Benicio del Toro
Benicio Monserrate Rafael del Toro Sánchez is a Puerto Rican Italian actor. He won an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for his portrayal of the jaded but morally upright police officer Javier Rodriguez in the film Traffic. Del Toro's performance as ex-con turned religious fanatic in despair, Jack Jordan, in Alejandro González Iñárritu's 21 Grams earned him a second Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, as well as a second Screen Actors Guild Awards nomination and a BAFTA Awards nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role, he is known for his scene-stealing breakout role as the eccentric, unintelligible crook Fred Fenster in The Usual Suspects, which won him his first Independent Spirit Award. His noteworthy body of work includes portrayals of the Collector in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, infamous drug lord Pablo Escobar in Escobar: Paradise Lost, Lawrence Talbot in the 2010 remake of The Wolfman, codebreaker DJ in Star Wars: The Last Jedi.
Del Toro was born on February 19, 1967, in San Germán, Puerto Rico, to Gustavo Adolfo del Toro Bermúdez and Fausta Genoveva Sánchez Rivera, who were both lawyers. Many of del Toro's relatives are involved in Puerto Rico's legal system, he has an older brother, the Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer at the Wyckoff Heights Medical Center in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn, New York. He had a Basque maternal great-grandmother. Del Toro is related to Puerto Rican basketball player Carlos Arroyo, Spanish latin pop and eurodance singer Rebeca Pous Del Toro, whose maternal grandfather was Puerto Rican, Puerto Rican singer Eliseo del Toro. Del Toro's great-grandfather was Rafael Rivera Esbrí, one of the heroes of the El Polvorin fire in Ponce, whom would later become mayor of that city, he spent most of his infancy in a barrio within San Juan. Del Toro, whose childhood nicknames were "Skinny Benny" and "Beno", was raised a Roman Catholic and attended Academia del Perpetuo Socorro, a Roman Catholic school in Miramar, Puerto Rico.
When del Toro was nine years old, his mother died of hepatitis. At age 15, he moved with his father and brother to Mercersburg, where he was enrolled at the Mercersburg Academy, he attended high school there. After graduation, del Toro followed the advice of his father and pursued a business degree at the University of California, San Diego. Success in an elective drama course encouraged him to drop out of college and study with noted acting teachers Stella Adler and Arthur Mendoza, in Los Angeles, as well as at the Circle in the Square Theatre School in New York City. Del Toro surfaced in small television roles during the late 1980s, playing thugs and drug dealers on programs such as Miami Vice and the NBC miniseries Drug Wars: The Camarena Story, he appeared in Madonna's 1987 music video "La Isla Bonita" as a background character sitting on a car. Work in films followed, beginning with his debut in Big Top Pee-wee and as Dario in the James Bond movie Licence to Kill, in which the 21-year-old del Toro held the distinction of being the youngest actor to play a Bond henchman.
Del Toro continued to appear in movies including The Indian Runner, China Moon, Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, Money for Nothing and Swimming with Sharks. His career gained momentum in 1995 with his breakout performance in The Usual Suspects, where he played the mumbling, wisecracking Fred Fenster; the role won him an Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male and established him as a character actor. This led to stronger roles in independent and major studio films, including playing Gaspare in Abel Ferrara's The Funeral and winning a second consecutive Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male for his work as Benny Dalmau in Basquiat, directed by his friend, artist Julian Schnabel. Del Toro shared the screen with Robert De Niro in the big-budget thriller The Fan, in which he played Juan Primo, a charismatic Puerto Rican baseball star, he subsequently starred opposite Alicia Silverstone in Excess Baggage. For Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, the 1998 film adaptation of Hunter S. Thompson's famous book, he gained more than 40 lbs. to play Dr. Gonzo, Thompson's lawyer and drug-fiend cohort.
