University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997
Scotiabank Arena the Air Canada Centre, is a multi-purpose arena located on Bay Street in the South Core district of Downtown Toronto, Canada. It is the home of the Toronto Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League, the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association and the Toronto Rock of the National Lacrosse League. In addition, the minor league Toronto Marlies of the American Hockey League and the Raptors 905 of the NBA G League play occasional games at the arena; the area was home to the Toronto Phantoms of the Arena Football League during their brief existence. The arena is owned and operated by Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. the same group that owns both the Leafs and Raptors, as well as their respective development teams, is 61,780.5 square metres in size. In 2008, the Scotiabank Arena was the busiest in Canada, it is the most photographed location in Canada on Instagram according to BuzzFeed. Scotiabank Arena is connected to Toronto Union railway station, subway station and bus terminal via the PATH.
Scotiabank Arena has, from its initial design to completion, revolutionized many concepts included in new arenas and stadiums built since then. These features include luxury suites accessible on the ground floor, splitting the main scoreboard into several sections, rotating all sponsor signage in the bowl at once, multiple restaurants in and out of the main arena bowl view. Scotiabank Arena hosts other events, such as concerts, political conventions and video game competitions; the arena site was once occupied by Canada Post's Toronto Postal Delivery Building. The Canada Post building was built in 1938, to assist in the recent population growth of Toronto and its surrounding area; the building was handed over to Department of National Defence for war storage purposes upon completion in 1941, but returned to Canada Post in 1946. Modifications were made to the building to be more adequately equipped for postal delivery, after it was altered by the Department of National Defence. After the work was completed in 1948, the building now possessed the capability and equipment for proper mail sorting and other mailing functions.
In the early 1990s, the building needed major renovations. To cut costs, Canada Post decided to close the facility and move operations to an alternate letter processing plant, constructed in the 1970s on Eastern Avenue. All of the old building's work was transferred here. In the early 1990s, real estate developers Bramalea Ltd and Trizec arranged to purchase the building from Canada Post, redevelop the site into a 230,000-square-metre office and residential space. Financial and development details of the purchase imposed various conditions prior to development, including rezoning by the city, remediation of soil contamination by Canada Post. Due to financial difficulties, the building's ownership was returned to Canada Post in 1993; the Toronto Raptors purchased the building from Canada Post the next year. Construction of the arena was started by the Toronto Raptors, under their initial ownership group headed by Canadian businessman John Bitove. In 1995, it had been decided; the Toronto Raptors would need an indoor arena to play in.
The Canada Post building was chosen to be the new home of the Raptors due to its downtown location and lot size. Other venues such as Exhibition Place, North York Centre and Wellesley, Bay and Dundas were considered; the Canada Post building was purchased for CA$60 million. The Raptors played in SkyDome while the arena was constructed. Groundbreaking took place in March 1997; the building retained the Art Deco facade of the Toronto Postal Delivery Building along the east and south walls of that structure, but the rest of the building was removed to make room for the arena, through the process of facadism. The original building is protected under the Ontario Heritage Act. While construction was in progress, the Raptors and their completed arena were purchased by MLSE, contemplating building their own arena for the Maple Leafs to replace the aging Maple Leaf Gardens. MLSE subsequently ordered major modifications to the original design, basketball-specific, to make the arena become more suitable for hockey.
Planned to cost $217 million, MLSE increased the budget to $265 million after taking control. The Raptors were twice fined a million dollars by the NBA for missing deadlines to begin construction of their new arena. In December 1998, the building's construction was completed. Opening events took place early the next year; the initial hockey game took place February 20, 1999, the first basketball Game on February 21, 1999, the opening concert on February 22, 1999. Features of the new building consist of a 65,000-square-foot arena and a 165,000-square-foot office tower. There is an east-west covered, climate controlled galleria and walkway onsite that contains restaurants, the ticket office, other commercial units; the Galleria connects the Scotiabank Arena to popular locations in the downtown core such as Union Station, Bay Street and York Street. Scotiabank Arena is connected to the underground PATH network; the Galleria doubles as a historical museum by displaying numerous artifacts from th
Jorge Garbajosa Chaparro Jr. is a Spanish former professional basketball player and the current president of the Spanish Basketball Federation. Standing at 2.07 m, he played both power forward and small forward. He was an All-EuroLeague first team selection in 2003, an All-EuroLeague second team selection in 2006, while playing for Unicaja. During his stint in the NBA, he was named to the NBA All-Rookie First Team in 2007. A serious injury the following season cut his NBA career short, he never recovered until his retirement; as a member of the senior Spanish national team, Garbajosa won a bronze medal at the EuroBasket 2001 and two silver medals at the EuroBasket 2003 and 2007. His biggest accomplishment however, was the gold medal at the 2006 World Cup, where his stellar play earned him All-tournament honors. In 2006, Garbajosa was named Mr Europa Player of the year by Italian weekly magazine SuperBasket. Garbajosa began his career playing for Taugrés known as TAU Cerámica, between 1995 and 2000.
