The GSLP–Liberal Alliance is a centre-left political alliance active in Gibraltar consisting of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party and Liberal Party of Gibraltar. The first election contested by the Alliance was the 2000 general election in February 2000, in which the GSLP and LPG won 7 seats in the House of Assembly, losing to the centre-right Gibraltar Social Democrats; the following 2003 general election on 28 November 2003 was a defeat for the Alliance, again winning 7 seats, as was the 2007 general election on 11 October 2007. The 2011 general election on 11 December 2011 was the first electoral victory for the Alliance, winning 10 seats in the Gibraltar Parliament, forming the government for the first time, with GSLP leader Fabian Picardo serving as Chief Minister. In the 2015 general election on 26 November 2015, the Alliance were returned as the government with 68% of the vote and 10 seats. Lib–Lab pact
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Gibraltar Social Democrats
The Gibraltar Social Democrats is a centre/centre-right political party in Gibraltar. The GSD was the governing party in Gibraltar for four successive terms in office under the leadership of Peter Caruana from the 1996 general election until the party's electoral defeat in the 2011 election by the GSLP–Liberal Alliance. In November 30, 2017, the party undergone their second leadership election as its leader, Daniel Feetham resigned In July; as a result, 60.6% of the votes had gone to rejoined GSD member, Keith Azopardi, a minister and Deputy chief minister under the first few years of Peter Caruana reign as Chief minister. Keith had beaten Roy Clinton, who had gained 39.4 % of the votes. The party emerged, after the collapse of the Association for the Advancement of Civil Rights, as the main opposition to the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. In 2005, the GSD has merged with the Gibraltar Labour Party, retaining the GSD name for the enlarged party; the merger was unpopular with many members of both parties, causing some high-profile GSD members to resign their membership, including deputy leader Keith Azopardi and executive member Nick Cruz, who went on to form the short-lived Progressive Democratic Party.
In January 2013, Peter Caruana, announced he was stepping down as leader and taking up a backbench position until his 4-year term was over. Caruana declared that he would not fight the next election and will be stepping out of politics completely; the leadership was contested by two GSD MPs: Damon Bossino. Feetham was elected on 4 February 2013 as Leader of the party by majority vote of the executive; this was the first time a party's leadership was to be democratically contested between two candidates. The GSD is a centre party with a recent left wing colouration; the party supports the current constitutional status of Gibraltar as an autonomous British overseas territory and is opposed to any proposal of joint British–Spanish sovereignty. The GSD has traditionally been less hostile in its attitude to Spain than its main rival, the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party. In the 1991 by-election to the Gibraltar House of Assembly, following the resignation of GSD Leader Peter Montegriffo, Peter Caruana was elected party leader and won 61.81% of the popular vote to fill in the vacant seat.
In the 1992 election, the party won 20.2% of the popular vote and 7 seats. In the 1996 election, the party won 52.20% of the popular vote and 8 seats. In the 2000 election, the party won 58.35% of the popular vote and 8 seats. In the 2003 election, the party won 51.45% of the popular vote and 8 seats. In the 2007 election to the newly named Gibraltar Parliament, the party won 49.33% of the popular vote and 10 seats. In the 2011 election, the party won 46.76% of the popular vote and 7 seats, unable to secure a fifth term. In the 2013 by-election, the GSD candidate Marlene Hassan Nahon won 39.95% of the popular vote. In the 2015 election, the party won 31.56% of the popular vote and 7 seats. The GSD endorsed the Conservative Party in the 2015 British general election. Daniel Feetham Edwin Reyes Elliott Phillips Roy Clinton Trevor Hammond Lawrence Llamas Gibraltar Social Democrats official website
The Gibraltar Chronicle is a national newspaper published in Gibraltar since 1801. It became a daily in 1821, it is Gibraltar's oldest established daily newspaper and the world's second oldest English language newspaper to have been in print continuously. Its editorial offices are at Watergate House, the print works are in the New Harbours industrial estate; the Gibraltar Chronicle was born in direct relationship with the garrison. Casualty lists and news were slow in the 18th century and when five regiments from the Garrison of Gibraltar were promptly shipped to Egypt in 1801, the news was posted on a notice board in the Gibraltar Garrison Library, it was soon decided. A bulletin headed, "Continuation of the INTELLIGENCE FROM EGYPT received by His Majesty's ship Flora in three weeks from Alexandria," was printed at the Garrison Library press on 4 May 1801 and sold by H. and T. Cowper; the report consisted of four pages, three of which were in French. The news of Nelson's victory at Copenhagen appeared on the fourth page as well as the names of officers who had died since they had landed in Egypt.