The surrealistic film, directed by Terry Gilliam, has earned a cult following over the years. Del Toro's performances in four films in 2000 gained him a mainstream audience. First, the crime yarn The Way of the Gun reunited him with The Usual Suspects screenwriter Christopher McQuarrie. A few months he stood out among a first-rate ensemble cast in Steven Soderbergh's Traffic, a complex dissection of the North American drug wars; as Javier Rodriguez — a Mexican border policeman struggling to remain honest amid the corruption and deception of illegal drug
Claire Denis is a French film director and writer. Her feature film Beau Travail has been called one of the greatest films of the 1990s and one of the best films directed by a woman. Other acclaimed works include Trouble Every Day, 35 Shots of Rum, White Material, High Life, her work has dealt with themes of colonial and post-colonial West Africa, as well as issues in modern France, continues to influence European cinematic identity. Denis was born in Paris, but raised in colonial French Africa, where her father was a civil servant, living in Burkina Faso, French Somaliland, Senegal, her childhood spent living in West Africa with her parents and her younger sister would color her perspectives on certain political issues. It has been a strong influence on her films, which have dealt with themes of colonialism and post-colonialism in Africa, her father moved with the family every two years because he wanted the children to learn about geography. Growing up in West Africa, Denis used to watch the old and damaged copies of war films sent from the United States.
As an adolescent she loved to read. Completing the required material while in school, at night she would sneak her mother's detective stories to read; when Denis was 14 years old, she moved with her mother and sister to a Parisian suburb in France, a country that she hardly knew at all. Her parents wanted their children to finish their education in France. Denis studied economics, she has said, "It was suicidal. Everything pissed me off." She studied at the French film school, with the encouragement of her husband. He told her, she graduated from the IDHEC and, since 2002, has been a Professor of Film at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Her feature film directorial debut Chocolat, a semi-autobiographical meditation on African colonialism, won her critical acclaim, it was selected for the Cannes Film Festival and was praised by critics and audiences alike as a remarkable first film. With films such as US Go Home, Nénette et Boni, Beau Travail, set in Africa, she returned to Africa again with White Material, set in an unidentified country during a time of civil war.
Denis is a collaborative filmmaker, saying in an interview that "the film becomes a relationship...and, what's important, the relationship." The importance of collaboration is seen throughout her body of work. She works with many of the same actors, such as Isaach de Bankole, Vincent Gallo, Béatrice Dalle, Alex Descas, Grégoire Colin, collaborates with the screenwriter Jean-Pol Fargeau, composer Stuart Staples, cinematographer Agnès Godard, whom she met in the 1970s at the Institut des hautes études cinématographiques; when asked in an interview about her screen writing process, Denis said, "I realize I have Isaach or Grégoire or someone else in mind" when writing scenes. She has said that she "hold no auditions" for casting in her films, her collaboration goes beyond her own films, as she has appeared in other directors' films, such as Laetitia Masson's En avoir and Tonie Marshall's Vénus beauté. She shares screenwriting credit with Yousry Nasrallah for his film El Medina, she worked as an assistant director with Wim Wenders on Paris and Wings of Desire, with Jim Jarmusch on Down by Law.
In 2005, she was a member of the jury at the 27th Moscow International Film Festival. In 2011, she was a member of the jury at the Deauville American Film Festival, her 2013 film Bastards was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. That year, she was awarded Stockholm Lifetime Achievement Award at the Stockholm Film Festival. Denis announced in 2015 that she was partnering with Zadie Smith for her English-language debut film, High Life; the film, released in 2018, was her first English-language feature film, with Robert Pattinson cast as the lead. Around this time, she wrote and directed the film Let the Sunshine In, which starred Juliette Binoche and was released in 2017; the majority of Denis' oeuvre uses location work over studio work. She sometimes places her actors, she uses longer takes with a stationary camera and frames things in long shot, resulting in fewer close ups. However, Denis' cinematic and topical focus always remains relentlessly on the faces and bodies of her protagonists.
The subject's body in space, how the particular terrain and color of the landscape influences and interacts with the human subjects of her films maintains cinematic dominance. Tim Palmer explores Denis' work as brilliant film stylist per se. According to the Australian James Phillips, when making her films, Denis rejects the marketable conventions of Hollywood cinema and frees the viewers of her films from the expectations of clichés. Denis combines history with personal history; this superimposition of the personal with the historical allows her films to be described as auteur cinema. She is known to work within a large range of genres, spanning from the themes of horror seen in Trouble Every Day to the romance and drama found in Friday Night. While criti
Robin Hood (2010 film)
Robin Hood is a 2010 British-American epic historical drama film based on the Robin Hood legend, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Russell Crowe, Cate Blanchett, William Hurt, Mark Strong, Mark Addy, Oscar Isaac, Danny Huston, Eileen Atkins, Max von Sydow. It was released in 12 countries on 12 May 2010, including the United Kingdom and Ireland and was the opening film at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival the same day, it was released in a further 23 countries the following day, among them Australia, an additional 17 countries on 14 May 2010, among them the United States and Canada. The film received mixed reviews and grossed $321.7 million against its $200 million budget, thus being considered a box office disappointment. In the year 1199, Robin Longstride serves as a common archer in the army of King Richard the Lionheart. A veteran of Richard's crusade, he now takes part in the siege of Chalus Castle. Disillusioned and war-weary, he gives a frank but unflattering appraisal of the King's conduct when the King asks his opinion, Robin and his comrades—archers Allan A'Dayle and Will Scarlett and soldier Little John —find themselves in the stocks.
