Copperbelt (electoral district)
Copperbelt was an electoral district which returned a member to the Legislative Assembly of Yukon, Canada. It included the Whitehorse subdivisions of Hillcrest, Pineridge, MacRae, part of Copper Ridge, it included the Lobird mobile home park. The riding was divided into the new ridings of Copperbelt South, Copperbelt North and Takhini-Kopper King in 2009; the substantial amount of new housing development in the riding since its creation had led to a significant increase in population that had imbalanced the riding's size compared to others in the territory. Copperbelt is the former seat of Yukon Liberal Party leader Arthur Mitchell, Yukon's Leader of the Official Opposition from 2005-2011. On the resignation of Haakon Arntzen
Whitehorse is the capital and only city of Yukon, the largest city in northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska; the city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed. Because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have up to about 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse, as reported by Guinness World Records, is the city with the least air pollution in the world; as of the 2016 census, the population was 25,085. Archeological research south of the downtown area, at a location known as Canyon City, has revealed evidence of use by First Nations for several thousand years.
The surrounding area had seasonal fish camps and Frederick Schwatka, in 1883, observed the presence of a portage trail used to bypass Miles Canyon. Before the Gold Rush, several different tribes passed through the area seasonally and their territories overlapped; the discovery of gold in the Klondike in August, 1896, by Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Washington Carmack set off a major change in the historical patterns of the region. Early prospectors used the Chilkoot Pass, but by July 1897, crowds of neophyte stampeders had arrived via steamship and were camping at "White Horse". By June 1898, there was a bottleneck of stampeders at Canyon City, many boats had been lost to the rapids as well as five people. Samuel Steele of the North-West Mounted Police said: "why more casualties have not occurred is a mystery to me." On their way to find gold, stampeders found copper in the "copper belt" in the hills west of Whitehorse. The first copper claims were staked by Jack McIntyre on July 6, 1898, Sam McGee on July 16, 1899.
Two tram lines were built, one 8 km stretch on the east bank of the Yukon River from Canyon City to the rapids, just across from the present day downtown, the other was built on the west bank of the river. A small settlement was developing at Canyon City but the completion of the White Pass railway to Whitehorse in 1900 put a halt to it; the White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railway linking Skagway to Whitehorse had begun construction in May 1898, by May 1899 construction had arrived at the south end of Bennett lake. Construction began again at the north end of Bennett lake to Whitehorse, it was only in June–July 1900 that construction finished the difficult Bennett lake section itself, completing the entire route. By 1901, the Whitehorse Star was reporting on daily freight volumes; that summer there were four trains per day. Though traders and prospectors were all calling the city Whitehorse, there was an attempt by the railway people to change the name to Closeleigh, this was refused by William Ogilvie, the territory's Commissioner.
Whitehorse was booming. On May 23, 1905, a small fire in the barber shop of the Windsor Hotel got out of control when the fire engine ran out of water, spreading throughout the city and causing $300,000 in damage, though no lives were lost. Robert Service participated in suppressing the flame; the White Horse Restaurant and Inn was among the buildings destroyed, after its co-founder Frederick Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, had sold his shares and left the city. In 1920 the first planes landed in Whitehorse and the first air mail was sent in November 1927; until 1942, rail and air were the only way to get to Whitehorse, but in 1942 the US military decided an interior road would be safer to transfer troops and provisions between Alaska and the US mainland and began construction of the Alaska Highway. The entire 2,500 km project was accomplished between March and November 1942; the Canadian portion of the highway was only returned to Canadian sovereignty after the war. The Canol pipeline was constructed to supply oil to the north with a refinery in Whitehorse.
In 1950 the city was incorporated and by 1951, the population had doubled from its 1941 numbers. On April 1, 1953, the city was designated the capital of the Yukon Territory when the seat was moved from Dawson City after the construction of the Klondike Highway. On March 21, 1957, the name was changed from White Horse to Whitehorse. Whitehorse is located at kilometre 1,425 of the Alaska Highway and is framed by three nearby mountains: Grey Mountain to the east, Haeckel Hill to the northwest and Golden Horn Mountain to the south; the rapids which were the namesake of the city have disappeared under Miles Canyon and Schwatka Lake, formed by the construction of a hydroelectricity dam in 1958. Whitehorse is the 64th largest city in Canada by area; the city limits present a near rectangular shape orientated in a NW-SE direction. Like most of Yukon, Whitehorse has a dry subarctic climate. However, because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than other comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife.
