The 2016 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event, held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August. Rio was announced as the host city at the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2 October 2009. More than 11,000 athletes from 205 National Olympic Committees took part, including first-time entrants Kosovo, South Sudan, the Refugee Olympic Team. With 306 sets of medals, the games featured 28 Olympic sports, including rugby sevens and golf, which were added to the Olympic program in 2009; these sporting events took place at 33 venues in the host city and at five separate venues in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Manaus. These were the first Olympic Games to be held in South America, they were the first to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first summer edition to be held in the host country's winter season, the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, the first since 2000 to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.
These were the first Summer Olympics to take place under the International Olympic Committee presidency of Thomas Bach. The United States topped the medal table, winning the most gold medals and the highest number of medals overall. Great Britain finished second and became only the second country in modern Olympic history to increase its tally of medals in the Olympiad after being host nation. China finished third in the medal table. Host nation Brazil won seven gold medals, its largest tally at any single Summer Olympics, finishing in thirteenth place. Bahrain, Ivory Coast, Kosovo, Puerto Rico, Singapore and Vietnam each won their first gold medals, as did the group of Independent Olympic Athletes; the process for the 2016 Summer Olympics was launched on 16 May 2007. The first step for each city was to submit an initial application to the International Olympic Committee by 13 September 2007, confirming their intention to bid. Completed official bid files, containing answers to a 25-question IOC form, were to be submitted by each 14 January 2008.
Four candidate cities were chosen for the shortlist on 4 June 2008: Chicago, Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo, which hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics and will host again in 2020. The IOC did not promote Doha to the candidature phase, despite scoring higher than selected candidate city Rio de Janeiro, because of their intent of hosting the Olympics in October, outside of the IOC's sporting calendar. Prague and Baku failed to make the cut. Nawal El Moutawakel of Morocco headed the 10-member Evaluation Commission, having chaired the evaluation commission for the 2012 Summer Olympics bids; the commission made on-site inspections in the second quarter of 2009. They issued a comprehensive technical appraisal for IOC members on 2 September, one month before elections. Many restrictions are in place designed to prevent bidding cities from communicating with or influencing directly the 115 voting members. Cities may not invite any IOC member to visit nor may they send anything that could be construed as a gift.
Nonetheless, bidding cities invest large sums in their PR and media programs in an attempt to indirectly influence the IOC members by garnering domestic support, support from sports media and general international media. The final voting was held on 2 October 2009, in Copenhagen with Madrid and Rio de Janeiro perceived as favourites to land the games. Chicago and Tokyo were eliminated after the first and second rounds of voting while Rio de Janeiro took a significant lead over Madrid heading into the final round; the lead held and Rio de Janeiro was announced as host of 2016 Summer Olympics. On 26 June 2011, it was reported on AroundTheRings.com that Roderlei Generali, the COO of the Rio de Janeiro Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, resigned just one year after taking the job at ROOC. This comes. Pestana withdrew during the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Renato Ciuchin was appointed as COO. Events took place at eighteen existing venues, nine new venues constructed for the Games, seven temporary venues.
Each event was held in one of four geographically segregated Olympic clusters: Barra, Copacabana and Maracanã. The same was done for the 2007 Pan American Games. Several of the venues were located at the Barra Cluster Olympic Park. Nearly half of the athletes could reach their venues in less than 10 minutes, 75 per cent could do so in less than 25 minutes. Of the 34 competition venues, eight underwent some permanent works, seven were temporary and nine were constructed as permanent legacy venues; the largest venue at the games in terms of seating capacity was the 74,738-seat Maracanã Stadium, which served as the ceremonies venue and site of the football finals. The second largest stadium was the 60,000-seat Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, which hosted track and field events; the athletes' village was said to be the largest in Olympic history. Fittings included about 80,000 chairs, 70,000 tables, 29,000 mattresses, 60,000 clothes hangers, 6,000 television sets and 10,000 smartphones; the Barra Olympic Park is a cluster of nine sporting venues in Barra da Tijuca, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Nord and Bert Couldn't Make Head or Tail of It is an interactive fiction computer game written by Jeff O'Neill and published by Infocom in 1987. It was released for several popular computer platforms of the time, such as the PC and Commodore 64. Nord and Bert was unique among Infocom games in that it used the game engine to present wordplay puzzles rather than an adventure story, it was Infocom's twenty-seventh game. Each chapter of Nord and Bert is dedicated to a different style of wordplay; the first seven chapters can be played in any order, since each exists as an independent "short story" unrelated to the other chapters. The only effort made to interlink the separate parts of the game is as follows: reality has somehow been altered around the town of Punster. Idioms and clichés are manifesting themselves quite and it falls to the player, as it always does, to sort things out; the sections of the game: "The Shopping Bizarre" - this portion takes place in a grocery store where normal products have been replaced by outlandish homonyms.
The player must change all the oddities back to their original form by typing the correct names. For instance, when confronted with a large, awkward-looking mammal sporting hooves and antlers that smells of fudge, the player must type "chocolate mousse". "Playing Jacks" - this section is rather short and unfocused, involves a gadget called the "Jack of All Traits". When presented with a series of unusual situations, this item proves useful by displaying attributes of other items whose name contains "Jack". For instance, when a mermaid tangled in fishing line washes ashore, the player can turn the Jack of All Traits into a Jackknife and cut the lines. "Buy the Farm" - this chapter takes place around a farm and requires the player to use a variety of clichéd expressions for instance BEAT SWORDS INTO PLOWSHARES or BUY A PIG IN A POKE. "Eat Your Words" - another section of idioms presented this time revolving around a diner. The player must alternately insult and apologize to a waitress by using phrases such as GIVE THE WAITRESS THE EVIL EYE or EAT HUMBLE PIE.