When the King is slain during an attack on the castle and his men decide to free themselves and desert. They come across an ambush of the English royal guard by Godfrey, an English knight who has conspired with King Philip of France to assassinate King Richard. After chasing Godfrey away, Robin decides to take advantage of the situation by having his men impersonate the dead English knights to return to England. Before they depart to sail across the Channel, Robin promises one of the dying knights, Sir Robert Loxley, to return his sword to his father in Nottingham. Awaking to find his party in the Thames estuary, Robin must continue to assume the identity of Loxley to inform the royal family of King Richard's death, he witnesses the coronation of King John, who orders the collection of harsh new taxes and dispatches Godfrey to the North to do so—unaware that Godfrey will instead use French troops to stir up unrest and to prepare for King Philip to invade England. Robin and his companions head to Nottingham, where Loxley's elderly and blind father, Sir Walter, asks him to continue impersonating his son to prevent the Crown from seizing the Loxley family lands.
Loxley's widow, Lady Marian, is cold toward Robin, but warms to him when he and his men merrily recover tithed grain for the townsfolk to plant. Godfrey's actions incite the northern barons. Speaking now for Sir Walter, Robin proposes that King John agree to a charter of rights to ensure the rights of every Englishman and to unite his country. Having realized Godfrey's deception, knowing he must meet the French invasion with an army, the King agrees. Meanwhile, French marauders plunder Nottingham. Robin and the northern barons arrive to stop Godfrey's men, but not before Godfrey has slain the blind Sir Walter; as the main French expeditionary force begins its invasion of England on a beach below the cliffs of Dover, Robin leads the now united English army against them. In the midst of the battle, Robin duels with Godfrey, who attempts to kill Marian and flees until Robin kills him with an arrow from afar. King Philip realizes that his plan to divide England calls off his invasion; when King John sees the French surrendering to Robin instead of to himself, he senses a threat to his power.
In London, King John reneges on his promise to sign the charter and declares Robin an outlaw to be hunted throughout the kingdom. The Sheriff of Nottingham announces the decree, Robin and his men flee to Sherwood Forest with the orphans of Nottingham. Marian narrates their new life in the greenwood, noting that they live in equality as they right the many wrongs in the kingdom of King John. "And so the legend begins." Russell Crowe as Robin Longstride Cate Blanchett as Marian Loxley William Hurt as William Marshal Mark Strong as Sir Godfrey, Prince John's henchman Mark Addy as Friar Tuck Oscar Isaac as Prince John, the younger brother of King Richard Danny Huston as King Richard the Lionheart Eileen Atkins as Eleanor of Aquitaine, King Richard and Prince John's mother Max von Sydow as Sir Walter Loxley of Peper Harow Kevin Durand as Little John Scott Grimes as Will Scarlet Matthew Macfadyen as the Sheriff of Nottingham Alan Doyle as Allan A'Dayle Léa Seydoux as Isabella of Angoulême, the French king's niece Jonathan Zaccaï as King Philip of France Douglas Hodge as Sir Robert Loxley Robert Pugh as Baron Baldwin Gerard McSorley as Baron FitzRobert Simon McBurney as Father Tancred Mark Lewis Jones as Thomas Longstride, Robin's father Denis Menochet as Adhemar, the aide to the French King Jessica Raine as Isabel of Gloucester, John's first wife In January 2007, Universal Studios and Brian Grazer's Imagine Entertainment acquired a spec script written by Ethan Reiff and Cyrus Voris, creators of the TV series Sleeper Cell.
