2003 Argentine general election
Argentina held presidential and parliamentary elections on Sunday, April 27, 2003. Turnout was 78.2%. No one presidential candidate gained enough votes to win outright, but the scheduled runoff was canceled when first-round winner Carlos Menem pulled out, handing the presidency to runner-up Néstor Kirchner. For the first time since the return of democracy in 1983, the Justicialist Party failed to agree on a single presidential candidate. Three credible Peronist candidates ran in the election: center-right former President Carlos Menem, center-left Santa Cruz Province Governor Néstor Kirchner, centrist San Luis Province Former president Adolfo Rodríguez Saá. None were supported by the party, though President Eduardo Duhalde publicly endorsed Governor Kirchner on January 15, 2003; the PJ suspended its January 24 convention, opting to allow the three contenders to run on the Peronist mantle. None of the candidates were allowed to use the traditional Peronist iconography in detriment of the others.
For the first time since 1916, the UCR did not field a presidential candidate. After the political collapse at the peak of the economic crisis that led to the resignation of President Fernando de la Rúa at the end of 2001, popular support for the UCR was at low levels. Two strong former members of the UCR founded parties based on their politics: Congresswoman Elisa Carrió founded a left-of-center party, the ARI, economist Ricardo López Murphy founded a right-wing one, Recrear; these five strong candidates were tied in all the pre-election polls. Menem obtained the most votes in the first round, but far short of a first-round victory, so a runoff election against Kirchner was required, was scheduled for May 18. However, after two terms in office from 1989 to 1999, Menem's popularity remained low. All signs pointed to a record victory for Kirchner. Rather than face a humiliating defeat, Menem withdrew from the runoff on May 14, a move, roundly criticized by the other candidates; the courts refused to authorize a new election, refused to sanction a runoff between Kirchner and López Murphy.
Congress sanctioned Kirchner as president-elect, with the lowest vote share recorded for a president in a free election. Legislative and gubernatorial elections were held throughout 2003, with polls open in different provinces between April and November; these elections were unprecedented in their staggered scheduling. They were however, a return to political normalcy following a chaotic and economically depressed 2002; the Justicialist Party, divided among three candidates in the presidential race, remained united in legislative and local races. They added 12 seats in the Argentine Chamber of Deputies, as well as 2 governorships, fears of a high number of dissident tickets did not materialize; the centrist Radical Civic Union, senior partners in the ill-fated Alliance that had returned them to power in 1999, were left with their smallest representation since 1954, though they were not replaced by the center-left ARI in a significant way. Voters sentiment improved over 2001 levels, though not significantly.
Turnout increased only modestly, the use of invalid votes declined from 24% to 15% from the tense 2001 elections. Voters in the important Santa Fe Province, in particular, curbed their use of spoiled ballots from 30% to 20%. Kirchner ended 2003 on a more secure footing than before these legislative elections, he benefited from allies such as the new governor of the paramount Buenos Aires Province, Felipe Solá, as well as the Mayor of Buenos Aires, Aníbal Ibarra. Argentina celebrated 20 years of continuous democratic rule on December 10, 2003, with a new government carrying generous numbers of allies in Congress and the provinces, as well as voters' high expectations. Provincial officials in all districts except Corrientes Province, were elected, as well as the Chief of Government of the City of Buenos Aires; the Justicialist Party wrested two governorships from the UCR, the UCR recovered Tierra del Fuego from the Justicialists
President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
Constitution of Argentina
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, the primary source of existing law in Argentina. Its first version was written in 1853 by a Constitutional Assembly gathered in Santa Fe, the doctrinal basis was taken in part from the United States Constitution, it was reformed in 1860, 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, the current version is the reformed text of 1994. The first attempt to divide political power in Argentina was during the government created after the May Revolution: the Primera Junta could not create new taxes without the Cabildo's authorization. Many revolutionary leaders, led by Mariano Moreno, wanted to declare independence and to make a constitution in order to build an independent state. In October 1811, the Junta Grande, which succeeded the Primera Junta, enacted the Regulation for the Division of Power, but it was not accepted by the executive power; the freedom of press and the Decree on Individual Security were accepted by November. In 1813, the General Constitutional Assembly was intended to declare a constitution but it could only declare the freedom for slaves' sons.
