The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War. The invasion phase began on 19 March 2003 and 20 March 2003 and lasted just over one month, including 26 days of major combat operations, in which a combined force of troops from the United States, the United Kingdom and Poland invaded Iraq; this early stage of the war formally ended on 1 May 2003 when U. S. President George W. Bush declared the "End of major combat operations", after which the Coalition Provisional Authority was established as the first of several successive transitional governments leading up to the first Iraqi parliamentary election in January 2005. U. S. military forces remained in Iraq until the withdrawal in 2011. The U. S.-led coalition sent 177,194 troops into Iraq during the initial invasion phase, which lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003. About 130,000 arrived from the U. S. alone, with about 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers, 194 Polish soldiers. 36 other countries were involved in its aftermath.
In preparation for the invasion, 100,000 U. S. troops assembled in Kuwait by 18 February. The coalition forces received support from the Peshmerga in Iraqi Kurdistan. According to U. S. President George W. Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, the coalition aimed "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism, to free the Iraqi people." Others place a much greater emphasis on the impact of the September 11 attacks, on the role this played in changing U. S. strategic calculations, the rise of the freedom agenda. According to Blair, the trigger was Iraq's failure to take a "final opportunity" to disarm itself of alleged nuclear and biological weapons that U. S. and British officials called an intolerable threat to world peace. In a January 2003 CBS poll, 64% of Americans had approved of military action against Iraq. S. would increase due to war. The invasion of Iraq was opposed by some long-standing U. S. allies, including the governments of France, Canada and New Zealand.
Their leaders argued that there was no evidence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and that invading that country was not justified in the context of UNMOVIC's 12 February 2003 report. About 5,000 chemical warheads, shells or aviation bombs were discovered during the Iraq War, but these had been built and abandoned earlier in Saddam Hussein's rule before the 1991 Gulf War; the discoveries of these chemical weapons did not support the government's invasion rationale. On 15 February 2003, a month before the invasion, there were worldwide protests against the Iraq War, including a rally of three million people in Rome, which the Guinness Book of Records listed as the largest anti-war rally. According to the French academic Dominique Reynié, between 3 January and 12 April 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in 3,000 protests against the Iraq war; the invasion was preceded by an airstrike on the Presidential Palace in Baghdad on 20 March 2003. The following day, coalition forces launched an incursion into Basra Province from their massing point close to the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border.
While special forces launched an amphibious assault from the Persian Gulf to secure Basra and the surrounding petroleum fields, the main invasion army moved into southern Iraq, occupying the region and engaging in the Battle of Nasiriyah on 23 March. Massive air strikes across the country and against Iraqi command-and-control threw the defending army into chaos and prevented an effective resistance. On 26 March, the 173rd Airborne Brigade was airdropped near the northern city of Kirkuk, where they joined forces with Kurdish rebels and fought several actions against the Iraqi Army to secure the northern part of the country; the main body of coalition forces continued their drive into the heart of Iraq and met with little resistance. Most of the Iraqi military was defeated and the coalition occupied Baghdad on 9 April. Other operations occurred against pockets of the Iraqi Army, including the capture and occupation of Kirkuk on 10 April, the attack on and capture of Tikrit on 15 April. Iraqi president Saddam Hussein and the central leadership went into hiding as the coalition forces completed the occupation of the country.
On 1 May President George W. Bush declared an end to major combat operations: this ended the invasion period and began the period of military occupation. Hostilities of the Gulf War were suspended on 28 February 1991, with a cease-fire negotiated between the UN Coalition and Iraq; the U. S. and its allies tried to keep Saddam in check with military actions such as Operation Southern Watch, conducted by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia with the mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 32nd Parallel as well as using economic sanctions. It was revealed that a biological weapons program in Iraq had begun in the early 1980s with help from the U. S. and Europe in violation of the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972. Details of the BW program—along with a chemical weapons program—surfaced in the wake of the Gulf War following investigations conducted by the United Nations Special Commission, charged with the post-war disarmament of Saddam's Iraq; the investigation concluded. The U.
