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2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

The United Kingdom European Union membership referendum referred to as the EU referendum or the Brexit referendum, took place on 23 June 2016 in the United Kingdom and Gibraltar to ask the electorate whether the country should remain a member of, or leave, the European Union. The result would be facilitated through the European Union Referendum Act 2015 and the Political Parties and Referendums Act 2000; the referendum resulted in 51.9% of the votes cast being in favour of leaving the EU. Although the referendum was non-binding, the government of the time promised to implement the result; the succeeding government initiated the official withdrawal process on 29 March 2017, meaning that the UK was due to leave the EU on 29 March 2019. The negotiation period was extended until 31 October 2019, once again until 31 January 2020. At 11 pm GMT on 31 January 2020, the UK withdrew from the EU. Membership of the EU and its predecessors has long been a topic of debate in the United Kingdom; the country joined the European Economic Community or Common Market, the forerunner to the European Union, in 1973, along with the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Atomic Energy Community.

A referendum on continued membership of the Common Market was held in 1975, with 67.2% of the population voting in favour of Britain remaining a member. In May 2015, following a Conservative Party manifesto pledge, the legal basis for the EU referendum was established through the European Union Referendum Act 2015. Britain Stronger in Europe became the official group campaigning for the UK to remain in the EU, was endorsed by the Prime Minister David Cameron and Chancellor George Osborne. Vote Leave was the official group campaigning for the UK to leave the EU, was fronted by Conservative MPs Boris Johnson and Michael Gove, along with Labour MP Gisela Stuart. Other campaign groups, political parties, trade unions and prominent individuals were involved, with both sides having supporters from across the political spectrum. Parties in favour of'remain' included Labour, the Liberal Democrats, the Scottish National Party, Plaid Cymru and the Green Party. In spite of the official positions of the Conservative Party and Labour, both parties allowed their MPs to publicly campaign for either side of the issue.

After the result, financial markets reacted negatively worldwide, Cameron announced that he would resign as Prime Minister and Leader of the Conservative Party, having campaigned unsuccessfully to remain in the European Union. It was the first time that a national referendum result had gone against the preferred option of the UK Government. Cameron was succeeded by Theresa May on 13 July 2016; the Labour Party faced a leadership challenge as a result of the EU referendum. The European Communities were formed in the 1950s – the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, the European Atomic Energy Community and European Economic Community in 1957; the EEC, the more ambitious of the three, came to be known as the "Common Market". The UK first applied to join them in 1961. A application was successful, the UK joined in 1973. Political integration gained greater focus when the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993, which incorporated the European Communities. Prior to the 2010 general election, the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition David Cameron promised a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty, which he backtracked on after all EU countries had ratified the treaty before the election.

When they attended the May 2012 NATO summit meeting, UK Prime Minister David Cameron, Foreign Secretary William Hague and Ed Llewellyn discussed the idea of using a European Union referendum as a concession to energise the Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative Party. In January 2013, Cameron delivered the Bloomberg speech and promised that, should the Conservatives win a parliamentary majority at the 2015 general election, the British government would negotiate more favourable arrangements for continuing British membership of the EU, before holding a referendum on whether the UK should remain in or leave the EU; the Conservative Party published a draft EU Referendum Bill in May 2013, outlined its plans for renegotiation followed by an in-out vote, were the party to be re-elected in 2015. The draft Bill stated that the referendum had to be held no than 31 December 2017; the draft legislation was taken forward as a Private Member's Bill by Conservative MP James Wharton, known as the European Union Bill 2013.

The bill's First Reading in the House of Commons took place on 19 June 2013. Cameron was said by a spokesperson to be "very pleased" and would ensure the Bill was given "the full support of the Conservative Party". Regarding the ability of the bill to bind the UK Government in the 2015–20 Parliament to holding such a referendum, a parliamentary research paper noted that:The Bill provides for a referendum on continued EU membership by the end of December 2017 and does not otherwise specify the timing, other

Water point mapping

Water Point Mapping is a tool for monitoring the distribution and status of water supplies. It collects data about different aspects related to the water facility and overlays this point data with information about population and administrative boundaries. WPM helps to visualize the spatial distribution of water supply coverage and can thereby be used to highlight equity issues; the information collected provides insights into schemes' sustainability levels and management-related aspects of water points. WPM can be used to to inform the planning of investments to improve water supply coverage; the Millennium Development Goals include a specific target to deal with people who do not access safe drinking water and basic sanitation. To adequately assess peoples' access to these basic services it is vital that there is accessible and reliable data, collected and updated. A variety of tools and techniques have been developed in recent years to collect such information. However, unless data is accessible and is presented in a user-friendly format, decision makers do without the information.