In 1819 and 1826 were declared two constitutions that failed because of the disagreement between Federalists and Unitarians. Many other constitutional pacts existed between 1820 and 1853; the most important of them are: the Treaty of Pilar, the Treaty of the Cuadrilátero, the Federal Pact, the Palermo Protocol, the Treaty of San Nicolás. The Federal Pact urged all the provinces to call a General Federal Congress, however this would have limited Juan Manuel de Rosas's power, the most powerful province governor, so the Congress was never called; when Rosas was defeated, in 1852, the Treaty of San Nicolás called the Constitutional Congress that, in Santa Fe, on May 1, 1853, sworn to make effective the federal Constitution. The Province of Buenos Aires left the Argentine Confederation until 1859; the first constitutional amendment to the original 1853 text was performed in 1860 after Buenos Aires rejoined the Argentine Confederation. It consisted of several changes to many of the original articles.
One of the major changes was the renaming of the state: according to the reform, the country would be named República Argentina and, for legal purposes, Nación Argentina, replacing the older Argentine Confederation denomination in all articles of the constitution. Another important inclusion was the constitutional recognizing of Buenos Aires' exclusive rights guaranteed by the Treaty of San Nicolás; the following reform was done in 1866 and established that exportation and importation taxes would be destined to the National Treasury indefinitely, no longer until 1866 as the 1860 reform did. In 1898, another minor constitutional amendment was approved, it allowed a more flexible ratio for proportional apportionment in the Chamber of Deputies and set the number of ministries to eight. During Juan Domingo Perón's government the Argentine Constitution of 1949 was passed, a major revision of the constitution, its goal was to modernize and adapt the text to the twentieth century's concepts of democracy, as for example, including a list of social rights including better working conditions for the working class, right to good education, etc.
This was included into the principles stated on the Preamble. It permitted the indefinite reelection of the president. During the military regime known as the Revolución Libertadora that had deposed Perón's government in 1955, in 1957 and before the elections that had to be held in 1958, a Constitutional Convention was elected to reform the constitution; this reform does not include 1949's, implicitly annulling it. The only changes done were to include a summary of Perón's social articles known as article 14 bis and to establish the necessity to have a Labour and Social Security Code. In 1972, a "Constitutional Amendment" done by the military government led by general Alejandro A. Lanusse reformed the 1957 text; this had to last until 1977 but its application could be extended until 1981 if no Constitutional Convention in 1976 decided either to accept it or reject it definitively. This amendment was not applied by the democratic government of Perón in his third term nor by his wife Isabel Perón acting as President after his death.
Some changes were related to the size of Senate and one-term reelection of president and vice-president. Reduced presidential and deputies' terms all to four years; the last version of the Argentine Constitution was done by Carlos Saúl Menem in 1994. It included many of the modifications from the 1972 "amendment" as the growth of the Senate size, one-term presidential reelection and reduction of its term to four years, it made Buenos Aires City an autonomous entity with its own authorities. Other changes were done to ensure a softer presidentialist regime, the inclusion of a new chapter into the Bill of Rights related to politics and environment, the adoption of a much faster legislative procedure for creating laws. In addition with the 1994 constitutional reform, the requirement of belonging to the Roman Catholic faith in order to be President or Vice President of the Republic, was abolished; the Argentine Constitution has four major division types. For example, the First Part is divided into Chapters but not into Sections.
