1300 banking started to expand across Europe and banks began opening ‘branches’ in remote, foreign locations to support international trade. In 1327, Avignon in France had 43 branches of Italian banking houses alone; the practice of opening satellite branches was popularized in the early 20th century by Amadeo Giannini head of the Bank of America. Branches were housed in imposing buildings in a neoclassical style of architecture. Today, branches may take the form of smaller offices within a larger complex, such as a shopping mall. Traditionally, the branch was the only place of access to a financial institution's services.

Services provided by a branch include cash withdrawals and deposits from a demand account with a bank teller, financial advice through a specialist, safe deposit box rentals, bureau de change, insurance sales, etc. In the early 21st century, features such as automated teller machines and online banking, allow customers to bank from remote locations and after business hours; this has caused financial institutions to reduce their branch business hours and to merge smaller branches into larger ones. Conversely, they converted some into mini-branches with only ATMs for cash withdrawal and depositing; some mini-branches may have no human staff with only telephone support. Some financial institutions, in an attempt to show a friendlier image, offer a boutique or coffeehouse-like environment in their branches, with sit-down counters, interactive displays and playing areas for children; some branches have drive-through teller windows or ATMs. Other financial institutions reduce their costs and position their offerings by having no branches and are sometimes known as virtuals or direct banks.

Branch banking in the United States - interstate branch banking - was viewed unfavorably by regulatory authorities, this was codified with the enactment of the McFadden Act of 1927, which prohibited interstate banking. Over the next few decades, some banks attempted to circumvent McFadden's provisions by establishing bank holding companies that operated so-called independent banks in multiple states. To address this, The Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 prohibited bank holding companies headquartered in one state from having branches in any other state. Most interstate banking prohibitions were repealed by the Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994. Research has found that anticompetitive state provisions restricted out-of-state growth when those provisions were more restrictive than the provisions set by the Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act or by neighboring states; some states have had restrictive bank branch laws. Texas has restricted the operations of banks.

For example, it was not until 1980 that Article XVI, Section 16, of the Texas Constitution was amended to permit banks to have unmanned teller machines in the county of its domicile. These are branches located in a retail space such as a grocery, shopping malls or discount store, they may be full service branches or limited service branches. They do not include drive-through teller windows or safe deposit boxes; these branches may have limited staff and include technology as a means to deliver banking services such as the use of automated teller machines, videoconferencing, video banking systems. A type of foreign bank, obligated to follow the regulations of both the home and host countries, operating in the country. Regulated by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions

I Proud to Be an Indian

I Proud to Be an Indian is a 2004 Indian Bollywood action drama film and directed by Puneet Sira and produced by Sohail Khan. The film, about racism against Asians in London, was shot in a span of 30 days in U. K. and was budgeted between Rs. 4.5 and Rs. 50 million. The film starts; the woman is pregnant. They are attacked. "I" along with his father Kulbhushan Kharbanda reach London. They went to the house of their son, living along with his wife and teenage daughter, they see the news and come to know that the bodies of a Sikh couple were found and it was a suspected racist attack. They attend the last rites of the deceased couple. On, the goons attack an Indian store owner; these goons believe. The family has to taste racism when Kamal of "I" is sexually humiliated, she comes to house in shock. "I" beats three white racist goons. But his brother didn't lodge a police complaint. On, "I" is attacked by a Pakistani, running a boxing club; this attack is ordered by white racist goons. On, it's a free for all fight between "I" and the gang leader of racist group and "I" manages to teach them a lesson.

Sohail Khan as I Kulbhushan Kharbanda as I's father Aasif Sheikh as I's brother Hina Tasleem as Noor Firoz Tim Lawrence as Cain Alex Mileman as Crumb James Owen as Monk Imran Ali Khan as Aslam I Proud to Be an Indian on IMDb I Proud To Be An Indian @ Bollywood Hungama

Interstate compact

In the United States of America, an interstate compact is an agreement between two or more states. Article I, Section 10 of the United States Constitution provides that "No State shall, without the Consent of Congress... enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State." Consent can be obtained in one of three ways. First, there can be a model compact and Congress can grant automatic approval for any state wishing to join it, such as the Driver License Compact. Second, states can submit a compact to Congress prior to entering into the compact. Third, states can agree to a compact submit it to Congress for approval, which, if it does so, causes it to come into effect. Not all compacts between states require explicit Congressional approval – the 1893 Supreme Court decision in Virginia v. Tennessee affirmed that only those agreements which would increase the power of states at the expense of the federal government required it; these agreements create a new governmental agency, responsible for administering or improving some shared resource such as a seaport or public transportation infrastructure.