In the 1998–99 season, he guided Baskonia to a Spanish King's Cup victory. Garbajosa spent four seasons at Benetton Treviso between 2000 and 2004 under future Toronto Raptors Vice-President and Assistant General Manager Maurizio Gherardini and New York Knicks head coach Mike D'Antoni, he won two Italian National Cups, two Italian Super Cups and two Italian League championships with Benetton and averaged 13.8 points, 6.7 rebounds and a EuroLeague-best 2.85 steals per game, en route to All-EuroLeague 2002–03 First Team honors, being named the 2003 Eurobasket.com Player of the Year. Garbajosa spent his next two seasons with Unicaja, helping them to win the 2005–06 Spanish League championship and Spanish Cup, he was in the top 15 in scoring and rebounding in the 2005–06 EuroLeague season, averaged 13.3 points and 6.4 rebounds domestically, in 42 Spanish league outings, shooting 55% from the field and 81% from the free throw line. Garbajosa was the 2005 Spanish Cup MVP, the 2006 Spanish League Finals MVP, earned All-EuroLeague Second Team honors.
Overall, in his 11 seasons with the three clubs, Garbajosa had regular-season averages of 10.4 points, 5.2 rebounds and 1.4 steals in 362 Spanish national domestic league games, averaged 13.0 points, 6.3 rebounds and 1.8 steals in 105 EuroLeague games. On July 24, 2006, the Toronto Raptors signed Garbajosa to a three-year contract amounting to about US$12 million, he wore number 15 for the Raptors worn by ex-Raptors star Vince Carter. Given his pedigree, Garbajosa was a regular starter at the forward position. For the first half of the season, Garbajosa was instrumental in driving the Raptors past the.500 mark and he was awarded Eastern Conference Rookie of the Month honours in December 2006. On March 26, 2007, Garbajosa suffered an injury to his left leg during a regular-season matchup against the Boston Celtics; the injury was serious. Doctors in Toronto performed surgery to repair a broken fibula, a displaced ankle and ligament damage; because his recovery time was estimated to be in the range of six months, he was forced to miss the rest of the season and the entire post-season.
He averaged 8.5 points and 4.9 rebounds per game after 67 appearances in his debut season for the Raptors. Garbajosa and Raptors teammate Andrea Bargnani were named to the NBA All-Rookie Team at the end of the season. Garbajosa returned to play with the Raptors for the 2007–08 season, but after meeting with a specialist on November 26, he chose to have further surgery on his leg and ankle; the operation took place on December 11, 2007. In June 2008, negotiations took place in an attempt by the Raptors to buy out the remaining year of his contract. Garbajosa had been named to the Spanish Olympic basketball squad for 2008, against the wishes of the Raptors. On June 18, 2008, the Raptors bought out Garbajosa's contract. While playing for the Raptors, his nickname was "The Garbage Man." In the 2008 off-season, Garbajosa signed a two-year, €6 million net income contract with the Russian Super League club Khimki Moscow Region, giving him one of the most expensive contracts in Europe. The next year, however, he was allowed to terminate his contract in order to return to Spain to sign with Real Madrid.
The transfer was announced by the club after weeks of speculation on August 15, 2009. In 2011, Garbajosa and Real Madrid reached an agreement to rescind the player's contract. In March 2011, he signed with Unicaja. In May 2012, he decided to end his career. Garbajosa was a member of the senior Spanish national teams that participated in the 2000 Summer Olympic Games and the 2004 Summer Olympic Games, he won a bronze medal at the 2001 EuroBasket, a silver medal at the 2003 EuroBasket. On September 3, 2006, Garbajosa and the Spanish national team won the gold medal at the 2006 FIBA World Championship, he scored a game high 20 points and collected 10 rebounds in the final against the Greek national team, he averaged 5.3 rebounds in the tournament. In addition to winning the gold medal, Garbajosa made the All-Tournament team, along with teammate Pau Gasol. On January 1, 2007, Garbajosa was named Mister Europa 2006, by Italian weekly magazine SuperBasket. Other NBA players given this award are Pau Gasol.