The scheme of the Constitution is the following: Pream
Gerardo Morales (politician)
Gerardo Rubén Morales is an Argentine politician, leader of the Radical Civic Union. He is a member of the Argentine Senate representing Jujuy Province, elected for the Front of Jujuy, he was a candidate for Vice President of Argentina on Roberto Lavagna's UNA ticket in the 2007 elections. Since 2015 he has been governor of Jujuy, the first non-Peronist elected to the post since the restoration of democracy. Morales was born in Jujuy Province, he worked on the Ferrocarril General Manuel Belgrano railway as a waiter at age 18, was promoted to the post of administrator. He enrolled at the National University of Jujuy. Morales was appointed Director of Liquidations at the Provincial Insurance Institute, he lectured and was politically active at university, teaching in Political Economy courses from 1985 to 1993. He married in 1985, had three children. In 1989 Morales was elected as a provincial deputy and in 1993 became leader of the UCR block in the legislature, he served as president of the Finance Committee in 1991 and 1992.
He was nominated for Vice Governor of Jujuy in a defeated 1991 UCR ticket, with the support of party leader Raúl Alfonsín, ran for Governor of Jujuy in 1995 and 1999, albeit unsuccessfully. He stepped down as a Jujuy Congressman in 2000 to join the national government of President Fernando de la Rúa as Secretary for Social Development. Morales was elected to the Argentine Senate in 2001 mid-term elections. After the election of Néstor Kirchner as President of Argentina in 2003, many leading Radicals publicly supported Kirchner's populist left-wing agenda; the group, known as Radicales K, included national legislators. The national president of the Radicals, Roberto Iglesias took a hard-line approach against Kirchner, opposing efforts to re-align UCR elected officials toward the popular Kirchner. Morales, who supported Iglesias' policy, was re-elected to the Senate in 2005. Iglesias led negotiations to find a suitable candidate for the UCR to back in the 2007 Presidential elections against Kirchner's wife and FpV nominee, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.
Roberto Lavagna, a former minister under Kirchner who subsequently opposed his policies, appeared to be the favored candidate for the majority of the party. Iglesias resigned the presidency of the party in November 2006, due to differences with Lavagna, having reached the conclusion that an alliance with him would be a mistake, joined those who maintained that the party should look for its own candidate; the UCR National Committee appointed Morales as its new president in December 2006. Morales supported the party's Rosario convention, in which Alfonsín's call for an alliance with Lavagna was adopted into the party platform, he became Lavagna's running mate in the presidential election of October 2007, on a centrist electoral front known as "An Advanced Nation", placed third. Morales entered subsequently into a heated political dispute with Milagro Sala, the leader of the Indigenist Tupac Amaru Neighborhood Association, he was attacked in 2009, though without injury, by two youths tied to the association, filed charges against their leader.
Sala, who denied involvement, alleged. She responded with demands that Morales' estate be investigated, each exchanged accusations of corruption. Morales was elected leader of the UCR Caucus in the Senate in December 2009. Morales was elected governor in 2015. Expecting protests from Milagro Sala, he requested policial reinforcements to the national government, to prevent riots during the end of the year. 43 gendarmeries were sent to Jujuy, but died in a car accident at Rosario de la Frontera, in unclear circumstances. The Tupac Amaru organization denied the existence of violence in the province, started a permanent demonstration at the Jujuy plaza. Morales accused the organizations that compose the Tupac Amaru of keeping the social welfare money for themselves, distributing it only to their political supporters. To reduce their influence, he arranged that those payments should be done through bank accounts and not with cash, to keep track of the money. After a month, he urged the organizations to accept the terms and leave the plaza, or he would revoke their legal authorizations.
The Tupac Amaru was split by this, as most organizations accepted Morales' proposal, but Sala and a reduced faction rejected it. Milagro Sala was arrested a few days accused of calling to riots and civil disorder. Senate profile Official website
Politics of Argentina
The politics of Argentina take place in the framework of what the Constitution defines as a federal presidential representative democratic Republic, where the President of Argentina is both Head of State and Head of Government. Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of the Argentine National Congress; the Judiciary is independent of the Legislature. Elections take place on a multi-party system; the government structure of Argentina is a democracy. The current Chief of State and Head of Government is President Mauricio Macri. Legislative Branch is a bicameral Congress, which consists of the Senate, presided by the Vice-President, the Chamber of Deputies presided by Emilio Monzó of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the General Auditing Office of the Nation and the Ombudsman are part of this branch. Deputies serve for 4 years; the Judiciary Branch is composed of federal judges and others with different jurisdictions, a Supreme Court with five judges, appointed by the President with approval of the Senate, who may be deposed by Congress.
