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2008 Cannes Film Festival

The 61st Annual Cannes Film Festival was held from 14 to 25 May 2008. The President of the Official Jury was director Sean Penn.. Twenty two films from fourteen countries were selected to compete for the Palme d'Or; the awards were announced on 24 May. The film The Class, directed by Laurent Cantet won the Palme d'Or; the festival opened with Blindness, directed by Fernando Meirelles and closed with What Just Happened, directed by Barry Levinson. Édouard Baer was the master of ceremonies. Hunger, directed by Steve McQueen, opened the Un Certain Regard section; the British press reported the list of films in competition this year was notable for its absence of British films for the second successive year. In addition to films selected for competition this year, major Hollywood productions such as Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull and Kung Fu Panda had their world premieres at the festival; the following people were appointed as the Jury for the feature films of the 2008 Official Selection: Sean Penn Jury President Jeanne Balibar Rachid Bouchareb Sergio Castellitto Alfonso Cuaron Alexandra Maria Lara Natalie Portman Marjane Satrapi Apichatpong Weerasethakul Fatih Akin President Anupama Chopra Yasser Moheb Yekaterina Mtsituridze José Maria Prado Hou Hsiao-hsien President Olivier Assayas Susanne Bier Marina Hands Laurence Kardish Bruno Dumont President Isabelle Danel Jean-Michel Frodon Monique Kourdine Willy Kurant Jean Henri Roger The following feature films competed for the Palme d'Or: The following films were selected for the competition of Un Certain Regard: The following films were selected to be screened out of competition: The following films were selected for the Special Sceenings: The following short films were selected for the competition of Cinéfondation: The following short films competed for the Short Film Palme d'Or: Cannes Classics places the spotlight on documentaries about cinema and restored masterworks from the past.

Tributes Douro, faina fluvial by Manoel de Oliveira Documentaries about Cinema Restored prints The following films were screened for the 47th International Critics' Week:Feature film competition Short film competition Special screenings Short films Prix de la Critique The following films were screened for the 2008 Directors' Fortnight:Feature films Special screenings Short films The following films and people received the 2008 Official selection awards: Palme d'Or: The Class by Laurent Cantet Grand Prix: Gomorra by Matteo Garrone Best Director Award: Nuri Bilge Ceylan for Three Monkeys Best Screenplay Award: Luc & Jean-Pierre Dardenne for Lorna's Silence Best Actress Award: Sandra Corveloni in Linha de Passe Best Actor Award: Benicio del Toro in Che Jury Prize: Paolo Sorrentino for Il Divo Special Prize of the Festival: Catherine Deneuve and Clint EastwoodUn Certain Regard Prix Un Certain Regard: Tulpan by Sergey Dvortsevoy Un Certain Regard Special Jury Prize: Tokyo Sonata by Kiyoshi Kurosawa Heart Throb Jury Prize: Cloud 9 by Andreas Dresen Knockout Prize: Tyson by James Toback Prize of Hope: Johnny Mad Dog by Jean-Stéphane SauvaireCinéfondation First Prize: Himnon by Elad Keidan Second Prize: Forbach by Claire Burger Third Prize: Stop by Park Jae-Ok & Kestomerkitsijät by Juho KuosmanenGolden Camera Caméra d'Or: Hunger by Steve McQueen Caméra d'Or - Special mention: Everybody Dies But Me by Valeriya Gai GermanikaShort films Short Film Palme d'Or: Megatron by Marian Crişan Jury Prize: Jerrycan by Julius Avery FIPRESCI Prizes Hunger by Steve McQueen Eldorado by Bouli Lanners Delta by Kornél Mundruczó Vulcan Award of the Technical Artist Vulcan Award: Il Divo by Paolo SorrentinoEcumenical Jury Prize of the Ecumenical Jury: Adoration by Atom EgoyanAwards in the frame of International Critics' Week Critics Week Grand Prize: Snow by Aida Begić SACD Award: Moscow, Belgium by Christophe Van Rompaey ACID/CCAS Award: Moscow, Belgium by Christophe Van Rompaey OFAJ/TV5MONDE Young Critics Award: Blood Appears by Pablo Fendrik Canal+ Gran Prix for short film: Next Floor by Denis Villeneuve Kodak Discovery Award for Best Short Film: Skhizein by Jérémy ClapinOther awards Regards Jeunes Prize: Everybody Dies But Me by Valeriya Gai GermanikaAssociation Prix François Chalais Prix François Chalais: Wild Blood by Marco Tullio Giordana 2008 Cannes Film Festival Official website Retrospective 2008 Cannes Film Festival Awards for 2008 at Internet Movie Database