With an average annual temperature of −0.1 °C Whitehorse is the warmest place in the Yukon. The temperature measurements for the city are taken at the airport; the Whitehorse Riverdale weather station situated at a lower elevation than the airport is warmer at 0.2 °C. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have just over 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse has an average daily high of 20.6 °C in
A caucus is a meeting of supporters or members of a specific political party or movement. The term originated in the United States, but has spread to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Nepal; as the use of the term has been expanded, the exact definition has come to vary among political cultures. The origin of the word caucus is debated, but it is agreed that it first came into use in the British colonies of North America. A February 1763 entry in the diary of John Adams of Braintree, Massachusetts, is one of the earliest appearances of Caucas with its modern connotations of a "smoke-filled room" where candidates for public election are pre-selected in private: This day learned that the Caucas Clubb meets at certain Times in the Garret of Tom Daws, the Adjutant of the Boston Regiment, he has a large House, he has a moveable Partition in his Garrett, which he takes down and the whole Clubb meets in one Room. There they smoke tobacco. There they drink Phlip I suppose, there they choose a Moderator, who puts Questions to the Vote and Selectman, Collectors, Fire Wards, Representatives are Regularly chosen before they are chosen in the Town...
An article in Great Leaders and National Issues of 1896, surveying famous presidential campaigns of the past, begins with an unsourced popular etymology of the origin of the caucus: The Origin of the "Caucus" The presidential nominating convention is a modern institution. In the early days of the Republic a different method was pursued in order to place the candidates for the highest office in the land before the people. In the first place, as to the origin of the "caucus." In the early part of the eighteenth century a number of caulkers connected with the shipping business in the North End of Boston held a meeting for consultation. That meeting was the germ of the political caucuses which have formed so prominent a feature of our government since its organization. No wholly satisfactory etymology has been documented. James Hammond Trumbull suggested to the American Philological Association that it comes from an Algonquian word for "counsel",'cau´-cau-as´u'; the word might derive from the Algonquian cawaassough, meaning an advisor, talker, or orator.
This explanation was favoured by Charles Dudley Warner. The American Heritage Dictionary suggests that it derived from medieval Latin caucus, meaning "drinking vessel", such as might have been used for the flip drunk at Caucus Club of colonial Boston. An analogical Latin-type plural "cauci" is used; the term caucus is used in mediation and other forms of alternate dispute resolution to describe circumstances wherein, rather than meeting at a common table, the disputants retreat to a more private setting to process information, agree on negotiation strategy, confer with counsel and/or with the mediator, or gain "breathing room" after the emotionally difficult interactions that can occur in the common area where all parties are present. The degree to which caucuses are used can be a key defining element, an identifier, of the mediation model being used. For example, "facilitative mediation" tends to discourage the use of caucuses and tries to keep the parties talking at a single table, while "evaluative mediation" may allow parties to separate more and rely on the mediator to shuttle information and offers back and forth.
In United States politics and government, caucus has several related meanings. Members of a political party or subgroup may meet to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices. There is no provision for the role of political parties in the United States Constitution. In the first two presidential elections, the Electoral College handled nominations and elections in 1789 and 1792 which selected George Washington. After that, Congressional party or a state legislature party caucus selected the party's presidential candidates. Nationally, these caucuses were replaced by the party convention starting in 1832 following the lead of the Anti-Masonic Party 1831 convention; the term caucus is used to discuss the procedures used by some states to select presidential nominees such as the Iowa caucuses, the first of the modern presidential election cycle, the Texas caucuses. Since 1980 such caucuses have become, in the aggregate, an important component of the nomination process.
Another meaning is a sub grouping of officials with shared affinities or ethnicities who convene but not always to advocate, lobby or to vote collectively, on policy. At the highest level, in Congress and many state legislatures and Republican members organize themselves into a caucus. There can be smaller caucuses in a legislative body, including those that are multi-partisan or bicameral. Of the many Congressional caucuses, one of the best-known is the Congressional Black Caucus, a group of African-American members of Congress. Another prominent example is the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, whose members voice and advance issues affecting Hispanics in the United States, including Puerto Rico. In a different vein, the Congressional Internet Caucus is a bipartisan group of Members who wish to promote the growth and advancement of the Internet. Other congressional caucuses such as the Out of Iraq Caucus, are organized tendencies or political factions, strive to achieve political goals, similar to a European "platform", but organized around a single issue.