Further information: Government of Argentina Argentina is divided into 23 Provinces, the equivalent of States, one autonomous district, CABA, inside the Buenos Aires province. Because of its federal government, every province has its own constitution, authorities; each province, except for Buenos Aires Province, is divided into departments, or disctricts, which are in turn divided into municipalities. The Buenos Aires Province is different, its territory is divided into 134 districts called partidos, not municipalities. Argentina's first government, autonomous from the Spanish Crown, can be traced back to May 1810 and the May Revolution, where an assembly of Argentines, called Primera Junta, took power; because at the time it was difficult to find the right form of government, more difficult to consolidate a Republic, Argentina experimented with different forms of assembly, like juntas and triumvirates. The 9th of July 1816, half of Argentina's provinces signed a declaration of independence.
The beginnings of Argentine state building were rough and many provinces refused to answer to a central government and sign the first constitution of 1826. In 1853, after several years of centralist power, a new constitution was passed, this one consolidated fully, the Argentine Nation. Buenos Aires, still refused to be considered part of the country. However, after the battle of Pavon in 1861, Buenos Aires set terms for its inclusion in the Constitution and the Republic of Argentina was born, with Bartolome Mitre as the President. From 1852 until 1930 Argentina experienced liberal government with first oligarchic and democratic tendencies. From 1852-1916 the government, run by the landowning elite, controlled the outcome of elections by committing fraud; this was contested by working-class sectors. This fueled the creation of more unions and political parties, including the Radical Civil Union, which represented the emergent middle-class. In 1912, Law 8871, or the Sáenz Peña Law established universal and obligatory male suffrage, which marked the middle classes entering the government, displacing the landowning elite.
Since the 1930s coups d'état have disrupted this democracy. After World War II and Juan Perón's presidency, recurring economic and institutional crises fostered the rise of military regimes. In 1930, the elected president Hipolito Yrigoyen was ousted by a right-wing led coup. In 1931 the new government held controlled elections and blocked the participation of Yrigoyen's party; this alleged elections gave way to the Concordancia, a three-party regime. They controlled the Argentine government, through fraud and rigged elections, until 1943. Several factors, including the deaths of the most prominent leaders and World War II, led to another coup that ended the Concordancia regime; this coup was led by the army, which supported the Axis powers, modeled the new government after Italy's fascist regime. Among the military leaders was Juan Domingo Perón, in charge of the Secretariat of Labor and Social Welfare, he veered off the path set by the conservative army and set forth to improve the living and working conditions of workers, including giving Labor Unions support and governmental positions.
He was jailed but after mass protests, he became president in the elections of 1946. His regime is known as a populist one, aided by the figure of his first wife Eva Duarte de Perón or “Evita”, their regime produced economic growth and improvements on working conditions. It passed female suffrage, nationalized the central bank and gas, urban transport and the telephone. After the death of his wife, Perón started losing support, he was ousted in 1955 by another coup. However, Peronism continues to live on in Argentina; the next stage of the Social State was one characterized by both political instability. Peron died a year later, his second wife, became president. However, she was not capable of running the country and the military took power once again in 1976. Jorge Rafael Videla's dictatorship began in 1976 but fell into decline in 1982 after a defeat in the Falklands War, ended in 1983 with the democratic election of President Raúl Alfonsín of the Radical Civic Union party. Alfonsín faced significant challenges, including a military uprising, resigned in 1989, six months before the end of his term, but the country was not in clear danger of becoming subject to a dictatorship again.
