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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas. The earthquake was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Indian Plate. A series of massive tsunami waves grew up to 30 metres high once heading inland, after being created by the underwater seismic activity offshore. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were affected, the tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries; the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh reported the largest number of victims. The earthquake was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history; the direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The earthquake was the third-largest recorded and had the longest duration of faulting observed.

It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 10 millimetres, it remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between mainland Sumatra; the plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totalling more than US$14 billion. The event is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. In February 2005, scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.0. Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. A 2006 study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3. The hypocentre of the main earthquake was 160 km off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island at a depth of 30 km below mean sea level; the northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km.

The earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Splay faults, or secondary "pop up faults", caused long, narrow parts of the seafloor to pop up in seconds; this elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to New Guinea, the Alpide belt that runs along the south and west from Sumatra, Bali, Flores to Timor; the 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. Great earthquakes, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, are associated with megathrust events in subduction zones, their seismic moments can account for a significant fraction of the global seismic moment across century-scale periods. Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005 one-eighth was due to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; this quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake and the Great Chilean earthquake, account for half of the total moment.

Since 1900, the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake and the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Prince William Sound. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 and Tōhoku, Japan in March 2011. Each of these megathrust earthquakes spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. In comparison to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was lower because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs such as Japan. Other huge megathrust earthquakes occurred in 1868. All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geological extent. An estimated 1,600 kilometers of fault surface slipped about 15 meters along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides under the overriding Burma Plate.

The slip did not happen instantaneously but took place in two phases over several minutes: Seismographic and acoustic data indicate that the first phase involved a rupture about 400 kilometers long and 100 km wide, 30 km beneath the sea bed—the largest rupture known to have been caused by an earthquake. The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 kilometers per second, beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; the northern rupture occurred more than in the south, at about 2.1 km/s, continuing north for another five minutes to a plate boundary where the fault type cha

Caroline Matilda of Great Britain

Caroline Matilda of Great Britain was by birth a Princess of Great Britain and member of the House of Hanover and by marriage Queen consort of Denmark and Norway from 1766 to 1772. The youngest and posthumous daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales, by Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, Caroline Matilda was raised in a secluded family atmosphere away from the royal court. At the age of fifteen, she was married to her first cousin, King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, who suffered from a mental illness and was cold to his wife throughout the marriage, she had two children: the future Frederick VI and Louise Augusta, whose biological father may have been the German physician Johann Friedrich Struensee. In 1769, Struensee entered the service of the Danish king. Struensee gained more and more power and instituted a series of reforms that Caroline Matilda supported. Struensee's reforms and his relationship with the Queen generated powerful enemies, who included Christian VII's stepmother Queen Dowager Juliana Maria and her son Prince Frederick.

Juliana Maria directed a plot to overthrow the lovers, which ended with the execution of Struensee and Caroline Matilda's divorce and banishment. She died in Hanover, at the age of twenty-three from scarlet fever. Caroline Matilda was born in Leicester House, London, on 22 July 1751 as the ninth and youngest child of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, her father died about three months before her birth, on 31 March 1751. At birth, she was given the style and title Her Royal Highness Princess Caroline Matilda, as daughter of the Prince of Wales, though by the time of her birth that title had passed to her brother George. Both of her names were used to distinguish her from Princess Caroline; the princess was christened ten days after being born, on 1 August, at the same house, by the Bishop of Norwich, Thomas Hayter. Her godparents were her brother George, her aunt Caroline, her sister Augusta, she was brought up by her strict mother away from the English court and was described as natural and informal, for this reason, she was uninterested in politics and court intrigues as an adult.

She spent most of the time with her family in Leicester House, but during holidays they moved to Kew Palace. Caroline Matilda enjoyed outdoor life and riding, despite the irregularities of her and her sisters' education, she was musically gifted, an accomplished singer with a beautiful voice and could speak three languages: Italian and German. In 1764, a marriage was suggested between the Danish House of Oldenburg and the British House of Hanover between Christian, Crown Prince of Denmark, a British princess; the Danish Crown Prince was the oldest surviving son of King Frederick V and his first wife Princess Louise of Great Britain, in consequence, first cousin of the children of the late Prince of Wales. The marriage was considered suitable because the British and Danish royal families were both Protestant and of the same rank, thus had the same status as well as religion. Additionally, the deceased Queen Louise had been popular in Denmark; the marriage negotiations were intended for the eldest unmarried daughter of the former Prince of Wales, Princess Louise Anne, but after the Danish representative in London, Count von Bothmer, was informed of her weak constitution, her younger sister Caroline Matilda was chosen for the match instead.

