SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

2005–06 UEFA Champions League

The 2005–06 UEFA Champions League was the 51st season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League and the 14th since it was rebranded from the European Cup in 1992. 74 teams from 50 football associations took part, starting with the first qualifying round played on 12 July 2005. The tournament ended with a final between Arsenal and Barcelona at Stade de France, Paris, on 17 May 2006. Barcelona won 2–1 with Juliano Belletti scoring a late winner. Arsenal had taken the lead through a Sol Campbell header in the 37th minute, despite Jens Lehmann being sent off in the 18th minute. Samuel Eto'o brought Barcelona back on level terms in the 76th minute before Belletti scored the winner five minutes later; the defending champions Liverpool were eliminated by Benfica in the first knockout round. A total of 74 teams from 49 of the 52 UEFA member associations participated in the 2005–06 UEFA Champions League; the association ranking based on the UEFA country coefficients was used to determine the number of participating teams for each association: Associations 1–3 each have four teams qualify.

Associations 4 -- 6 each have three teams. Associations 7 -- 15 each have two teams. Associations 16–50 each have one team qualify; as the winners of the 2004–05 UEFA Champions League, Liverpool gained entry an additional entry despite not qualifying through their domestic league position. They were entered into the 1st qualifying round. For the 2005–06 UEFA Champions League, the associations are allocated places according to their 2004 UEFA country coefficients, which takes into account their performance in European competitions from 1999–2000 to 2003–04. Apart from the allocation based on the country coefficients, associations may have additional teams participating in the Champions League, as noted below: – Additional berth for the 2004–05 UEFA Champions League winners Since the title holder group stage spot was not used as intended and was vacated, while extra team was added to the First qualifying round, the following changes to the default access list were made: The champions of association 10 are promoted from the third qualifying round to the group stage.

The champions of association 16 are promoted from the second qualifying round to the third qualifying round. The champions of association 26 are promoted from the first qualifying round to the second qualifying round. League positions of the previous season shown in parentheses; the schedule of the competition is. Notes Title-holders Liverpool, as well as 23 league champions from countries ranked 27 or lower on the 2004 UEFA ranking, were drawn against each other and played two matches and away, with the winners advancing to the second qualifying round. Though they finished fifth in the Premier League in 2004–05, Liverpool were granted a special exemption by UEFA as the holders, whereby they were placed into the first qualification round; the 12 winners from the first qualifying round, 10 champions from countries ranked 17–26, six second–placed teams from countries ranked 10–15 were drawn against each other and played two matches and away, with the winners advancing to the third qualifying round.

The 14 winners from the second qualifying round, six champions from countries ranked 11–16, three second–placed teams from countries ranked 7–9, six third–placed teams from countries ranked 1–6, three fourth–placed teams from countries ranked 1–3 were drawn to play 2 matches and away, with the winners advancing to the group stage and losers advancing to the first round of the UEFA Cup. 16 winners from the third qualifying round, 10 champions from countries ranked 1–10, 6 second-placed teams from countries ranked 1–6 were drawn into 8 groups of 4 teams each. Two teams from the same association cannot be drawn in the same group. However, because of the abnormal qualification of Liverpool as title holders despite not having finished in the top four of the English league, Liverpool were not given "association protection" in the draw for the group stages; the top 2 teams in each group advanced to the Champions League knock-out stage, while the third-placed teams advanced to the Round of 32 in the UEFA Cup.

Tiebreakers are applied in the following order: Points earned in head-to-head matches between the tied teams. Total goals scored in head-to-head matches between the tied teams. Away goals scored in head-to-head matches between the tied teams. Cumulative goal difference in all group matches. Total goals scored in all group matches. Higher UEFA coefficient going into the competition. Real Betis, Udinese and Artmedia made their debut appearance in the group stage. Statistics exclude qualifying rounds. 2005–06 UEFA Cup 2005–06 UEFA Women's Cup 2005–06 All matches – season at UEFA website 2005–06 season at UEFA website European Club Results at RSSSF All scorers 2005–06 UEFA Champions League according to protocols UEFA + all scorers qualifying round 2005/06 UEFA Champions League - results and line-ups 2005–06 UEFA Champions League List of participants

Thermosphere

The thermosphere is the layer in the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. Within this layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation causes photoionization/photodissociation of molecules, creating ions in the ionosphere. Taking its name from the Greek θερμός meaning heat, the thermosphere begins at about 80 km above sea level. At these high altitudes, the residual atmospheric gases sort into strata according to molecular mass. Thermospheric temperatures increase with altitude due to absorption of energetic solar radiation. Temperatures are dependent on solar activity, can rise to 1,700 °C or more. Radiation causes the atmosphere particles in this layer to become electrically charged, enabling radio waves to be refracted and thus be received beyond the horizon. In the exosphere, beginning at about 600 km above sea level, the atmosphere turns into space, although by the judicial criteria set for the definition of the Kármán line, the thermosphere itself is part of space.