Their script portrayed a more sympathetic Sheriff of Nottingham and less virtuous Robin Hood, who becomes involved in a love triangle with Lady Marian. The writers received a seven-figure deal for the purchase. Actor Russell Crowe was cast into the role of Robin Hood with a fee of $20 million against 20% of the gross; the following April, Ridley Scott was hired to direct Nottingham. He had attempted to get rights for himself and 20th Century Fox, but had collaborated with Grazer on American Gangster and signed on as director rather than producer. Scott was not a fan of previous film versions of Robin Hood, saying "the best, was Mel Brooks's Men in Tights, because Cary Elwes was quite a comic". Scott's dissatisfaction wi
Shekhar Kapur is an Indian film director and producer, known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema. Part of the Anand family, Kapur became known in Bollywood with his recurring role in the TV series Khandan in the mid-1980s and his directorial debut in the cult Bollywood film Masoom in 1983, which won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Movie for that year, before gaining widespread success with the science fiction film Mr. India, he gained international recognition with the 1994 Bollywood film Bandit Queen, based on Mala Sen's biography of infamous Indian bandit and politician Phoolan Devi, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Hindi and Filmfare Critics Awards for Best Movie and Best Direction for that year. It was premiered in the Directors Fortnight section of the 1994 Cannes Film Festival and was screened at the Edinburgh Film Festival. In international cinema, his historical biopics on Queen Elizabeth and Elizabeth: The Golden Age, won the BAFTA Award for Best Film and two Academy Awards.
He has been the recipient of the Indian National Film Award, the BAFTA Award, the National Board of Review Award, three Filmfare Awards. In 2010, he served as one of the Jury Members at the 63rd Cannes Film Festival. Shekhar Kapur was born in Lahore, British India to Kulbhushan Kapur, a doctor with a flourishing practice, his wife Sheel Kanta Kapur. Shekhar Kapur's mother played dead and hid both himself and his sister under her body on a train from the newly created Pakistan to India. Reflecting on this, Kapur stated that the partition of India happened through "the blood of one people"; the nephew of famous Indian actor Dev Anand, he was discouraged from getting into films by his father. Sheel Kanta was the sister of actors Chetan and Vijay Anand. Shekhar is the only son of his parents and he has three sisters. One of his sisters, was the first wife of actor Navin Nischol, while another sister, Aruna, is the wife of actor Parikshit Sahni, his third and youngest sister is Sohaila Kapur. Kapur's schooling was at New Delhi.
He studied economics at St. Stephen's College. At 22, Kapur became a Chartered Accountant with the ICAEW in England, having studied accountancy at the behest of his parents. Shekhar Kapur started his career working with a multinational oil company, he moved to the United Kingdom in 1970, spent several years working as an accountant and management consultant. He was married to niece of former Indian Prime Minister I. K. Gujral, they split in 1994. Medha married popular bhajan singer Anup Jalota, she died on November 25, 2014 at a hospital in New York City of liver failure following a second heart and first kidney transplant. Kapur married Suchitra Krishnamoorthi, an Indian actress, writer and singer in 1997, they are divorced. They have a daughter named Kaveri Kapur. Shekhar Kapur started his career as an actor in the movie Jaan Hazir Hai and in Toote Khilone, in Bollywood, he appeared in several Hindi television dramas, such as Udaan, opposite Kavita Chaudhary, Upanyaas opposite Nisha Singh, Masoom opposite Neena Gupta.
He turned director with the family drama Masoom, starring Naseeruddin Shah, Shabana Azmi and a young Jugal Hansraj&. The plot followed the story of an illegitimate boy who struggles to find acceptance from his stepmother, he directed the 1987 science-fiction film Mr. India, starring Anil Kapoor and Amrish Puri in his most famous role as the villain Mogambo. Puri's most famous dialogue in this film "Mogambo Khush Hua" is still remembered. In 1994 he directed the critically acclaimed Bandit Queen and played a cameo in the film as a truck driver. Kapur was infamous for abandoning several films he was the director of, he was the director of the 1989 film Joshilaay, which starred Sunny Deol, Anil Kapoor and Meenakshi Sheshadri before leaving the production halfway, its producer Sibti Hassan Rizvi stepped in to complete the film. In 1992, he had shot some scenes for Barsaat, titled Champion and was going to be the debut film of Bobby Deol, but he left the production and was replaced by Rajkumar Santoshi.