At the 2007 EuroBasket, Garbajosa again featured for the Spanish team. He averaged 7.8 points per game and 3.1 rebounds per game, in the nine games he played, but Spain lost 59–60 to the Russian national team in the final. He went on to win a silver medal at the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, a gold medal at the 2009 EuroBasket. On 9 July 2016, Garbajosa was appointed as President of the Span
The Miami Heat are an American professional basketball team based in Miami. The Heat compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Southeast Division; the Heat play their home games at American Airlines Arena, have won three NBA championships. The franchise began play in 1988 as an expansion team, where after a period of mediocrity, the Heat would gain relevance during the 1990s following the appointment of former head coach Pat Riley in the role of team president. Riley would construct the high-profile trades of Alonzo Mourning in 1995, of Tim Hardaway in 1996, which propelled the team into playoff contention. Mourning and Hardaway would lead the Heat to four division titles, prior to their departures in 2001 and 2002, respectively; as a result, the team struggled, entered into a rebuild in time for the 2002–03 season. Led by Dwyane Wade, following a trade for former NBA Most Valuable Player Shaquille O'Neal, Miami made the NBA Finals in 2006, where they clinched their first championship, led by Riley as head coach.
After the departure of O'Neal two years the team entered into another period of decline for the remainder of the 2000s. This saw the resignation of Riley as head coach, who returned to his position as team president, was replaced by Erik Spoelstra. In 2010, after creating significant cap space, the Heat partnered Wade with former league MVP LeBron James, perennial NBA All-Star Chris Bosh, creating the "Big Three". During their four-year spell together, under the guise of Spoelstra, James and Bosh, they would lead the Heat to the NBA Finals in every season, won two back-to-back championships in 2012 and 2013; the trio would all depart by 2016, the team entered another period of rebuilding. Wade was reacquired in 2018, albeit to retire with the franchise; the Heat hold the record for the NBA's third-longest streak, 27 straight games, set during the 2012–13 season. Four Hall of Famers have played for Miami, while James has won the NBA MVP Award while playing for the team. In 1987 the NBA granted one of its four new expansion teams to Miami and the team, known as the Heat began play in November 1988.
The Miami Heat began their early years with much mediocrity, only making the playoffs two times in their first eight years and falling in the first round both times. Upon the purchasing of the franchise by Carnival Cruise Lines chairman Micky Arison in 1995, Pat Riley was brought in as the team president and head coach. Riley acquired center Alonzo Mourning and point guard Tim Hardaway to serve as the centerpieces for the team, transforming Miami into a championship contender throughout the late 1990s. With them they brought in a new team trainer, Cody Posselt, to work on shooting; the Heat underwent a dramatic turnaround in the 1996–97 season, improving to a 61–21 record – a franchise record at the time, second-best in team history. That same year, Miami earned the moniker of "Road Warriors" for its remarkable 32–9 record on the road. On the backs of Hardaway and Mourning, the Heat achieved their first two series victories in the playoffs, making it to the Conference Finals against the Michael Jordan-led Chicago Bulls before losing in five games.
Their biggest rivals of the time were the New York Knicks, Riley's former team, who would eliminate the Heat in the playoffs from 1998 through 2000. A period of mediocrity followed after, highlighted by missing the playoffs in 2002 and 2003. In the 2003 NBA draft, with the fifth overall pick, Miami selected shooting guard Dwyane Wade out of Marquette. Free-agent swing-man Lamar Odom was signed from the Los Angeles Clippers. Just prior to the start of the 2003–04 season, Riley stepped down as head coach to focus on rebuilding the Heat, promoting Stan Van Gundy to the position of head coach. Behind Van Gundy's leadership, Wade's stellar rookie year and Odom's break out season, the Heat made the 2004 NBA Playoffs, beating the New Orleans Hornets 4–3 in the 1st round and losing to the Indiana Pacers 4–2 in the 2nd round. In the offseason, Riley engineered a summer blockbuster trade for Shaquille O'Neal from the Los Angeles Lakers. Alonzo Mourning returned to the Heat in the same season. Returning as championship contenders, Miami finished with a 59–23 record garnering the first overall seed in the Eastern Conference.
Sweeping through the first round and the semifinals, Miami went back to the Conference Finals for the first time in eight years, where it met the defending champion Detroit Pistons. Despite taking a 3–2 lead, Miami lost Wade to injury for Game 6; the Heat would go on to lose Game 7 at home despite Wade's return. In the summer of 2005, Riley brought in veteran free agent Gary Payton from the Boston Celtics, brought in James Posey, Jason Williams and Antoine Walker via trades. After a disappointing 11–10 start to the 2005–06 season, Riley relieved Van Gundy of his duties and took back the head coaching job; the Heat made it to the Conference Finals in 2006 and in a re-match, defeated the Pistons, winning the series 4–2. Making its first NBA Finals appearance, they played the Dallas Mavericks, who won the first two games in Dallas in routs; the Heat won the next four games, capturing its first championship. Wade won the Finals MVP award; the Heat experienced four-years of post-title struggles from 2007 through 2010, including a 4–0 sweep by the Chicago Bulls in the 1st round of the 2007 NBA Playoffs.