Britannia Secunda

Britannia Secunda or Britannia II was one of the provinces of the Diocese of "the Britains" created during the Diocletian Reforms at the end of the 3rd century. It was created after the defeat of the usurper Allectus by Constantius Chlorus in AD 296 and was mentioned in the c. 312 Verona List of the Roman provinces. Its position and capital remain uncertain, although it lay further from Rome than Britannia I. At present, most scholars place Britannia II in northern England. If so, its capital would have been Eboracum. Following the Roman conquest of Britain, it was administered as a single province from Camulodunum and Londinium until the Severan Reforms following the revolt of its governor Clodius Albinus; these divided the territory into Upper and Lower Britain, whose respective capitals were at Londinium and Eboracum. During the first phases of the Diocletian Reforms, Britain was under the control of the Allectus's Britannic Empire as part of the Carausian Revolt. At some point after the territory was retaken by Constantius Chlorus in AD 296, the Diocese of the Britains was formed and made a part of Prefecture of Gaul.

The Britains were divided among three, four, or five provinces, which seem to have borne the names Prima, Maxima Caesariensis, Flavia Caesariensis and Valentia. The placement and capitals of these late British provinces are uncertain, although the Notitia Dignitatum lists the governor of Britannia II as being equestrian rank, making it unlikely to have been based in Londinium; the list of bishops who attended the 314 Council of Arles is patently corrupt but assumed to have mimicked the Roman administration: it seems certain one of the bishops was from Eboracum if his name was a scribal error. William Camden argued for a placement of Secunda in Wales and Charles Bertram's highly-influential forgery On the State of Britain placed Secunda gave it borders on the Dee and Severn, it has been discounted since the discovery of inscriptions showing western England was part of Prima, with a possible capital at Corinium. Ammianus records that in the year 369 Count Theodosius established or refounded the province of Valentia from lands recaptured from "the enemy".

Its location is a matter of scholarly debate, but some place it at Hadrian's Wall in the area around Luguvalium. If so, it would have been formed at some point in the 4th century out of territory administered from Eboracum. Others place it in Wales in the area around Deva.

John Stewart McDiarmid

John Stewart McDiarmid was a Manitoba politician. He held senior ministerial positions in the governments of John Bracken, Stuart Garson and Douglas Campbell, served as the province's 14th Lieutenant Governor between 1953 and 1960. McDiarmid was born in Perthshire and emigrated to Canada with his family in 1887, he was educated in Winnipeg and hired by the Winnipeg Paint and Glass Co. upon its formation in 1902. He worked his way up to president of the McDiarmid Brothers Lumber Company, located in the city. In 1925, he was elected as an alderman on Winnipeg's municipal council, he represented the city's first ward, located in south Winnipeg. The following year, McDiarmid was elected to the federal House of Commons as a Liberal, in the riding of Winnipeg South, he defeated his only opponent, Conservative Robert Rogers, by 8809 votes to 7638. For the next four years, he served in parliament as a backbench supporter of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, he was defeated by Rogers in a 1930 rematch, 10117 votes to 9774.

On May 27, 1932, McDiarmid was appointed Provincial Lands Commissioner and Minister of Mines and Natural Resources in the government of provincial Premier John Bracken. This occurred after negotiations in which the provincial Liberal party merged with Bracken's governing Progressives. In a provincial election held less than one month McDiarmid was elected to the provincial assembly, topping his party's list in Winnipeg. Outgoing provincial Liberal leader Murdoch Mackay was defeated in the 1932 election, McDiarmid was subsequently recognized as the leading Liberal spokesman in the Liberal-Progressive coalition, he was not formally recognized as a party leader, as the Liberals were no longer an autonomous entity. Ideologically, McDiarmid appears to have been on the right-wing of his party. One-time Cooperative Commonwealth Federation leader Lloyd Stinson described him as the most right-wing member of the Liberal-Progressive government, accused him of being anti-labour. McDiarmid was re-elected for Winnipeg in 1936.

In the election 1941, held after the creation of a grand coalition ministry with the Conservatives, CCF and Social Credit, he topped the city's poll outright. McDiarmid retained the Land and Natural Resources/Mines portfolios for the entirety of his time in cabinet, was Provincial Secretary from November 28, 1939 to February 14, 1946, Railway Commissioner and Minister of Industry and Commerce from November 4, 1940 to June 30, 1953, acting Labour Minister following the resignation of CCF leader Seymour Farmer in 1942. McDiarmid finished second on the Winnipeg poll in the general election of 1945. In 1949, he topped the poll in the redistributed four-member riding of Winnipeg South. McDiarmid announced his retirement from politics in 1953, formally resigned from cabinet on June 30 of that year. Following a period of intense media speculation, McDiarmid was appointed as Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba on August 1 of the same year, he served in this ceremonial position until January 15, 1960, when he was replaced by former Progressive Conservative party leader Errick Willis.

During his time in cabinet, McDiarmid was responsible for legislation opening northern Manitoba's mine fields to development. He died in 1965. John Stewart McDiarmid – Parliament of Canada biography