2002 Winter Olympics

The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,399 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee, the first time in Olympic and Paralympic history that both events were organized by a single committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games, after Missouri, New York and Georgia; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.

Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced some local opposition during the bid. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful, raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria.

1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics on venues, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games.

The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. In February 1999, in response to the bid scandal and a financial shortfall for the Games, Mitt Romney CEO of the private equity firm Bain Capital, was hired as the new President and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Romney, Kem C. Gardner, a Utah commercial real estate developer, Don Stirling, the Olympics' local marketing chief, raised "millions of dollars from Mormon families with pioneer roots: the Eccles family, whose forebears were important industrialists and bankers" to help rescue the Games, according to a report. An additional $410 million was received from the federal government. U. S. Federal subsidies amounted to $1.3 billion, compared to $45 billion of federal funding received by the Sochi 2014 Organizing committee from the Russian government.

The Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day; the yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included (bold-face indicates broken during the Vancou

Colleton County Courthouse

The Colleton County Courthouse was built in 1820. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971; the building is located corner of Jeffries and Hampton Streets in South Carolina. The building was put on the register as an example of Greek Revival architecture and due to its historical significance, since the first meeting on nullification was held in the building in 1828. In 1817, Walterboro became the seat of Colleton County; the design of the courthouse is attributed to the architect Robert Mills. The building was completed in 1820 by Charleston contractors, J. & B. Lucas. In June 1828, Robert Rhett, participating in the first meeting on nullification, held in the courthouse building, delivered a speech which urged John Taylor, the governor of South Carolina, to convene a session of the state legislature. Another nullification meeting was held in October of the same year; the courthouse building is made of brick. The entrance is built as a portico with four Tuscan columns and two staircases with ironwork railings.

The courtroom is located in the second floor. The basement is raised; the original building from 1820 was altered in 1939, when two wings were built

Psychosocial short stature

Psychosocial short stature is a growth disorder, observed between the ages of 2 and 15, caused by extreme emotional deprivation or stress. The symptoms include decreased growth hormone and somatomedin secretion short stature, weight, inappropriate for the height, immature skeletal age; this disease is a progressive one, as long as the child is left in the stressing environment, their cognitive abilities continue to degenerate. Though rare in the population at large, it is common in feral children and in children kept in abusive, confined conditions for extended lengths of time, it can cause the body to stop growing but is considered to be temporary. Children with PSS have low levels of growth hormone; these children have a problem with growth hormone inhibiting hormone or growth hormone releasing hormone. The children could either be unresponsive to GHRH, or too sensitive to GHIH. Children who have PSS exhibit signs of failure to thrive. Though they appear to be receiving adequate nutrition, they do not grow and develop compared to other children of their age.

An environment of constant and extreme stress causes PSS. Stress-released hormones in the body such as epinephrine and norepinephrine engage what is known as the'fight or flight' response; the heart speeds up and the body diverts resources away from processes that are not important. As well as lacking growth hormone, children with PSS exhibit gastrointestinal problems due to the large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in their bodies lacking proper digestion of nutrients and further affecting development. While the cure for PSS is questionable, some studies show that placing the child affected with the disease in a foster or group home increases growth rate and socialization skills. One case was a child, admitted to a hospital with an low weight. One nurse took over his care and he began to gain weight and his growth hormone levels increased during this time; the child was so dependent on the nurse that when she left, his levels returned to what they had been when he was admitted to the hospital, once she returned, they stabilized once more.

When a police raid in 1987 released the children held by an Australian cult known as The Family, one twelve-year-old girl weighed under 20 kg and was under 120 cm tall. She grew 11 cm in her growth hormone levels returned to normal. In Günter Grass's 1959 novel The Tin Drum, the character Oskar Matzerath "willfully stunted his growth at three feet tall as a three-year-old, although in the novel he grows to four feet one inch" in reaction to the stress he experiences – the petit-bourgeois German society. In the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo, eight-year old Cosette had been abused and enslaved by the Thènardier family; the extreme abuse and neglect she faces is described as stressful for her, as a result she is described as being as short as a child half her age and having an expression more appropriate for an older woman. She recovers after she is of average height as an adult. In One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Chief Bromden claims that one of Nurse Ratched's orderlies, Williams, a black man with dwarfism, gained his short stature from seeing white men rape his mother.

In the novel Flowers in the Attic by V. C. Andrews, twins Cory and Carrie Dollanganger are locked in an attic; the stress of their grandmother's abuse and lack of attention from their mother — along with arsenic poisoning and lack of outdoor play opportunities — stunts the twins' growth. In the series, Carrie is described as being eight years old, yet her physical appearance is that of a three-year-old. Psychosocial dwarfism from Archive index at the Wayback Machine Sarr M, Job JC, Chaussain JL, Golse B. "Psychogenic growth retardation. Critical study of diagnostic data". Arch. Fr. Pediatr.. 44: 331–8. PMID 2441679