The attenuated gas in this layer can reach 2,500 °C during the day. Despite the high temperature, an observer or object will experience cold temperatures in the thermosphere, because the low density of gas is insufficient for the molecules to conduct heat. A normal thermometer will read below 0 °C, at least at night, because the energy lost by thermal radiation would exceed the energy acquired from the atmospheric gas by direct contact. In the anacoustic zone above 160 kilometres, the density is so low that molecular interactions are too infrequent to permit the transmission of sound; the dynamics of the thermosphere are dominated by atmospheric tides, which are driven predominantly by diurnal heating. Atmospheric waves dissipate above this level because of collisions between the neutral gas and the ionospheric plasma; the International Space Station orbits the Earth within the middle of the thermosphere, between 408 and 410 kilometres. It is convenient to separate the atmospheric regions according to the two temperature minima at about 12 km altitude and at about 85 km.

The thermosphere is the height region above 85 km, while the region between the tropopause and the mesopause is the middle atmosphere where absorption of solar UV radiation generates the temperature maximum near 45 km altitude and causes the ozone layer. The density of the Earth's atmosphere decreases nearly exponentially with altitude; the total mass of the atmosphere is M = ρA H ≃ 1 kg/cm2 within a column of one square centimeter above the ground. 80% of that mass is concentrated within the troposphere. The mass of the thermosphere above about 85 km is only 0.002% of the total mass. Therefore, no significant energetic feedback from the thermosphere to the lower atmospheric regions can be expected. Turbulence causes the air within the lower atmospheric regions below the turbopause at about 110 km to be a mixture of gases that does not change its composition, its mean molecular weight is 29 g/mol with molecular oxygen and nitrogen as the two dominant constituents. Above the turbopause, diffusive separation of the various constituents is significant, so that each constituent follows its own barometric height structure with a scale height inversely proportional to its molecular weight.

The lighter constituents atomic oxygen and hydrogen successively dominate above about 200 km altitude and vary with geographic location and solar activity. The ratio N2/O, a measure of the electron density at the ionospheric F region is affected by these variations; these changes follow from the diffusion of the minor constituents through the major gas component during dynamic processes. The thermosphere contains an appreciable concentration of elemental sodium located in a 10-km thick band that occurs at the edge of the mesosphere, 80 to 100 km above Earth's surface; the sodium has an average concentration of 400,000 atoms per cubic centimeter. This band is replenished by sodium sublimating from incoming meteors. Astronomers have begun utilizing this sodium band to create "guide stars" as part of the optical correction process in producing ultra-sharp ground-based observations; the thermospheric temperature can be determined from density observations as well as from direct satellite measurements.

The temperature vs. altitude z in Fig. 1 can be simulated by the so-called Bates profile: T = T ∞ − e − s with T∞ the exospheric temperature above about 400 km altitude, To = 355 K, zo = 120 km reference temperature and height, s an empirical parameter depending on T∞ and decreasing with T∞. That formula is derived from a simple equation of heat conduction. One estimates a total heat input of qo≃ 0.8 to 1.6 mW/m2 above zo = 120 km altitude. In order to obtain equilibrium conditions, that heat input qo above zo is lost to the lower atmospheric regions by heat conduction; the exospheric temperature T∞ is a fair measurement of the solar XUV radiation. Since solar radio emission F at 10.7 cm wavelength is a good indicator of solar activity, one can apply the empirical formula for quiet magnetospheric conditions.(

Macrosoma heliconiaria

Macrosoma heliconiaria is moth-like butterfly described by Achille Guenée in 1857. It belongs to the family Hedylidae, it belonged to the genus Hedyle. Malcolm J. Scoble combined it with Macrosoma in 1986; the species is recorded across the tropical South America: Colombia, French Guiana, across Brazil to Belém at the mouth of the Amazon. The wings are greyish brown in color. Forewing has white triangle on the costa. Hindwing is narrow translucent in the central area; the length of forewing can be 17–19 mm. Following are the characteristics of the male genitalia: Uncus is not notched in lateral view. Gnathos has truncated lateral members; the apex of the Valva is narrow with prominent inner lobe. The female genitalia has the following features: The anal papillae is pointed. Corpus bursae is globose; the antenna is bipectinate in both sexes. M. heliconiaria is similar to M. semiermis, but the translucent area on the hindwing is less extensive, the ground color of the moth is more grey, the apex of the forewing is not distinctly darker than the rest of the wing in terms of intensity.

The shape of the gnathos and the presence of the lobe on the valva distinguishes M. heliconiaria from M. semiermis, as does the globose corpus bursae with its collar like signum. Macrosoma heliconiaria - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life. Catalogue of Life. A catalogue of the Hedylidae, with descriptions of two new species. An identification guide to the Hedylidae