2004 Summer Olympics

The 2004 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries. There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports. Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions at the time. A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli, used since the 1928 Games; this rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue. The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.

The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as "unforgettable, dream games" by IOC President Jacques Rogge, left Athens with a improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, subway system. There have been arguments regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the 2010-2018 Greek government-debt crisis, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation; the 2004 Olympics were deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several world and Olympic records were broken during these Games. Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004.

The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based on Athens' appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. The bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, its detailed bid concept; the 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – Athens' infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, politicization of Games preparations. Athens' successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events. Another factor which contributed to Athens' selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost.

After leading all voting rounds, Athens defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996; these cities were Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan and Saint Petersburg. The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage. According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive; the Athens 2004 Organizing Committee, responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games.

As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million. The State's contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an anticipated 14%; the overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc. totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income came from broadcasting rights; the overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million. Analysts refer to the "Cost of the Olympic Games" by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee's budget directly related to the Olympic Games, but the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country's infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, airports, power grid etc. This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the actual organisation of the Games; such infrastructure projects are considered by all fiscal standards as fixed asset investments that stay with the hosting country for decades after the Games.

In many cases these infrastructure upgrades would have taken place regardless of hosting the Olympic Games, although the latter may have acted as a "catalyst". It was in this sense that the Greek Ministry of Finance reported in 2013 that the expenses of the Greek state for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, including both infrastructure and organi


Leftovers are foods remaining unconsumed at the end of a meal which are eaten later. Inedible remains like bones are not waste; the use of leftovers depends on where the meal was eaten, the preferences of the diner, the local culture. Leftovers from meals at home are eaten later; this is facilitated by the private environment and convenience of airtight containers and refrigeration. People may eat it directly from the refrigerator, reheat it, or use it as an ingredient to make a new dish. Uneaten food from restaurant meals is sometimes taken by diners for consumption; this may be considered shameful. In the United States, where this is an accepted practice, many diners are embarrassed, such food is put in a euphemistically named "doggy bag", notionally to feed to pets. New dishes made from leftovers are common in world cuisine. People invented many such dishes. Besides capturing nutrition from otherwise inedible bones and broths provide a base for leftover scraps too small to be a meal themselves.

Casseroles, fried rice, Shepherd pies, pizza can be used for this purpose, may have been invented as a means of reusing leftovers. Among American university students, leftover pizza itself has acquired particular in-group significance, to the extent that the USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service offers, as its first tip under "Food Safety Tips for College Students" by Louisa Graham, a discussion of the considerable risks of eating unrefrigerated pizza. At some holiday meals, such as Christmas and Thanksgiving in the United States, it is customary to prepare much more food than necessary so the host can send leftovers home with guests. Cold turkey is archetypal in the United States as a Thanksgiving leftover, with turkey meat reappearing in sandwiches and casseroles for several days after the feast. Leftovers have had a major impact on the consumption of food the size of portions. Portion sizes have increased greatly. In general, food leftovers have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the person's eating habits involved with leftovers.

With an increase in portion size comes the perception of the amount of intake a particular person considers. For example, a larger portion leads to smaller consumption, making a person believe they have not eaten enough and negatively impacting their eating habits. In turn, a larger portion leads to a greater amount of leftovers, whereas a smaller portion leads to a small amount of leftovers. Through extensive research, one of the most influential factors of weight gain is leftover food and the increased amount of consumption because of it; the name of the Chinese-American dish chop suey is sometimes translated as "miscellaneous leftovers", although it is unlikely that actual leftovers were served at chop suey restaurants. Diners in a restaurant may leave uneaten food for the restaurant to discard, or take it away for consumption. To take the food away, the diner might ask a server to package it; such a container is colloquially called a doggy doggie bag. This most derives from the euphemistic pretense that the diner plans to give the food to a pet, rather than eat it.

Some speculate the name was born during World War II when food shortages encouraged people to limit waste, pet food was scarce. The term doggy bag was popularized in the 1970s etiquette columns of many newspapers. Doggy bags are most common in restaurants that offer a take-out food service as well as sit-down meals, their prevalence as an accepted social custom varies by location. In some countries in continental Europe, some people would frown upon a diner asking for a doggy bag. Foam food container Oyster pail Food waste Pagpag Tirit Bibimbap

VAX 7000/10000

The VAX 7000 and VAX 10000 were a series of high-end multiprocessor minicomputers developed and manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation, introduced in July 1992. These systems used microprocessors implementing the VAX instruction set architecture; these computers ran Digital's OpenVMS operating system. They were designed in parallel with the DEC 7000 AXP and DEC 10000 AXP server computers, were identical except for the CPU modules used and the supported I/O bus interfaces. Digital intended customers of the VAX 7000/10000 to upgrade to the Alpha-based configuration by swapping the VAX-based CPU module for those based on the Alpha; the VAX 10000 was a larger configuration of the VAX 7000. Both shared the same System Cabinet, but the VAX 10000 was configured as standard with one Expander Cabinet housing storage devices, one Battery Cabinet housing an uninterruptible power supply; these were optional for a VAX 7000 system. There were three models of the VAX 7000. Model 6x0 The Model 6x0, code-named "Laser/Neon", was announced on 7 July 1992 in Zurich, Switzerland with the United States announcement on 15 July.

It supported one to four 90.91 MHz NVAX+ microprocessors, with the value of "x" being 1 to 4. Model 7x0 The Model 7x0, code-named "Laser/Krypton", was introduced in August 1994, it supported one to six 137.5 MHz NV5 microprocessors, with the value of "x" being 1 to 6. Model 8x0 The Model 8x0, code-named "Laser/Krypton+", supported one to six 170.9 MHz NV5 microprocessors, with the value of "x" being 1 to 6. There was one model of the VAX 10000 AXP, the Model 6x0. Code-named "Blazer/Neon", it supported one to four 90.91 MHz NVAX+ microprocessors, with the value of "x" being 1 to 4. The initial Model 600 used the KA7AA CPU module, which contained a 90.91 MHz NVAX+ microprocessor with 4 MB of B-cache. The clock frequency of microprocessor featured was increased; the Model 700 used the KA7AB CPU module containing a 133.33 MHz NVAX++, the Model 800 used the KA7AC CPU module featuring a 170.9 MHz NVAX++. The CPU modules had two LEVI gate arrays which interfaced the microprocessor to the Laser System Bus, the system bus.

The VAX 7000/10000 supported a maximum of 3.5 GB of memory. This was a limitation of the VAX architecture. Rifkin, Glenn. "Digital Has New Models Of Computer". The New York Times. "DEC RUSHES TO RESCUE OF VAX USERS WITH FOUR NEW MODELS".. Computer Business Review