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2011 Thailand floods

Severe flooding occurred during the 2011 monsoon season in Thailand. The flooding began at the end of July triggered by the landfall of Tropical Storm Nock-ten; these floods soon spread through the provinces of northern and central Thailand along the Mekong and Chao Phraya river basins. In October floodwaters reached the mouth of the Chao Phraya and inundated parts of the capital city of Bangkok. Flooding persisted in some areas until mid-January 2012, resulted in a total of 815 deaths and 13.6 million people affected. Sixty-five of Thailand's 76 provinces were declared flood disaster zones, over 20,000 square kilometres of farmland was damaged; the disaster has been described as "the worst flooding yet in terms of...water and people affected." The World Bank has estimated 1,425 trillion baht in economic damages and losses due to flooding, as of 1 December 2011. Most of this was due to the manufacturing industry, as seven major industrial estates were inundated in water as much 3 meters deep during the floods.

Disruptions to manufacturing supply chains affected regional automobile production and caused a global shortage of hard disk drives which lasted throughout 2012. The World Bank's estimate for this disaster means it ranks as the world's fourth costliest disaster as of 2011 surpassed only by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan, Great Hanshin earthquake in 1995, Forest fires in 1997, Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A 2015 study suggests increasing odds for potential flooding similar to the 2011 flood intensity to occur in the future. Thailand's southern provinces saw seasonal flash-flooding towards the end of the year, although these were not as destructive as the floods in the more northerly provinces. Various regions of Thailand are prone to seasonal flash-flooding due to their tropical savanna climate; the floods occur in the north and spread down the Chao Phraya River through the central plains, in the northeast along the Chi and Mun Rivers flowing into the Mekong, or in the coastal hillsides of the east and south.

Remnants of tropical storms that strike Vietnam or the peninsular south increase precipitation, resulting in further risk of flooding. Drainage control systems, including several dams, irrigation canals and flood detention basins, have been constructed, but are inadequate to prevent flood damage in rural areas. Much effort, including a system of drainage tunnels begun in 2001, has been put into preventing the inundation of the capital city, which lies near the mouth of the Chao Phraya and is prone to flooding, with considerable success. Bangkok has seen only brief and minor flooding since the major flood of 1995. Other regions, had experienced severe flooding as as 2010. Rainfall in March 2011 over the area of northern Thailand was an extraordinary 344 percent above the mean. Bhumibol Dam in particular received 242.8 mm of rain, well above the normal 25.2 mm. Since 1 January the dam had accumulated 216.0 mm or 186 percent above normal. Bangkok's tendency to flood is acute. Bangkok and adjacent provinces are only 50 cm to two meters above sea level.

Sea levels are rising four mm every year. The rising sea levels push more water into the Chao Phraya River. To combat rising sea levels a barrier dam stretching from Chonburi to Hua Hin has been proposed, at a cost of 500 billion baht; the three-meter high dykes that sequester the river are subsiding. In the past, some areas of Bangkok were sinking as much as three centimeters per year, due to excessive groundwater extraction. Groundwater extraction was halted in 1977; that step has slowed subsidence to about one centimeter per year on average. However, the sheer weight of Bangkok's expanding infrastructure has exacerbated the problem. Bangkok has some 700 buildings more than 20 storeys high and 4,000 buildings eight to 20 storeys high; the sheer weight of these structures displaces the spongy soil and increases subsidence. In a 2015 report, Thailand's National Reform Council warned that relocation of the capital was not out of the question. With the monsoon season well underway in 2011, when noticeable rainfall started in May, major flooding began as Tropical Storm Nock-ten made its landfall in northern Vietnam, causing heavy precipitation in northern and northeastern Thailand and flash floods in many provinces from 31 July.