In 1992, he was set to direct the science-fiction film titled Time Machine, to star Aamir Khan, Raveena Tandon, Naseeruddin Shah and Rekha, but he abandoned the project halfway through due to financial problems. The film was left incomplete, although there were talks many years that Kapur would revive the project with a new cast, which never happened. In 1995, he directed Dushmani, starring Sunny Deol, Jackie Shroff and Manisha Koirala before its producer Bunty Soorma stepped in to complete the film. In an unusual role for him, Kapur provided the voice of Mohandas Gandhi in the Charkha Audiobooks title of The Story of My Experiments with Truth, alongside Nandita Das as narrator. In 2013, Shekhar Kapur hosted. On the show, which aims to bring never-seen-before facets of Indian history, he was the narrator, he served as judge on the reality TV series India's Got Talent, aired on Colors. In 2016, Shekhar Kapur delivers an autobiographical film and documentary about Amma, well known as Mata Amritanandamayi Devi, called "The Science of Compassion".
In 1998, he received international recognition for the second time after Bandit Queen, when he directed the Academy Award-winning period film Elizabeth, a fictional account of the reign of British Queen Elizabeth I nominated for seven Oscars. The 2007 sequel, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, was nominated for two Oscars, he was accused of being anti-British by British tabloids for his portrayal of the British A
Giovanna Mezzogiorno is an Italian theatre and film actress. Mezzogiorno was born in Rome, 9 November 1974, a daughter of actors Vittorio Mezzogiorno and Cecilia Sacchi, she grew up watching her parents on set. At first, she wanted to become a ballerina, she studied dancing for 13 years. After her father's death when she was 19, Mezzogiorno moved to Paris, where she attended the stages by Arianne Mnouchkine and worked for two years at the Peter Brook Workshop, she made her stage debut with the role of Ofelia based on Shakespeare's Hamlet. The play toured various European cities, she received the Premio Coppola-Prati 1996, the jury was presided over by theatre critic Franco Quadri. One year she made her film debut in Il viaggio della sposa, written by and starring Sergio Rubini. Mezzogiorno was awarded the Targa d'Argento as the New Talent in Italian Cinema, she was given the Grolla d'oro, the Globo d'Oro by the Foreign Press Association and the Premio Flaiano as Best Actress of the 1997 - 1998 season.
In 1998 she starred in the film Del perduto amore directed by Michele Placido, with Fabrizio Bentivoglio and Sergio Rubini and, for the Italian National Television Network, RaiDue, in a film made-for-TV Più leggero non basta in the role of a young girl with muscular dystrophy, directed by Elisabetta Lodoli with Stefano Accorsi. In 1999, she played the role of Silvia, daughter of Enzo Tortora by whose mistaken conviction the film was inspired; the film Un uomo perbene with Michele Placido and Mariangela Melato, was directed by Maurizio Zaccaro. In that same year, she worked in Asini, directed by Antonello Grimaldi, with celebrated Italian comedian Claudio Bisio. In 2000, she travelled between Prague and Paris for work in the TV movie Les Miserables, directed by Josée Dayan, with Gérard Depardieu and John Malkovich, she worked in Denmark in Nobel, directed by Fabio Carpi, with Hector Alterio. In Italy she worked with Puglielli in Tutta la conoscenza del mondo, L'Ultimo bacio directed by Gabriele Muccino with Stefano Accorsi and Stefania Sandrelli.
With the success of this last movie Giovanna become famous in Italy. In 2001, she worked in the film Malefemmene with Angela Molina and directed by Fabio Conversi, in the role of Francesca, imprisoned following a judicial error and came into contact with the reality of friendship and attachment which she had never imagined possible, she worked on Stai con me, with Adriano Giannini and directed by Livia Giampalmo, in the role of a mother of twins. In 2002, she worked on the set of Ilaria Alpi - Il più crudele dei giorni, in the role of the protagonist, directed by Ferdinando Vicentini Orgnani, she starred in France in the Holocaust-period TV drama "Entrusted", directed by Giacomo Battiato, with Klaus Maria Brandauer, Thomas Brodie-Sangster and Steven Moyer, based on Loup Duran's best-seller. In Italy she starred in the film "La finestra di fronte" directed by Ferzan Ozpetek, costarring Massimo Girotti and Raoul Bova; this film, critically acclaimed and a box office success, earned her a lot of awards: the David di Donatello, the Ciak d’Oro, the Nastro d’Argento, the Globo d'oro by the Foreign Press, the Flaiano Award, the Karlovy Vary Award as Best Actress in a Leading Role.
