2007 Canada broadcast TV realignment

In 2007, significant ownership changes occurred in Canada's broadcast television industry, involving nearly every network and television system. In addition to the shuffling of network affiliations and mergers involving various networks, several new television stations and rebroadcast transmitters signed on the air. In 2006, following the death of longtime chairman Allan Waters, CHUM Limited decided to cease operations and sell its broadcasting assets to a willing bidder. Bell Globemedia announced a $1.7 billion takeover offer for CHUM on July 12 of that year. Bell Globemedia intended to retain CHUM's Citytv television system and its five large-market stations, as well as the company's numerous specialty channels. Rogers Communications placed a bid to purchase the A-Channel stations. However, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission denied CTV's acquisition of the Citytv stations, as all five stations – CITY-TV in Toronto, CKVU-TV in Vancouver, CKEM-TV in Edmonton, CKAL-TV in Calgary and CHMI-TV in Portage la Prairie-Winnipeg – were based in markets where CTV maintained owned-and-operated stations, therefore CTV's retention of Citytv would have violated a provision in the Commission's media ownership limits, which bar broadcasters from owning two English-language television stations in major metropolitan areas.

CTV was, allowed to retain control of the A-Channel stations and all of CHUM's specialty channels. Soon afterwards, Rogers Communications placed a new bid to purchase the Citytv system as a complement to its own Omni Television, a system of multicultural stations that incorporate programming in various languages. After Bell Globemedia's bid to purchase Citytv stations, sell off the A-Channel stations, CKX-TV, several other digital specialty channels denied by the CRTC, the outcome resulted in CTV putting the Citytv stations in a trust held by corporate lawyer John McKellar in the interim while it searched for a buyer. Rogers Communications, which had bid on the A-Channel stations prior to the CRTC decision, placed a new bid for the Citytv stations a few days, approved by the CRTC on September 28, 2007. CHUM Limited ceased operations on June 22, 2007. With the exception of the Citytv stations, all of the CHUM Limited properties – including its cable specialty services and radio stations – became part of the restructured CTVglobemedia on that date, while assuming CHUM's interest in the French language music specialty channels MusiquePlus and Musimax.

A-Channel's original 2007–08 schedule was announced in early June, before the takeover received CRTC approval. By September, CTV had radically altered the system's schedule to give A-Channel broadcast rights to several series that CTV had not been able to find time slots for on its own fall schedule, including Two and a Half Men, Scrubs, 30 Rock and the Canadian-produced series Jeff Ltd; the A-Channel system along with the Atlantic Satellite Network were rebranded as A on August 11, 2008. CTVglobemedia announced on November 16, 2007, that it and the channel's co-owner Comcast would sell their remaining interest in specialty channel OLN to Rogers Communications. Nearly five months on March 8, 2008, the company announced that it would sell Canadian Learning Television to Corus Entertainment. Rogers Communications had wanted to gain a multicultural station in Vancouver for a long time, but was either denied by the CRTC and competitor station CHNM-TV, or was outbid while vying for local stations up on the market by other broadcasters.

In 2005, opportunity arose when Rogers was given permission to purchase religious broadcaster Trinity Television, owner of Fraser Valley television station CHNU-TV and the license for Winnipeg station CIIT-TV. In 2007, both Multivan Broadcasting and Rogers submitted bids for television stations in Edmonton and Calgary during a call by the CRTC for broadcasters to submit new broadcast licence applications; the licences were awarded to Rogers, which launched CJCO-TV and CJEO-TV as religious stations in the respective markets on September 15, 2008. Shortly afterward, Multivan entered a tentative deal to sell CHNM to Rogers, citing the loss of the Calgary and Edmonton licenses as leaving the company no longer able to compete as a standalone station. On November 6, 2007, Rogers announced the intention to sell its CHNU-TV and CIIT-TV to S-VOX. Rogers' acquisition of CHNM and its sale of CHNU and CIIT to S-VOX were both approved by the CRTC on March 31, 2008. On September 1, 2008, CHNM was relaunched as an Omni Television station, while S-VOX relaunched CIIT and CHNU as "Joytv 11" and "Joytv 10".

In addition, Rogers applied to purchase the Citytv stations for an estimated $375 million. Media analysts suggested that with a more powerful media conglomerate such as Rogers behind them, the Citytv stations would expand to become Canada's fo

Kemp Town

Kemp Town is a 19th-century residential estate in the east of Brighton in East Sussex, England, UK. Conceived and financed by Thomas Read Kemp, it has given its name to the larger Kemptown region of Brighton; the majority of the original estate is now demarcated by the modern Kemp Town Conservation Area as defined by the local authority and Hove City Council. Kemp Town Estate was designed by Charles Busby and Amon Henry Wilds and constructed by Thomas Cubitt. Building work started in 1823 on Arundel Terrace, Chichester Terrace, Lewes Crescent and Sussex Square. Chichester Terrace incorporated the earlier Chichester House. In 1837 Thomas Kemp fled the country to escape his creditors; the project continued under Cubitt with the support of the Fifth Earl of Bristol. It was completed in 1855, with Sussex Square larger than London's Grosvenor Square and at the time the biggest housing crescent in Britain; the original estate is a good example of Regency architecture. A history of the residential occupation of the Estate has been collected as part of a local project called "Who's been living in my house?".