Within one week thirteen persons had been reported dead, with ongoing flooding in the provinces of Chiang Mai, Lamphun, Mae Hong Son, Nan and Uttaradit in the north, Bung Kan, Nakhon Phanom, Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani in the upper northeast. The upper-central provinces of Phichit and Sukhothai were flooded as the flooding spread down the overflowing Yom and Nan Rivers. Prachuap Khiri Khan on the gulf coast was affected. Flooding was still ongoing by late-August, as heavy rains were expected to continue for longer than usual due to the effect of El Niño. Flood waters reached a depth of 50 cm in downtown Nan, became the highest recorded in 16 years in Phitsanulok Province, while large areas in the downstream provinces of Nakhon Sawan, Ang Thong and Nakhon Nayok were affected and the death toll rose to 37 by 22 August. Both Bhumibol and Sirikit Dams increased discharge rates to compensate for the increase in incoming flow. By 19 September all of the lower central provinces were affected by the flood: Uthai Thani, Chai Nat, Sing Buri, Ang Thong, Suphan Buri, Pathum Thani, Nonthaburi, the latter two on the northern border of Bangkok.

Broken floodgates resulted in water from the Chao Phraya flowing through irrigation canals and inundating large areas of paddy fields in Singburi, Ang Thong, an

University of Colombo, Centre for Instrument Development

Centre for Instrument Development is a multidisciplinary research group / centre, part of the Department of Physics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. It offers technical courses in certificate, diploma and postgraduate levels. CID is founded by Professor T R Ariyaratne in 2000, with the financial support from the International Science Programs, Uppsala University and Prof. D U J Sonnadara, Dr. M K Jayananda, Dr. R Lelwala were the first members of the CID while Prof. T R Ariyaratne becomes the first and current director of the CID; the first major activity of the CID, "Microcontroller Training Course " was initiated by Dr. R Lelwala, Mr. Prasan Hettiarachchi and Mr. Navinda Kottege in 2004; the course was renamed as "Training Course in Microcontroller Programming and its applications", still uses the code name MTC followed by the year. The first research activity of the CID was started by Prof. Sonnadara and Dr. M K Jayananda with Mr. Wasantha, on reconfigurable computing. In 2004, Mr. D I Amarasinghe started research work on Computational Physics with Prof. D U J Sonnadara, while Mr. Prasan Hettiarachchi and Mr. Nishshanka Jayawantha started research project on grain drying under low humid environment.

In 2005, CID was moved to the second floor of the Physics Department Building. Mr. Asanga Indunil, Mr. Nishantha Randunu and Mr. Hiran H E Jayaweera are holding the honor of being the first Research Assistants appointed under the CID in 2005 and they organized a national workshop called "Workshop on Emerging Technologies and Sri Lankan Perspectives" in 2005, it was successful workshop and many scientist and researchers were contributed in the workshop. The guest invitees of the workshop were Professor Sune Svanberg and Professor Katerina Svanberg from the Lund University, Sweden. Major Research Areas Postharvest technology Electronic Instrumentation Drying Optical spectroscopy Computational physics Reconfigurable computing M. Sc. in Applied Electronics Embedded System Laboratory Microcontrollers and Embedded Systems Certificate Course on Applied Electronics and Automation Technology Training Course on Microcontroller Programming and its Applications Workshop on Computer aided PCB designing Workshop on Electronic Design Automation Workshop on Scientific Writing Disciplines Workshop on using LMS CID-SRM 1.0 Official Site Embedded System Laboratory - Students' pages

Outline of cuisines

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to cuisines: Cuisine – specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with a specific culture. It is named after the region or place where its underlining culture is present. A cuisine is influenced by the ingredients that are available locally or through trade. Religious food laws can exercise a strong influence on culinary practices. Style of food preparation – preparing food for eating requires selection and combination of ingredients in an ordered procedure so as to achieve desired results. Food preparation is not limited to cooking. Food and drink – see'Components of a cuisine', below See: List of cuisines Drink of particular types – drinks are liquids prepared for human consumption. In addition to basic needs, beverages form part of the culture of human society. Although all beverages, including juice, soft drinks, carbonated drinks, have some form of water in them, water itself is not classified as a beverage, the word beverage has been recurrently defined as not referring to water.