The official betrothal was announced on 10 January 1765. On 14 January 1766, in the middle of preparations for the wedding, King Frederick V died and his 17-year-old son became King Christian VII. On 1 October of that year in the royal chapel of St James's Palace the marriage was celebrated by proxy, the groom being represented by Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany. Two days Caroline Matilda departed from Harwich for Rotterdam, three weeks she arrived in Altona, where she left her British entourage and was welcomed by her appointed Danish courtiers. Twelve days Caroline Matilda arrived in Roskilde, where she met her future husband; the official wedding ceremony took place on 8 November 1766 in the Royal Chapel at Christiansborg Palace in Copenhagen. Marriage celebrations and balls lasted for another month. On 1 May 1767, Caroline Matilda was crowned Queen of Denmark in Copenhagen; the young Queen at the Danish court was described as temperamental and charming. She was thought too plump to be described as a beauty, but she was considered attractive: it was said of her that "her appearance allowed her to avoid criticism of women, but still captivate the male eye."

However, her natural and unaffected personality was not popular at the strict Danish court, despite the fact that she was warmly received in Copenhagen. The weak-willed, self-centered, mentally ill Christian VII was cold to his wife and not in a hurry to consummate the marriage; the reason for this attitude towards his wife could be that the King was forced to marry by the court, who believed that marriage would lead to improvement in his mental problems. Despite rumors of homosexuality, the King had a mistress with whom he began a relationship in Holstein in the summer of 1766, visited courtesans in Copenhagen, of which the most famous was Anna Katrina Bentgagen, nicknamed Støvlet-Cathrine. Caroline Matilda became close to her Overhofmesterinde, Louise von Plessen, who regarded the King's friends, suc

Apostol Mărgărit

Apostol Mărgărit or Apostolos Margaritis was an Aromanian school teacher and writer. One of the most important voices of Aromanian emancipation in the 19th century, he conditioned Romania's policy toward the Aromanians, who started to have their own schools in their own language, thanks to Mărgărit's efforts. Mărgărit was born in the Ottoman Empire. In 1862, Mărgărit became a school teacher in Vlaho-Clisura, near Grevena and taught the children in Greek, but in Aromanian. In 1864, in Trnovo the first Aromanian school in Macedonia opened its doors for its children; the school was supervised by Apostol Mărgărit. Due to his activity, he was accused of treason by the Greeks, of being either an Austrian or a Catholic agent. There were several assassination attempts on him: he was stabbed with a dagger in Salonika, thrown twice in the Vardar River and shot while in the Ohrid Mountains, he was sent to prison, but managed to escape and settled in Bucharest, where he obtained support from the Romanian king.

After the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878 and the independence of Romania, the Ottoman government accepted him as school inspector of the Romanian schools on Turkish territory. Under this position, Mărgărit founded many of the Romanian schools of Macedonia and Albania sometimes along with French priest Jean-Claude Faveyrial. Mărgărit managed to become one of the most important voice of Vlach emancipation in the Balkans; the principale voice of Vlah emancipation in the Balkans, as he conditioned Bucharest attitude vis-a-vis the Aromanians. For his merits he was made a member of the Romanian Academy on 3 April 1889, had a national funeral in 1903. Apart from a number of petitions addressed to the Sublime Porte on behalf of the Aromanian people, he wrote: Réfutation d'une brochure grecque par un Valaque épirote Etudes historiques sur les Valaques du Pinde Les Grecs, les Valaques, les Albanais et l'Empire turc par un Valaque du Pinde La politique grecque en Turquie Raport despre persecuţiile şcoalelor române în Macedonia din partea Grecilor Memoriu privitor la şcoalele de peste Balcani Dimitrie R Rosetti Dicţionarul contimporanilor, Editura Lito-Tipografiei "Populara" Curierul Naţional, "Omagiu academic pentru Apostol Margarit"