The term is used in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. However, when used in these countries, "caucus" is more a
Yukon Legislative Assembly
The Yukon Legislative Assembly is the legislative assembly for Yukon, Canada. The Yukon Legislative Assembly is the only legislature in Canada's three federal territories, organized along political party lines. In Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, the legislative assemblies are instead elected on a non-partisan consensus government model. From 1900 to 1978, the elected legislative body in Yukon was the Yukon Territorial Council, a body which did not act as the primary government, but was a non-partisan advisory body to the Commissioner of the Yukon. Following the passage of the Yukon Elections Act in 1977, the Territorial Council was replaced by the current Legislative Assembly, elected for the first time in the 1978 election. Italicized text indicates a member of cabinet. Bold text indicates a party leader. Both indicates the Premier of Yukon List of Speakers of the Yukon Legislative Assembly List of Yukon general elections
Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
2002 Yukon general election
The Yukon general election of 2002 was held on November 4, 2002 to elect members of the Yukon Legislative Assembly in the Yukon Territory in Canada. Names in bold indicate party leaders. Jim McLachlan was elected in a by-election; the riding disappeared. The riding of Ross River-Southern Lakes represented by Dave Keenan was split, with Ross River and Teslin going in Pelly-Nisutlin, the rest became Southern Lakes along with the portions of the Mount Lorne riding; the Whitehorse riding of Riverside, disappeared absorbed into Riverdale North. The Whitehorse riding of Copperbelt is a new riding created by splitting Whitehorse West; the Whitehorse riding of Porter Creek Centre is a new riding created by splitting Porter Creek North. James R. McLachlan elected in a by-election in the riding of Faro after the resignation of Trevor Harding in 2000. Dennis Fentie became leader one month later. Mike McLarnon defects and becomes an Independent in May 2002. Wayne Jim defects and becomes an Independent in May 2002.
Don Roberts defects and becomes an Independent in May 2002
Brad Cathers is a Canadian politician. He represents the electoral district of Lake Laberge in the Yukon Legislative Assembly on behalf of the Yukon Party, he is the longest-serving incumbent in the Assembly. Cathers was first elected to the Yukon Legislative Assembly in the general election of November 4, 2002, re-elected in the general election of October 10, 2006, he served as Minister of Health and Social Services and Minister responsible for Yukon Workers' Compensation Health and Safety Board from December 12, 2005 to July 3, 2008. He served as Government House Leader from December 12, 2005 to August 28, 2009. On August 28, 2009, Cathers resigned from cabinet and the government caucus to sit as an independent member over issues with then-Premier Dennis Fentie. On June 29, 2011, Cathers rejoined the government caucus. On October 11, 2011, Cathers was re-elected for a third term as MLA for Lake Laberge. Cathers was sworn into Cabinet again on November 5, 2011 as Minister of Energy and Resources, Minister for Yukon Development Corporation and Yukon Energy Corporation, Government House Leader.
On August 5, 2013, he became Minister of Community Services, Minister responsible for Yukon Housing Corporation, Yukon Liquor Corporation and the Yukon Lottery Commission. In a Cabinet shuffle on January 16, 2015, Cathers was made Minister of Justice, Deputy Government House Leader and, for the second time, Minister for Yukon Development Corporation and Yukon Energy. Cathers was re-elected in his riding of Lake Laberge in the 2016 Yukon election, despite the Yukon Party being swept from office by the Yukon Liberal Party. Following the defeat of former Yukon Party Deputy Premier Elaine Taylor, Cathers is now the longest-serving incumbent MLA in the Yukon Legislative Assembly. Cathers is a member of the Members' Services Board and the Standing Committee on Rules and Privileges, he is the Yukon Party caucus critic for the Department of Justice, the Department of Finance, the Sustainable Resources Division of the Department of Energy and Resources, the Protective Services Division of the Department of Community Services.
Until early 2007, Mr. Cathers was part owner of a wilderness tour company, Cathers Wilderness Adventures, he served as the Wilderness Tourism representative on the Yukon Tourism Education Council from 2000 until his election to the Legislative Assembly in 2002. He is a former member of both the federal Reform Party of Canada and its successor, the Canadian Alliance. Brad Cathers http://www.bradcathers.ca/