See List of beverages. Food of particular types, including the way it is presented – food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body, it is of plant or animal origin, contains essential nutrients, such as fats, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells to provide energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth. See List of foods. Food presentation – art of modifying, arranging, or decorating food to enhance its aesthetic appeal; the visual presentation of foods is considered by chefs at many different stages of food preparation, from the manner of tying or sewing meats, to the type of cut used in chopping and slicing meats or vegetables, to the style of mold used in a poured dish. The food itself may be decorated as in elaborately iced cakes, topped with ornamental sometimes sculptural consumables, drizzled with sauces, sprinkled with seeds, powders, or other toppings, or it may be accompanied by edible or inedible garnishes.

Food preparation styles – see Food preparation techniques Meals – cuisine is served in the form of a meal. A meal is an eating occasion that takes place at a certain time and includes specific, prepared food, or the food eaten on that occasion; the names used for specific meals in English vary depending on the speaker's culture, the time of day, or the size of the meal. Meals are composed of one or more courses. Meal structure varies by culture. Here are some examples: Meal structure in Arab cuisine – includes breakfast and dinner. However, during Ramadan, fasting is paramount, lasts from dawn to sunset; each day during Ramadan, before dawn, many Muslims observe. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of Fajr. At sunset, families hasten for the fast-breaking meal known as iftar. Meal structure in Bolivian cuisine – lunch is the most important meal of the Bolivian day. Bolivians observe an afternoon tea time similar to those in England. Dinner is a lighter, much more informal affair than lunch.

Meal structure in Danish cuisine – consists of a cold breakfast with coffee or tea, a cold lunch at work and a hot dinner at home with the family. Some have a snack in the middle of the afternoon or in the late evening. Meal structure in Dutch cuisine – the Dutch eat at breakfast and lunch, tea time, dinner Meal structure in English cuisine – Breakfast is traditional throughout England. Lower-middle-class and working-class people from the North of England, the English Midlands, Scotland, traditionally call their midday meal dinner and their evening meal tea, whereas the upper social classes call the midday meal lunch, the evening meal dinner or supper, with afternoon tea as a light meal eaten between 4 pm and 6 pm. Meal structure in French cuisine – breakfast, lunch and dessert. Beverages that precede a meal are called apéritifs, can be served with amuse-bouches; those that end it are called digestifs. Meal structure in German cuisine – traditionally,the day starts with breakfast, lunch is the main meal, followed by a smaller dinner with dessert.

Meal structure in Iranian cuisine – breakfast is called sobhāneh. Lunch and dinner are not distinguished in Persian. You can find tea brewing throughout the day in most Iranian homes. Meal structure in Italian cuisine – breakfast, mid-afternoon snack, dinner Meal structure in Moroccan cuisine List of historical cuisines History of cooking – no known clear archeological evidence for the first cooking of food has survived. Most anthropologists believe that cooking fires began only about 250,000 years ago, when hearths started appearing. History of Asian cuisine History of Chinese cuisine -- marked by both change; the archaeologist and scholar K. C. Chang says "Chinese people are preoccupied with food" and "food is at the center of, or at least it accompanies or symbolizes, many social interactions." Over the course of history, he says, "continuity vastly outweighs change." He explains basic organizing principles which go back to earliest times and g

Laban notation symbols

Laban Notation Symbols refers to the wide range of notation symbols developing from the original work of Rudolf Laban and used in many different types of Laban Movement Study such as Labanotation and Laban Movement Analysis for graphically representing human body positions and movements. See Rudolf Laban The concept of a "staff" is borrowed from music and the musical staff, it provides the basic framework for notating. Several different methods have developed for notating space. In Labanotation the direction symbols are organized as three levels: high and low: In Laban Movement Analysis and Space Harmony the same 27 direction symbols are used but they have a different conceptualization. Instead of envisaging the signs on three parallel horizontal planes, the direction signs are organized according to the octahedron and the icosahedron. In his early German publication Choreographie, Rudolf Laban used a different group of spatial directional signs which represented orientation of lines of motion.