In some cases, a compact serves as a coordination mechanism between independent authorities in the member states. Such compacts are distinct from Uniform Acts, which are model statutes produced by non-governmental bodies of legal experts to be passed by state legislatures independently. Treaties between the states, ratified under the Articles of Confederation during the period after American independence in 1776 until the current U. S. Constitution was are grandfathered and treated as interstate compacts; this includes agreements like the Treaty of Beaufort, which set the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina in 1787, is still in effect. Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Bear River Commission Bi-State Development Agency Breaks Interstate Park Commission Colorado River Compact Columbia River Gorge Commission Connecticut River Valley Flood Control Commission Delaware River Basin Commission Delaware River Port Authority Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission Delaware River and Bay Authority Dresden School District Driver License Compact Education Commission of the States Emergency Management Assistance Compact Great Lakes Commission Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission Interstate Commission for Adult Offender Supervision Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin Interstate Environmental Commission Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission Interstate Wildlife Violator Compact Kansas City Area Transportation Authority Midwest Interstate Passenger Rail Commission Multistate Tax Commission (all states Northwest Power and Conservation Council Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission Palisades Interstate Park Commission Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Red River Compact Commission Rivendell Interstate School District Susquehanna River Basin Commission Tahoe Regional Planning Agency Virginia-North Carolina High Speed Rail Compact Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Commission Waterfront Commission of New York Harbor Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children National Popular Vote Interstate Compact Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative Transportation Climate Initiative

Denham Tracts

The Denham Tracts constitute a publication of a series of pamphlets and jottings on folklore, fifty-four in all, collected between 1846 and 1859 by Michael Aislabie Denham, a Yorkshire tradesman. Most of the original tracts were published with fifty copies; the tracts were re-edited by James Hardy for the Folklore Society and imprinted in two volumes in 1892 and 1895. It is possible that J. R. R. Tolkien took the word hobbit from the list of fairies in the Denham Tracts. I. «A collection of Proverbs and Popular Sayings related to the Seasons, the Weather, Agricultural pursuits. Gathered chiefly from oral tradition.»Lond. Printed for Percy Society by T. Richards, 100. St. Martin's Lane. 1846, pp. 73. II. «A Myth of Mildridge. Fifty copies. III. «The Noble Nevills.» A notice of their Monuments in Staindrop Church, co. Durham. A Broadside of two pages. Oct. 1849. Fifty copiesIV. Slogans. «Slughorns of the North of England.»1st edit. Six pages, January 1850. Fifty copies. «The Slogans. Twenty-four pages, Decem. 1850. Novo-Castro-Sup-Tynam.

Printed by M. & M. W. Lambert, Grey-st. Fifty copies. «Slogans of the North of England.»3rd edit. Beautifully printed with many engravings. One hundred and ten pages. June, 1851. Newcastle upon Tyne, imprinted by George Bouchier Richardson, at the sign of the River God Tyne, 38, Clayton-st. West. Cr. 8vo. A few copies printed in 4to. V. «A Collection of English Border Rhymes and Sayings in connexion with the Feudal Period.»Twelve pages, July, 1850. Fifty copies. VI. Co: Pal: Durham. – Five Parts. Part I. «A collection of Bishoprick Rhymes and Sayings, in connexion with the Border and Feudal periods.» Twelve pages, August, 1850. Fifty copies. Inscribed «To the families of Hylton and Conyers.» Part II. «A collection of Rare and Popular Rhymes, Sayings of Reproach and Praise, &c. &c. relating to the City of Durham and its Inhabitants.»Pages 13 to 28, January 1851. Fifty copies. Inscribed «To ye Clargy and Olde Maids, of ye afore-named Cittie, &c.» Part III. «Rare and Popular Rhymes, Sayings, Reproaches, &c. &c. relating to the Inhabitants of certain Towns and Villages.

Fifty copies. Inscribed «To Joseph Ritson, Esq.» Part VI. «Rare and Popular Rhymes, Characteristics, &c. &c. relating to certain Towns and Villages in the County of Durham.»Pages 51 to 78, May, 1851. Fifty copies. Inscribed «To Sir Cuthbert Sharp.» Civ. Dunelm. Imprinted by Will. Elliott Duncan & Sons, in Saddler-street. Part V. «Supplement to the Local Rhymes, Sayings, &c. &c. of the County of Durham.»Eight pages, September 1858. Fifty copies. Civ. Dunelm. Imprinted by Will. Duncan & Sons, in Saddler-street, 1859.and 42 more pamphlets. This is a long list of spirits, fairies and other creatures, based on an older list in the Discoverie of Witchcraft, dated 1584, with many additions, a few repetitions and mention of many creatures that do not appear elsewhere. While the fact that the tracts contain creatures that are not referenced anywhere else could indicate that Denham had researched the subject more than others of his time, a lack of other sources makes some think this unlikely despite Denham being regarded as a trustworthy source of information.

"What a happiness this must have been seventy or eighty years ago and upwards, to those chosen few who had the good luck to be born on the eve of this festival of all festivals.