S. and its allies maintained a policy of "containment" towards Iraq. This policy involved numerous economic sanctions by the UN Security Council. S. and the UK to protect the Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan and Shia
Parliamentary election were held for the first time in the United Arab Emirates in December 2006 to elect half of the 40 members of Federal National Council. Voting took place in Abu Dhabi and Fujairah on 16 December, in Dubai and Ras al-Khaimah on 18 December, in Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain on 20 December; the 40 members of the Federal National Council consisted of 20 elected members and 20 members appointed by the rulers of each Emirate. The elections were held using electoral colleges, with only 6,689 of more than 300,000 citizens over 18 years were allowed to vote, of which 1,163 were women; the electoral college members were chosen by the rulers of the seven emirates. One woman was elected and eight were appointed. Umm al-Qaiwain was the only emirate without female representation
Korea TESOL is the largest multicultural English teachers association in the Republic of Korea, organized as a nonprofit scholarly/professional society under the National Research Foundation of Korea and local tax laws since 1993. Korea TESOL is a multi-tiered organization of members through regional chapters and nationwide operations such as conferences and Special Interest Groups. All memberships are "national" in scope: members can participate in any local or national event with the same membership benefits, although their dues are targeted to a specific regional chapter. KOTESOL's slogan "Teachers Helping Teaching" is based on an orientation to collegial teacher professional development, including novice teachers new to Korea under the mission statement "to promote scholarship, disseminate information, facilitate cross-cultural understanding among persons concerned with teaching and learning of English in Korea."Korea TESOL's membership includes teachers in private and public schools at all levels as well as teachers-in-training, researchers, materials developers and students.
KOTESOL has 650 members: 25% of members are Korean nationals, the remainder expatriates. KOTESOL is known for its conferences and online publications, active chapter meetings. An increasing number of members hold higher degrees in related fields. KOTESOL was formed through an amalgamation of memberships from two predecessor organizations, the Association of English Teachers in Korea and the Korea Association of Teachers of English; these two predecessor organizations wound down from a joint conference into a new organization. The first KOTESOL conference was held October 16–17, 1993. KOTESOL inherited TESOL International affiliation from AETK and became an IATEFL associate in 1996. Membership and activity in the organization climbed at a time when larger numbers of foreign teachers were invited to work in Korea, with membership climbing to over 900 in 2013 and conference participation over 1500 around the same time. There are nine regional chapters in KOTESOL There have been chapters in Jeju and Kyongju which folded due to lack of members, the Dajeon-Chungcheong chapter was divided for a short time into Daejeon-Chungnam and Cheongju chapters.
International members of KOTESOL are managed separately from the regional chapters. Most chapters hold regular meetings 8 or more times per year, which include both academic and social activities. SIGs are ever-evolving in KOTESOL. SIGs have included KOTESOL's annual International Conferences are the largest language teaching conferences in Korea with more than 200 presentations across two days. Since the first "Joint Conference" in 1992 that led to the founding of KOTESOL, there have been annual conferences each autumn and numerous additional conferences at other times of the year. From 1993 to 2000, these were known as national conferences, since known as international conferences. Since 2006 spring national conferences have been held many years, with 2-4 regional conferences hosted by chapters most years earlier in the spring. There have been some smaller symposiums and conferences late in the autumn the Daejeon Chapter Thanksgiving Symposiums; the quarterly news-magazine The English Connection is the best-known publication, along with the annual KOTESOL Proceedings and the semiannual Korea TESOL Journal.
These are all available online in a moving wall system and are complemented by the monthly online/email KOTESOL News and each chapter's own occasional newsletters, plus the news as presented on the association's official website and through the Facebook group and Facebook page. KOTESOL is an affiliate of TESOL International Association and an associate of IATEFL, as well as a founding partner of the Pan-Asian Consortium of Language Teaching Societies. KOTESOL's partner associations include:International Partnerships TESOL International Association International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language The Pan-Asian Consortium of Language Teaching Societies CamTESOL English Language Teachers' Association of India English Language Teachers' Association of Mongolia English Teachers' Association of the Republic of China Far Eastern English Language Teachers' Association Japan Association for Language Teaching Hong Kong Association for Applied Linguistics Macau Association for Applied Linguistics Malaysian English Language Teaching Association The Philippine Association for Language Teaching, Inc.
The Association for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia Thailand TESOL Domestic Partnerships ALAK (Applied Linguistics Association of Korea 한국응용언어학회 KAFLA (Korea Association of Foreign Language Academies 외국어교육협의회 KAFLE (Korea Association of Foreign Language Education 한국외국어교육학회 KAMALL (Korea Association of Multimedia-Assisted Language Learning 한국멀티미디어언어교육학회 KATE (Korea Association of Teachers of English 한국영어교육학회 KEERA (Korea English Extensive Reading Association