FINA or Fédération internationale de natation is the international federation recognised by the International Olympic Committee for administering international competition in water sports. It is one of several international federations which administer a given sport or discipline for the IOC and international community, it is based in Switzerland. FINA oversees competition in six aquatics sports: swimming, high diving, artistic swimming,water polo, open water swimming. FINA oversees "Masters" competition in its disciplines. On 24 July 2009, Julio Maglione of Uruguay was elected FINA President. FINA was founded on 19 July 1908 in the Manchester Hotel in London, UK at the end of the 1908 Summer Olympics by the Belgian, Danish, French, German and Swedish Swimming Federations. Number of national federations by year: 1908: 8 1928: 38 1958: 75 1978: 106 1988: 109 2000: 174 2008: 197 2010: 202 2012: 203 2015: 208 2016: 207 2017: 209 At the June 2017, FINA Bureau meeting, Bhutan became the 208th national federation of FINA. and on November 30, 2017, Anguilla became the 209th national federation of FINA Members are grouped by continent, there are 5 continental associations of which they can choose to be a member: Africa: African Swimming Confederation Americas: Swimming Union of the Americas Asia: Asia Swimming Federation Europe: European Swimming League Oceania: Oceania Swimming Association Note: The number following each continental name is the number of FINA members which fall into the given geographical area.
It is not the number of members in the continental association. The FINA membership meets every four years coinciding with the World Championships. There are two types of normal or "ordinary" congress: Technical. FINA's highest authority is the General Congress. Any technical issues concerning FINA's five aquatic disciplines are decided by the Technical Congress; each Congress has two voting members from each Member federation, plus the following non-voting members: the 22 members of the Bureau, the Honorary Life President, all Honorary Members. The Technical Congress has the following additional non-voting members: all members from the respective Technical Committees. "Extraordinary" Congress are called from time to time, to deal with a specific topic or area of concern. All Congress meetings are chaired by FINA's president. Between Congress meetings of the entire membership, a smaller 22-member representative board, called the FINA Bureau, meets to act in a timely manner on items which cannot wait until the entire body can forthgather.
It is the Bureau. Various committees and commission help with the oversight of individual disciplines, or topic-related issues; each presidential term is four years and concluding with the year following the Summer Olympics. 1954 Honorary President Ing. Ladislav Hauptmann - Czech Republic - President LEN and FINA official. FINA organizes one championship involving each of the five disciplines it oversees, as well championships and circuits in each of the disciplines; the biggest FINA event is the biennial World Aquatics Championships held every odd year. It features competitions in all five aquatic disciplines. Prior to 2000, the event was held every 4 years, in the year between Olympic Games. Swimming: World Swimming Championships. Bi-annual event, swum in 25-meter length pool. Water Polo: Water Polo World Leagues. Diving: Diving World Series. High Diving: High Diving World Series. Open Water: World Open Water Swimming Championships. Years from 2000-2010. Artistic swimming: Synchro World Trophy. Masters: World Masters Championships.
Bi-annual, in years. "Masters" competition is for adults. This championships features all 5 disciplines. In addition to the championships events listed above, FINA organizes the following events: Swimming: Swimming World Cup. Water Polo: Men's and Women's Water Polo World Cup; every 4 years. Diving: Diving World Cup. High Diving: High Diving World Cup. Open Water: Marathon Swim World Series. Artistic Swimming: Synchro World Cup; every 4 years. A world-level championships restricted to a younger age, vary by discipline and gender: Swimming: World Junior Swimming Championships. Water Polo: Junior and Youth Water Polo World Championships. Diving: Junior Diving World Cup. Open Water: Junior Open Water Swimming World Championships. Artistic Swimming: World Junior Synchronised Swimming Championships. History of competitive swimwear#FINA rule changes FINA Athletes of the Year International Swimming Hall of Fame List of international sport federations Major achievements in swimming by nation www.fina.org FINA's website
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s