The second edition was printed on 8 May 1801. The first editor was a Frenchman named Charles Bouisson, who had settled in Gibraltar in 1794; the last of the Gibraltar Chronicle to be numbered in Roman numerals was number 160 of 22 September 1804. Publication ceased for five months owing to the yellow fever epidemic until number 161 appeared on 23 March 1805, it afterwards continued to be published weekly in editions bearing Arabic numerals; the first 160 editions carried verbatim extracts from The London Gazette, Spanish and Russian, Court papers, Parliamentary debates, proclamations and naval dispatches, local regulations, rates of exchange and reports culled from foreign newspapers. They carried few letters, advertisements or details of social occasions except those connected with the Royal Court and the activities of the members of the Garrison. Therefore, in those days, the Chronicle included no local content; the Chronicle was sold at a price of 1½ reals, the readership was made up of serving officials.
The Chronicle did not lose its military character until well into the twentieth century. It is owned by an independent local trust; the Gibraltar Chronicle published the news of the victory of Trafalgar on 23 October, i.e. only two days after the event, in English and French, included a letter from Admiral Collingwood to the Governor of Gibraltar Henry Edward Fox, giving an account of the battle. It had received the news so because the British fleet had met a day after the battle with a fishing boat that brought a report from Admiral Collingwood to Gibraltar. Five days after the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805, Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood sent news of the victory to Lieutenant Lapenotiere, commander of a small schooner Pickle, en route to England. Prime Minister, William Pitt, King George III did not have news of the victory until the early hours of 6 November delaying publication in The Times until 7 November. Only two complete, or complete, sets of the Gibraltar Chronicle are known to exist and both are in Gibraltar.
The Garrison Library holds a complete series from 1801 which includes the famous Trafalgar "scoop" edition. A near-complete set, from which only the first few years are missing, can be found at the Gibraltar Archives. Communications in Gibraltar Francis Oliva Jon Morgan Searle The Gibraltar Chronicle official website
2002 Gibraltar sovereignty referendum
The Gibraltar sovereignty referendum of 2002 was a referendum, called by the Government of Gibraltar and was held on 7 November 2002 within the British overseas territory on a proposal by the UK Government to share sovereignty of the territory between Spain and the United Kingdom. The result was a rejection of the proposal by a landslide majority, with only just over one per cent of the electorate in favour. Although Gibraltar was ceded to the British Crown under Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain has wished to recover the territory, first by force and by restrictions and diplomacy. Recovering sovereignty remains a stated objective of successive Spanish Governments. In July 2001, Foreign Secretary Jack Straw began discussing the future of Gibraltar with Spain, a year in July 2002, following secret talks with Spain announced that "the UK was willing to share sovereignty of Gibraltar with Spain" and that "the final decision would rest with the people of Gibraltar in a referendum."HM Government of Gibraltar decided to hold its own referendum on 7 November 2002 regarding the proposal of shared sovereignty with Spain, which it opposed.
This pre-empted any referendum planned to be held after the negotiations between Britain and Spain had concluded. Jack Straw described the Gibraltar referendum as "eccentric", Britain's Foreign Office announced it would not recognise its results. Although Straw had felt confident enough to announce that there had been talks on joint sovereignty, a number of issues still remained to be resolved. Firstly, Spain was insisting on a time element for a full transfer of sovereignty to Spain. Secondly, Spain would not agree to give Gibraltar a referendum on either joint sovereignty or self-determination. Spain wanted a greater role than joint use of Gibraltar as a military base. Researcher Peter Gold argued in a 2009 paper that these disagreements made the possibility of an agreement being finalised remote; the Gibraltar Referendum 2002 asked the voters of Gibraltar their opinion in the following words: On 12 July 2002 the Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw, in a formal statement in the House of Commons, said that after twelve months of negotiation the British Government and Spain are in broad agreement on many of the principles that should underpin a lasting settlement of Spain's sovereignty claim, which included the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar.
Do you approve of the principle that Britain and Spain should share sovereignty over Gibraltar? Permitting a simple YES / NO answer. Peter Caruana, the Chief Minister of Gibraltar, said of the result: "We say to the British Government: Take stock of this referendum result, it's the will of the people of Gibraltar", that the planned path to joint sovereignty was a "dead end road for everyone"; the Government of Gibraltar invited a panel of observers headed by Gerald Kaufman MP. Their report stated that "The observers were impressed with the organisation of the referendum and welcome that the role of the observers was integral to the process, as distinct from the more passive role of observers in other elections; the meticulous way in which votes were counted exceeded requirements and went beyond requirements adopted for UK elections". Reaction in Spain was negative, with El País calling the referendum a "dishonest consultation", while Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs Ana Palacio described it as "illegal" and "against all the UN resolutions".