When the waitress is sufficiently exasperated, she allows the player to enter the kitchen, where the chef is murderously hostile until the player "leaves the cook to his own devices" and "gores his ox". "Act the Part" - the player must take part in a 50s-style sitcom and perform visual gags and bits of slapstick comedy, including giving someone a "hotfoot" and playing along with knock-knock jokes. "Manor of Speaking" - this chapter takes place in a house filled with bizarre rooms. Although this section has several puzzles reminiscent of Infocom's "straightforward" interactive fiction games, they are played for surreal humor; as an example: a room called. The player must wind a clock and place it inside a box, enter the Kremlin; the portrait of Marx assumes that the ticking box is a bomb and falls off the wall, revealing a safe which can be opened using the clock's "winding" key. "Shake a Tower" - this section ties a number of situations into an absurd story using spoonerisms. The tangled phrase can be entered by itself, such as "pretty girl" for "gritty pearl".
Sometimes certain actions must be performed first, such as feeding stones to set up the change from "fed rocks" to a "red fox". "Meet the Mayor" - the final chapter can only be played after the rest of the game has been completed. Elements of many of the preceding sections are mixed here as the player tries to convince Punster's mayor to sign a law; some puzzle solutions are phrases that are hinted at by the surroundings, such as "Possession is nine-tenths of the law" or "taking something under false pretenses." For years, each game released by Infocom contained extra objects, in its packaging. The only "feelie" included with Nord and Bert was Home on the Range, a booklet of wordplay-themed cartoons drawn by Kevin Pope; the cartoons illustrate several of the types of puzzles in the game, such as "All Alone on a Desserted Isle", which shows a castaway sitting on a tiny island surrounded by pies and ice cream. Each cartoon corresponds to a section of the game. By the time Nord and Bert was released, Infocom had abandoned their habit of printing games' difficulty level on the external package.
Fan opinion of the difficulty level of Nord and Bert ranges from "Standard" to "Expert", depending on the player's penchant for wordplay. Since Nord and Bert makes extensive use of English-language puns, clichés, idioms as plot points, the game can be difficult for non-native English speakers to complete without assistance. In an effort to simplify the "menial tasks" of interactive fiction, the classic "compass point"-style exits were used, mapping was unnecessary. Available exits were displayed at the top of the screen, once a location had been visited it could be revisited by typing its name. Nord and Bert featured hints available with the HINT command; this was one of Infocom's most unusual releases. Published in their waning days of financial difficulty and pressure from parent company Activision and Bert proved quite difficult to market. Appropriately enough, Wordplay was the working title of this game. Computer Gaming World's reviewer did not enjoy Nord and Bert as mu
Arroyo Hondo is a northwestward-flowing 13.0-mile-long river in Santa Clara County, United States, that lies east of Milpitas. The area is owned by the San Francisco Water Department and is closed to public access because of its usage as drinking water. Bounded to the east by Oak Ridge and to the west by Poverty Ridge, Arroyo Hondo empties into the Calaveras Reservoir where it joins Calaveras Creek, it is formed by the confluence of Smith Creek and Isabel Creek which drain the west and east slopes of Mount Hamilton, respectively. Arroyo Hondo means "deep creek" in Spanish, its Isabel Creek tributary is significant in that the Spanish name for Mt. Hamilton was the Sierra de Santa Isabel, the highest point was referred to as Mount Isabel instead of Mount Hamilton; when William Henry Brewer and Charles Hoffman of the Whitney Survey climbed the peak on August 26, 1861, they did not know it had a name, christened it Mt. Hamilton, although they did place Isabel Valley on their map to the east; when in 1895, the USGS realized that the peak two miles southeast of Mt. Hamilton was as tall (4,193-foot, they named it Mt. Isabel.
The Arroyo Hondo mainstem is formed by the confluence of Isabel Creek and Smith Creek at the northern tip of Joseph D. Grant County Park at an elevation of 1,585 feet above sea level, it flows northerly to its confluence with Calaveras Reservoir at an elevation of 765 feet. Isabel Creek begins at about 2,600 feet about one mile south of Mt. Helen flows north through the Isabel Valley east and north of Mt. Isabel and Mt. Hamilton until it is joined by Smith Creek. Arroyo Hondo joins Calaveras Creek in Calaveras Reservoir. Calaveras Creek is, in turn, tributary to Alameda Creek in Alameda County and flows into San Francisco Bay. Arroyo Hondo still has remnants of native coastal rainbow trout, which several conservation organizations have attempted to protect. Impassable falls are now present on upper Arroyo Hondo, but the rainbow trout in its Smith and Isabel creek tributaries are assumed to be native, as California roach and Sacramento sucker are present above and below the falls; the California Academy of Sciences collected a steelhead trout specimen in 1898 on Isabel Creek.
Both Smith Creek and Arroyo Hondo were recorded in 1905 by John Otterbein Snyder as anadromous steelhead trout streams. Speckled dace were collected by John Otterbein Snyder in 1898 in Arroyo Hondo and Isabel creeks, but not by Scoppettone and Smith in 1978, nor by Leidy and Bronwen in 2013, their status in the creek remains uncertain as is true of most of their former sites in the central coast. Foothill yellow-legged frogs and California red-legged frogs are present in Upper Alameda, Arroyo Hondo and Isabel creeks. List of watercourses in the San Francisco Bay Area San Francisco Water Department's page on trout conservation in Arroyo Hondo California Creekin's account of Arroyo Hondo's restricted access History of Calaveras Reservoir