Carlos Menem of th
Buenos Aires Province
Buenos Aires is the largest and most populous Argentinian province. It takes the name from the city of Buenos Aires, which used to be part of the province and the provincial capital until it was federalized in 1880. Since in spite of bearing the same name, the province does not include the national capital city proper, though it does include all other localities of the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area surrounding it; the current capital of the province is the city of La Plata, founded in 1882. The province is the only within the whole Argentina to be divided into partidos and furtherly into localidades, borders the provinces of Entre Ríos to the northeast. Uruguay is just near the Atlantic Ocean to the east; the entire province is part of the Pampas geographical region. The province has a population of 39 % of Argentina's total population. Nearly 10 million people live in Greater Buenos Aires; the area of the province, 307,571 km2, makes it the largest in Argentina with around 11% of the country's total area.
The inhabitants of the province before the 16th century advent of Spanish colonisation were aboriginal peoples such as the Charrúas and the Querandíes. Their culture was lost over the next 350 years, they were subjected to Eurasian plagues from. The survivors joined other tribes or have been absorbed by Argentina's European ethnic majority. Pedro de Mendoza founded Santa María del Buen Ayre in 1536. Though the first contact with the aboriginals was peaceful, it soon became hostile; the city was evacuated in 1541. Juan de Garay re-founded the settlement in 1580 as Santísima Trinidad y Puerto Santa María de los Buenos Aires. Amidst ongoing conflict with the aboriginals, the cattle farms extended from Buenos Aires, whose port was always the centre of the economy of the territory. Following the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the end of the 18th century, the export of meat and their derivatives through the port of Buenos Aires was the basis of the economic development of the region.
Jesuits unsuccessfully tried to peacefully assimilate the aboriginals into the European culture brought by the Spanish conquistadores. A certain balance was found at the end of the 18th century, when the Salado River became the limit between both civilizations, despite frequent malones; the end to this situation came in 1879 with the Conquest of the Desert in which the aboriginals were completely exterminated. After the independence from Spain in 1816, the city and province of Buenos Aires became the focus of an intermittent Argentine Civil War with other provinces. A Federal Pact secured by Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas in 1831 led to the establishment of the Argentine Confederation and to his gaining the sum of public power, which provided a tenuous unity. Ongoing disputes regarding the influence of Buenos Aires, between Federalists and Unitarians, over the Port of Buenos Aires fueled periodic hostilities; the province was declared independent on September 1852, as the State of Buenos Aires.
Concessions gained in the 1859 Pact of San José de Flores and a victory at the Battle of Pavón led to its reincorporation into the Argentine Republic on December 17, 1861. Intermittent conflicts with the nation did not cease until 1880, when the city of Buenos Aires was formally federalized and, administratively separated from the province. La Plata was founded in 1882 by Governor Dardo Rocha for the purpose of becoming the provincial capital; the equivalent of a billion dollars of British investment and pro-development and immigration policies pursued at the national level subsequently spurred dramatic economic growth. Driven by European immigration and improved health, the province's population, like Argentina's, nearly doubled to one million by 1895 and doubled again by 1914. Rail lines connected nearly every town and hamlet in the province by 1914; this era of accelerated development was cut short by the Wall Street Crash of 1929, which caused a sharp drop in commodity prices and led to a halt in the flow of investment funds between nations.
The new Concordance and Perón governments funded ambitious lending and public works programs, visible in Buenos Aires Province through the panoply of levees, power plants, water works, paved roads, municipal buildings, schools and massive regional hospitals. The province's population, after 1930, began to grow disproportionately in the suburban areas of Buenos Aires; these suburbs had grown to include 4 million out of the province's total 7 million people in 1960. Much of the area these new suburbs were developed on consisted of wetlands and were prone to flooding. To address this, Governor Oscar Alende initiated the province's most important flood-control project to date, the Roggero Reservoir. Completed a decade in 1971, the reservoir and associated electric and water-treatment facilities encouraged still more, more orderly, development of the Greater Buenos Aires region, which today includes around 10 million people, it did not address worsening pollution resulting from the area's industrial growth, which had made itself evident since aroun