These signs were translated into modern-day Labanotation signs, referred to as "vector signs". "Relationships"' is used in a broad sense to refer to interactions amongst two or more bodies, for example awareness, nearness, physical weight support. Many fine distinctions have been deciphered; these have some relationship to Proxemics. Hutchinson, Ann.. Labanotation or Kinetography Laban: The System of Analyzing and Recording Movement. 3rd revised edition. New York: Theatre Arts Books.. Hutchinson-Guest, Ann. Your move: A New Approach to the Study of Movement and Dance. New York: Gordon and Breach. Hutchinson-Guest, Ann. Choreo-Graphics. New York: Gordon and Breach. Knust, Albrecht.. The development of the Laban kinetography. Movement. 1: 28–29. Knust, Albrecht; the development of the Laban kinetography. Movement. 1: 27-28. Knust, Albrecht. Dictionary of Kinetography Laban. Translated by A. Knust, D. Baddeley-Lang, S. Archbutt, I. Wachtel. Plymouth: MacDonald and Evans. Knust, Albrecht.. Dictionary of Kinetography Laban.

Translated by A. Knust, D. Baddeley-Lang, S. Archbutt, I. Wachtel. Plymouth: MacDonald and Evans. Laban, Rudolf.. Choreographie. Jena: Eugen Diederichs. Laban, Rudolf. Laban's Principles of Movement Notation. 2nd edition annotated by Roderyk Lange. London: MacDonald and Evans. Preston-Dunlop, V.. Practical Kinetography Laban. London: MacDonald and Evans

Farrington's Grove Historic District

Farrington's Grove Historic District is a national historic district located at Terre Haute, Vigo County, Indiana. It encompasses 1,110 contributing buildings in a predominantly residential section of Terre Haute, it developed between about 1850 and 1935, with most built between 1890 and 1920, includes representative examples of Greek Revival, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival style architecture. Located in the district are the separately listed Sage-Robinson-Nagel House and Williams-Warren-Zimmerman House. Other notable buildings include the English-Bogard House, Kelley-Luther-Trent House, Meyer-Gantner House, Grover-Shannon-Lee House, Potter-Steele-Tablr House, Reckert-Robertson House, Hawthorne Building, Temple Israel, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986

Heeralaal Pannalal (1978 film)

Heeralaal Pannalaal is a 1978 Bollywood film directed by Ashok Roy. The film is a Bollywood action comedy released in 1978; the movie starred Shashi Kapoor, Randhir Kapoor, Zeenat Aman and Neetu Singh in lead roles while Prem Nath, Madan Puri, Amjad Khan, Kamini Kaushal, Tun Tun, Ranjeet played significant characters in the film. The movie starts with two innocent and kind hearted guys named Pannalal, they are famous among criminals. Heeralal has no idea of him at all. Pannalal is in search of his father. Heeralal falls in love with her. Pannalal falls in love with Neelam. Kalicharan, a renowned criminal has decided to teach a lesson to Heeralal and Pannalal for interfering in their business, but instead Kalicharan is forced to run from the police. Police commissioner, Premlal is happy with the guys and wants to protect them from Kalicharan and his friend, Panther’s anger. Shashi Kapoor as Heeralal Randhir Kapoor as Pannalal Zeenat Aman as Ruby Neetu Singh as Neelam Ajit as Kalicharan Prem Nath as Premlal, Police commissioner Amjad Khan as Panther Ranjeet as Jaggu Kamini Kaushal Asrani Madan Puri Tun Tun Ramesh Deo Heeralal Pannalal on IMDb