The gardens which form Sussex Square and Lewes Crescent, separated by Eastern Road, are known formally as the Kemp Town Enclosures. Work began on the Enclosures in 1823. Early works led by Henry Philips included the landscaping of the gardens and the addition of a tunnel to the esplanade; the Enclosures are owned communally by the freeholders of the 105 houses which make up the Kemp Town Estate. At around the same time, Brighton's neighbour Hove was expanding on the western boundary of Brighton, with the development of the Brunswick Estate which featured similar though smaller Regency-style properties, its own market, police station, riding school and small mews streets for staff housing; these mews now provide attractive private accommodation which can fetch similar prices to flats in the grand houses they once served. Below and to the east of Kemp Town, at beach level, is now Brighton Marina and a proposed redevelopment at Black Rock, site of a former lido. Detailed history of Kemptown

Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Considered by some to be a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that led to more complex electronic designs, though all the essential ideas of modern computers are to be found in Babbage's Analytical Engine, his varied work in other fields has led him to be described as "pre-eminent" among the many polymaths of his century. Parts of Babbage's incomplete mechanisms are on display in the Science Museum in London. In 1991, a functioning difference engine was constructed from Babbage's original plans. Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th century, the success of the finished engine indicated that Babbage's machine would have worked. Babbage's birthplace is disputed, but according to the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography he was most born at 44 Crosby Row, Walworth Road, England.

A blue plaque on the junction of Larcom Street and Walworth Road commemorates the event. His date of birth was given in his obituary in The Times as 26 December 1792; the parish register of St. Mary's, London, shows that Babbage was baptised on 6 January 1792, supporting a birth year of 1791. Babbage was one of four children of Betsy Plumleigh Teape, his father was a banking partner of William Praed in founding Praed's & Co. of Fleet Street, London, in 1801. In 1808, the Babbage family moved into the old Rowdens house in East Teignmouth. Around the age of eight, Babbage was sent to a country school in Alphington near Exeter to recover from a life-threatening fever. For a short time he attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Totnes, South Devon, but his health forced him back to private tutors for a time. Babbage joined the 30-student Holmwood Academy, in Baker Street, Middlesex, under the Reverend Stephen Freeman; the academy had a library. He studied with two more private tutors after leaving the academy.

The first was a clergyman near Cambridge. He was brought home, to study at the Totnes school: this was at age 16 or 17; the second was an Oxford tutor, under whom Babbage reached a level in Classics sufficient to be accepted by Cambridge. Babbage arrived at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1810, he was self-taught in some parts of contemporary mathematics. As a result, he was disappointed in the standard mathematical instruction available at the university. Babbage, John Herschel, George Peacock, several other friends formed the Analytical Society in 1812; as a student, Babbage was a member of other societies such as The Ghost Club, concerned with investigating supernatural phenomena, the Extractors Club, dedicated to liberating its members from the madhouse, should any be committed to one. In 1812 Babbage transferred to Cambridge, he did not graduate with honours. He instead received a degree without examination in 1814, he had defended a thesis, considered blasphemous in the preliminary public disputation.

Considering his reputation, Babbage made progress. He lectured to the Royal Institution on astronomy in 1815, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1816. After graduation, on the other hand, he applied for positions unsuccessfully, had little in the way of career. In 1816 he was a candidate for a teaching job at Haileybury College. In 1819, Babbage and Herschel visited Paris and the Society of Arcueil, meeting leading French mathematicians and physicists; that year Babbage applied to be professor at the University of Edinburgh, with the recommendation of Pierre Simon Laplace. With Herschel, Babbage worked on the electrodynamics of Arago's rotations, publishing in 1825, their explanations were only transitional, being broadened by Michael Faraday. The phenomena are now part of the theory of eddy currents, Babbage and Herschel missed some of the clues to unification of electromagnetic theory, staying close to Ampère's force law. Babbage purchased the actuarial tables of George Barrett, who died in 1821 leaving unpublished work, surveyed the field in 1826 in Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the Assurance of Lives.

This interest followed a project to set up an insurance company, prompted by Francis Baily and mooted in 1824, but not carried out. Babbage did calculate actuarial tables for that scheme, using Equitable Society mortality data from 1762 onwards. During this whole period Babbage depended awkwardly on his father's support, given his father's attitude to his early marriage, of 1814: he and Edward Ryan wedded the Whitmore sisters, he made a home in Marylebone in London, founded a large family. On his father's death in 1827, Babbage inherited a large estate. After his wife's death in the same year he spent time travelling. In Italy he met Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, foreshadowing a visit to Piedmont. In April 1828 he was in Rome, relying on Herschel to manage the difference engine project, when he heard that he had become professor at Cambridge, a positi