She starred in the film L’Amore ritorna, directed by Sergio Rubini, costarring Fabrizio Bentivoglio and Margherita Buy. She was working in France, on the set of her first comedy: Au secours, j'ai 30 ans, directed by Marie-Anne Chazel, with Pierre Palmade. In 2004, Giovanna worked in the TV movie Virginia, directed by Alberto Sironi, she returned to the theatre, working with the director Piero Maccarinelli in 4.48 Psicosi, written by Sarah Kane. In 2005 La Bestia Nel Cuore, directed by Cristina Comencini, was an Academy Award candidate for Best Foreign Language Film and earned Giovanna one of the most important international prizes for an actress: the Coppa Volpi won by Bette Davis, Shirley MacLaine, Gong Li, Isabelle Huppert, Catherine Deneuve and Sophia Loren. In 2006, she acted in AD Project, a sci-fi thriller by Eros Puglielli and acted in "Lezioni di Volo" by Francesca Archibugi. In 2007, she became Leila, a sexy thief in an Italian black comedy: Notturno Bus, directed by Davide Marengo and starring Valerio Mastandrea and Ennio Fantastichini.
She travelled to Colombia to become Fermina Daza, the principal female character from Love in the Time of Cholera based on the book written by Nobel Prize winner Gabriel García Márquez and directed by Mike Newell. After two films shot in 2008, Sono Viva and Palermo Shooting by Wim Wenders, in 2009 she achieved great international success with Vincere by Marco Bellocchio, selected for the official competition in Cannes and a solid candidate for the final award, she has voiced and produced a documentary to celebrate the career of her father Vittorio, 15 years after his sudden death in 1994. She was a member of the jury at the 2010 Cannes Film Festival in May 2010. In January 2011, she was rewarded with the National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actress 2010 for her role in Vincere. In 2017 she appeared in a role of Adrianna in a film called Napoli velata, she has two sons and Zeno, born 26 August 2011. Saverio Ferragina press agentGiovanna Mezzogiorno on IMDb
The Associated Press is a U. S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a unincorporated association, its members are U. S. newspapers and broadcasters. Its Statement of News Values and Principles spells out its practices; the AP has earned 52 Pulitzer Prizes, including 31 for photography, since the award was established in 1917. The AP has counted the vote in U. S. elections since 1848, including national and local races down to the legislative level in all 50 states, along with key ballot measures. AP collects and verifies returns in every county, parish and town across the U. S. and declares winners in over 5,000 contests. The AP news report, distributed to its members and customers, is produced in English and Arabic. AP content is available on the agency's app, AP News. A 2017 study by NewsWhip revealed that AP content was more engaged with on Facebook than content from any individual English-language publisher; as of 2016, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,300 newspapers and broadcasters.
The AP operates 263 news bureaus in 106 countries. It operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, paying a fee to use AP material without being contributing members of the cooperative; as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports. The AP employs the "inverted pyramid" formula for writing which enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the story's essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States' primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, Reuters and the English-language service of Agence France-Presse, are based outside the United States.
The Associated Press was formed in May 1846 by five daily newspapers in New York City to share the cost of transmitting news of the Mexican–American War. The venture was organized by Moses Yale Beach, second publisher of The Sun, joined by the New York Herald, the New York Courier and Enquirer, The Journal of Commerce, the New York Evening Express; some historians believe. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851. Known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. An investigation completed in 1892 by Victor Lawson and publisher of the Chicago Daily News, revealed that several principals of the NYAP had entered into a secret agreement with United Press, a rival organization, to share NYAP news and the profits of reselling it; the revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, the Western Associated Press was incorporated in Illinois as The Associated Press.
A 1900 Illinois Supreme Court decision —that the AP was a public utility and operating in restraint of trade—resulted in AP's move from Chicago to New York City, where corporation laws were more favorable to cooperatives. When the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity; the invention of the rotary press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour. During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, on-the-spot reporting. Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921, he embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity. The cooperative grew under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East, he introduced the "telegraph typewriter" or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914. In 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken.
This gave AP a major advantage over other news media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco AP had its network across the whole United States. In 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. United States that the AP had been violating the Sherman Antitrust Act by prohibiting member newspapers from selling or providing news to nonmember organizations as well as making it difficult for nonmember newspapers to join the AP; the decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955. AP entered the broadcast field in 1941. In 1994, it established a global video newsgathering agency. APTV merged with WorldWide Television News in 1998 to form APTN, which provides video to international broadcasters and websites. In 2004, AP moved its world headquarters from its longtime home at 50 Rockefeller Plaza to a huge building at 450 West 33rd Street in Manhattan—which houses the New York Daily News and the studios of New York's public television station, WNET.