In the 2007–08 season, Wade was plagued by injuries and the Heat had a league worst 15–67 record. O'Neal was traded to Phoenix midway through the season. Riley resigned as head coach following the season but retained his positio
Joseph Graham is an American former professional basketball player who played six seasons in the National Basketball Association. Graham played college basketball for the University of Central Florida and Oklahoma State University, he averaged 13.0 points and 5.2 rebounds in four collegiate seasons and helped OSU to the Final Four in his junior campaign. Graham was selected by the Toronto Raptors with the 16th overall pick in the 2005 NBA draft. In his first two seasons with the Raptors, he averaged 6.5 points and 3.1 rebounds in 159 regular season games, shot.826 from the charity stripe. He registered a career-high 19 points on five occasions and grabbed a personal-best 12 rebounds on March 30, 2007 against the Washington Wizards. Graham missed the majority of Toronto's November schedule in the 2007–08 season, he appeared in a career-low 38 games in 2007–08. He averaged career highs in 3.7 rebounds per game. On February 1, 2009, he recorded. Three days he scored a career-high 24 points against the Los Angeles Lakers.
Another six days he tied his career high with 24 points against the Minnesota Timberwolves. On September 26, 2009, Graham signed with the Denver Nuggets. On July 30, 2010, Graham signed with the Cleveland Cavaliers. On December 9, 2011, prior to the start of the 2011–12 training camp period, Graham was waived by the Cavaliers. On March 19, 2012, Graham was acquired by the Erie BayHawks of the NBA Development League. On May 4, 2012, Graham signed with Mets de Guaynabo of the Baloncesto Superior Nacional. In February 2013, Graham joined Capitanes de Arecibo. On April 15, 2013, he parted ways with Arecibo. Two days he signed with Mets de Guaynabo, returning to the team for a second stint. Graham's twin brother, Stephen played in the NBA, his father, Joe Graham, is a former Navy airman. Career statistics and player information from Basketball-Reference.com Joey Graham at nba.com
Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia. It has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; the school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. It offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university. Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology, it is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, business administration, the sciences and design. Georgia Tech is ranked 8th among all public national universities in the United States, 7th in the Best Engineering Schools ranking, 35th among all colleges and universities in the United States by U.
S. News & World Report rankings, 34th among global universities in the world by Times Higher Education rankings. Georgia Tech has been ranked as the "smartest" public college in America. Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of alumni life; the school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference; the idea of a technology school in Georgia was introduced in 1865 during the Reconstruction period. Two former Confederate officers, Major John Fletcher Hanson and Nathaniel Edwin Harris, who had become prominent citizens in the town of Macon, Georgia after the Civil War believed that the South needed to improve its technology to compete with the industrial revolution, occurring throughout the North.
However, because the American South of that era was populated by agricultural workers and few technical developments were occurring, a technology school was needed. In 1882, the Georgia State Legislature authorized a committee, led by Harris, to visit the Northeast to see firsthand how technology schools worked, they were impressed by the polytechnic educational models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. The committee recommended adapting the Worcester model, which stressed a combination of "theory and practice", the "practice" component including student employment and production of consumer items to generate revenue for the school. On October 13, 1885, Georgia Governor Henry D. McDaniel signed the bill to create and fund the new school. In 1887, Atlanta pioneer Richard Peters donated to the state 4 acres of the site of a failed garden suburb called Peters Park; the site was bounded on the south by North Avenue, on the west by Cherry Street.
He sold five adjoining acres of land to the state for US$10,000. This land was near Atlanta's northern city limits at the time of its founding, although the city has expanded several miles beyond it. A historical marker on the large hill in Central Campus notes the site occupied by the school's first buildings once held fortifications to protect Atlanta during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War; the surrender of the city took place on the southwestern boundary of the modern Georgia Tech campus in 1864. The Georgia School of Technology opened in the fall of 1888 with two buildings. One building had classrooms to teach students, it was designed for students to produce goods to sell and fund the school. The two buildings were equal in size to show the importance of teaching both the mind and the hands, though, at the time, there was some disagreement to whether the machine shop should have been used to turn a profit. On October 20, 1905, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Georgia Tech.
On the steps of Tech Tower, Roosevelt delivered a speech about the importance of technological education. He shook hands with every student. Georgia Tech's Evening School of Commerce began holding classes in 1912; the evening school admitted its first female student in 1917, although the state legislature did not authorize attendance by women until 1920. Annie T. Wise became the first female graduate in 1919 and was Georgia Tech's first female faculty member the following year. In 1931, the Board of Regents transferred control of the Evening School of Commerce to the University of Georgia and moved the civil and electrical engineering courses at UGA to Tech. Tech replaced the commerce school with what became the College of Business; the commerce school would split from UGA and become Georgia State University. In 1934, the Engineering Experiment Station was founded by W. Harry Vaughan with an initial budget of $5,000 and 13 part-time faculty. Founded as the Georgia School of Technology, Georgia Tech assumed its pre