However, El País said that "no Spanish Government, neither this one or its predecessors, has done enough to make joint sovereignty or integration with Spain an attractive prospect". In London, Jack Straw was criticised by the Commons foreign affairs committee, whose report stated that he was wrong to agree to joint sovereignty with Spain, when this was unacceptable to the people of Gibraltar; the report emphasised the importance of the referendum, which represented the views of Gibraltarians. The Telegraph said "the people of Gibraltar today overwhelmingly rejected the principle of Britain sharing sovereignty of the Rock with Spain". Prior to the referendum the British Government stated that it would not recognise the outcome. After the referendum Gibraltar's Government felt it could demand a say in its future in any talks with Spain. Under an initiative started in 1999, the Government of Gibraltar together with opposition parties negotiated a new constitution for Gibraltar; the major sticking point in negotiations was the desire by Gibraltar politicians for a preamble whereby the "British Government ought to commit itself to the question of self-determination in unequivocal terms."
The British Government sought to avoid doing so but when there was a cabinet reshuffle and a new foreign secretary, the new incumbent was more willing to listen to the views of Gibraltar officials. There was a shift in the British Government policy on Gibraltar that recognised the preamble to the 1969 constitution was sacrosanct, that any discussions on sovereignty would involve Gibraltar and future discussions on sovereignty with Spain would require an improved relationship between Spain and Gibraltar; the British Government compromised recognising its commitment in the 1969 constitution that it would not negotiate with Spain without the consent of people of Gibraltar. The compromise lead to the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006 in which the powers of the Governor were reduced and transferred to local officials and a bill of "fundamental rights and freedoms" enshrined in the constitution. Although this had cross-party support in Gibraltar, when submitted to a referendum on adoption a significant no vote emerged.
Although reasons were diverse, there wer
Fabian Raymond Picardo QC is a Gibraltarian politician and barrister serving as Chief Minister of Gibraltar and Leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party since 2011. Following the 2015 Gibraltar General Elections which took place on 26 November 2015, Picardo was re-elected to another four-year term by the people of Gibraltar. Picardo grew up in the Upper Town area, he has said that the area where he grew up "always made me think about the huge potential that the bay of Gibraltar could have as long as we were able to work together with our Spanish neighbours." His father was a clerical worker for the Ministry of Defence on Gibraltar, his mother was a personal assistant to Joshua Hassan, the founder of Hassans law firm and a Chief Minister of Gibraltar. Picardo has said that "My parents instilled in me the simple principle of equality, that nobody is better than anybody else and that we shouldn’t look down on anyone because all of us are created equal." Picardo's grandmother was Spanish, although he has said that the Picardo line came to Gibraltar during the Napoleonic Wars and that he's "particularly proud of that part of bloodline."Picardo first entertained the idea of becoming a lawyer as the "result of a discussion with a teacher, who I was keen to argue with, who told me that if I wanted to argue I should charge people for it and become a lawyer."
He visited Hassans law firm. From 1990 to 1993, Picardo studied jurisprudence at Oxford, his studies were supported by the grant system introduced by Joe Bossano's Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party government in 1988. Oriel College paid tribute to Picardo's election by flying the flag of Gibraltar, Picardo has spoken at Oriel Law Society since his election. Picardo studied at the Inns of Court School of Gray's Inn and was called to the bar by Middle Temple in 1994. In September 1994, Picardo joined the largest law firm in Gibraltar, as an associate, he became a partner in 2000. He was appointed as a Queen's Counsel on 12 June 2014. Picardo was a co-founder of the Gibraltar National Party in 1991, the predecessor to the Liberal Party of Gibraltar. In 2003, he joined the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party and was elected as a Member of Parliament for the GSLP in that year's general election. Picardo has described what made him interested in politics as a lawyer in Gibraltar: "I started to wake up to politics and see what Hassan had done, I started to understand what Joe Bossano was doing.
I realised that if I had the ability to become a lawyer I should use that ability in the interests of Gibraltar. Gibraltar is a place. Picardo became the leader of the Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party in 2011, taking over from Joe Bossano, he won the 2011 election. Picardo said that the "crowning achievements" of his first term were two new schools, a university, a new bank, a new 700-berth marina, he appointed Gibraltar's first Minister for Equalities and passed the Civil Partnerships Act in 2014, ending legal discrimination against same-sex couples. In October 2015, he said that if Brexit took place, Gibraltar "would have to reconsider what the economic prospects for Gibraltar are and how we would be positioned." Picardo is married to Justine Olivero, who works for Hassans law firm, they have two sons and one daughter, Sebastian and Valentina. Gibraltar profile. Chief minister: Fabian Picardo at BBC News. Fabián Picardo, nuevo primer ministro de Gibraltar
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t