In 2009, AP had more than 240 bureaus globally. Its mission—"to gather with economy and efficiency an accurate and impartial report of the news"—has not changed since its founding, but digital technology has made the distribution of the AP news report an interact
Alexandre Michel Gérard Desplat is a French film composer. He has won two Academy Awards for his musical scores to the films The Grand Budapest Hotel and The Shape of Water, received eight additional Academy Award nominations, eight César nominations, nine BAFTA nominations, ten Golden Globe Award nominations, six Grammy nominations. Desplat has worked on a variety of films, including independent and commercial successes The Queen, The Golden Compass, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, The Twilight Saga: New Moon, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 & Part 2, The King's Speech, The Danish Girl, Moonrise Kingdom, Rise of the Guardians, Zero Dark Thirty, The Imitation Game, The Secret Life of Pets, Isle of Dogs. Desplat was born in Paris, to a French father and a Greek mother who met at the University of California, Berkeley. After their marriage, they moved back to France. Alexandre is the younger brother of Marie-Christine known as Kiki, who leads the jazz band "Certains l'Aiment Chaud", of Rosalinda Desplat.
At the age of five, he began playing piano. He became proficient on trumpet and flute, he studied with Iannis Xenakis in France and Jack Hayes in the United States. Desplat swiftly became a skilled composer. Desplat's musical interests were wide, ranging from early twentieth-century French composers, like Ravel and Debussy, to jazz and world music, he was influenced by South American and African artists, among whom were Carlinhos Brown and Ray Lema. A film fan, Desplat set his sights on becoming a film composer from an early age and acted to make the dream a reality as he started his career, he worked on his first film Le souffleur in 1986. When recording the music for his first film, he met violinist Dominique Lemonnier who became his favorite soloist, artistic director, his wife. Desplat worked on many films since the 1980s, his big Hollywood break came in 2003 with the soundtrack for the film Girl with a Pearl Earring. Desplat has composed extensively for French cinema and incidental music for over 100 films, including Lapse of Memory, Family Express, Regarde Les Hommes Tomber, Les Péchés Mortels, César-nominated Un Héros Très Discret, Une Minute de Silence, Sweet Revenge, Le Château des Singes, Reines d'un Jour, the César-nominated Sur mes lèvres, Rire et Châtiment, the César-winner The Beat That My Heart Skipped, The Queen, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1, The Ghost Writer, Daniel Auteuil's remake of La Fille du Puisatier, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, The Grand Budapest Hotel.
Desplat has composed individual songs that have been sung in films by such artists as Akhenaton, Kate Beckinsale, Charlotte Gainsbourg, Valérie Lemercier and Catherine Ringer. He has written music for the theatre, including pieces performed at the Comédie Française. Desplat has conducted performances of his music played by the London Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, the Munich Symphony Orchestra. Desplat has given Master Classes at La Sorbonne in Paris and the Royal College of Music in London. In 2007, he composed the scores for Philip Pullman's Golden Compass. Prior to these break-out works, he contributed scores for The Luzhin Defence, Girl with a Pearl Earring, Birth, Casanova, The Nest and The Painted Veil, for which he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Music, the 2006 World Soundtrack Award, he won the 2007 BMI Film Music Award, 2007 World Soundtrack Award, 2007 European Film Award, received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score for The Queen.
He won the Silver Berlin Bear at the Berlin Film Festival for Best Film Music in The Beat that My Heart Skipped. In 2008, Desplat received his second Oscar nomination for David Fincher's Curious Case of Benjamin Button. Desplat received his third Oscar nomination and a BAFTA nomination for Fantastic Mr. Fox in 2010, both of which were won by Michael Giacchino for Up. Desplat has composed music based on the Belgian comic. In early 2011, Desplat began to write the music to Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, he reunited with director David Yates, who offered Desplat the opportunity to score the second part after his work on the Part 1 soundtrack in 2010 "enchanted everyone in the control room". Desplat's soundtrack sequel to the 2008 film Largo Winch was well received. Desplat's 2011 projects included The Tree of Life, directed by Terrence Malick, A Better Life, La Fille du Puisatier, Roman Polanski's Carnage, George Clooney's Ides of March, the logo for t