One alternative, designed to manage large volumes of data and to enable a user-friendly presentation is to use geo-referenced datasets, which provide a means of integration of data from different sources at any point on the globe. Within such a framework, for any specific point on the map detailed and accurate data of different nature can be linked in an integrated way. Mapping therefore involves the presentation of certain information in a spatial context, this enables policy planners to identify the geographic areas and communities in which to focus their efforts for maximum impact. In all, mapping presents many benefits, such as: It makes easier to integrate data from different sources and from different disciplines, it allows the switch to new units of analysis from, for example, administrative boundaries to ecological boundaries. Maps are a powerful visual tool and are more understood by stakeholders in developing countries; the spatial nature of water poverty, such as the distance to the nearest water source or the water supply infrastructure, can be incorporated in a GIS database.

The allocation of resources can be improved, since geographic targeting is more efficient and cost-effective than to launch an expensive universal distribution programme. Geo-referenced databases can be enriched by additional data. Maps can be produced at a number of different resolutions depending on their purpose and the cost of data collection. A coarse resolution or a scale too small neglects the heterogeneity within each unit and provides insufficient detail for decision making, while a fine resolution or a scale too large increases the cost of compiling and analyzing the data. Water Point Mapping can be defined as an'exercise whereby the geographical positions of all improved water points in an area are gathered in addition to management and demographical information'. A handheld Global Positioning System unit is used to record the precise location and approximate altitude of all water points audited. All collected data is entered into a geographical information system and correlated with available demographic and physical data.

The information is displayed using digital maps. WPM seeks to serve two different purposes: To show the distribution of water points in a territory; this could enhance efficiency and transparency in local government's planning while enabling a higher degree of accountability towards population. To allow the definition of more reliable access indicators, which are to be constructed from the lowest geographical level with collected data; the strength of water point maps is that they provide a clear message on, is not served. In many developing countries, water sector ministries are undertaking reforms towards decentralization, transferring the responsibility of services management and resource allocation to local planners; this requires adequate performance monitoring frameworks backed up by accurate and reliable data at local level. WPM is thought of as a way to collect this information and display it through easy-to-use maps; as a survey tool, WPM was designed and promoted by WaterAid in Malawi, although in recent years it has been carried out in different countries by a number of stakeholders.

Main goal of WPM is to develop a comprehensive record of improved water points at a particular geographic area. The types of water points considered as improved are consistent with those accepted internationally by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation

Sisters Uncut

Sisters Uncut is a British feminist direct action group, opposed to cuts to UK government services for domestic violence victims. It was founded in November 2014, came to international prominence in October 2015 for a protest on the red carpet at the London premiere of the film Suffragette; the group identify as intersectional feminists, is open to women, nonbinary and gender variant people. The group uses consensus decision-making. Sisters Uncut originated in London but has regional groups throughout the UK. Under the UK Coalition government of 2010-2015, funding for domestic violence services was cut leading to concern from groups such as the Women's Aid Federation of England that the cuts could leave victims of abuse with no ability to escape their abusers. Sisters Uncut was founded in November 2014 in response to these concerns; the group was founded by women from the anti-austerity direct action group UK Uncut, its name is a reference to that group. The group has become known for high-profile direct action which highlights and challenges UK government policy that affects survivors of domestic and sexual violence.

Protests by the group have included: A demonstration at the London Councils building on 4 May 2015 which included occupying the roof of the building to highlight the role of local councils in making cuts to domestic violence services. A protest outside the Daily Mail headquarters in Kensington in August 2015; the paper had called for British troops to be sent to Calais refugee camps to stop migrants reaching the UK. Protests outside Yarl's Wood Immigration Removal Centre to demand an end to immigration detention and an end to abuse of migrant women that takes place inside of them. A high-profile protest at the 7 October 2015 London premiere of the 2015 film Suffragette against cuts to domestic violence services, their tagline was "Dead women can't vote". The film's star Helena Bonham-Carter described the protest as "perfect.. If you feel enough about something and there's an injustice there you can speak out and try to get something changed". Carey Mulligan, another actress who performed in the film, said that the protest was "awesome" and that she was sad she had missed it.

Dying the fountains in Trafalgar Square red to symbolism the blood of women who are murdered at the hands of abusive partners, in an action timed to coincident with the 2015 Autumn Budget. Protests against cuts to local domestic violence services, including a protest in a Portsmouth Council meeting where the group disrupted the meeting by releasing 4,745 pieces of confetti to symbolise the number of recorded instances of domestic violence in Portsmouth in 2014; this was to protest a planned £180,000 of cuts to domestic violence services by the council. This protest led to one arrest. Taking over an empty council home in Hackney, East London from July - September 2016 to highlight the urgent need for safe and secure housing for survivors of domestic violence. Blocking bridges in Bristol, London and Liverpool to coincide with the 2016 Autumn Statement; the group argued that by cutting services, the government were "blocking bridges to safety" for domestic violence survivors. In May 2017, taking over a building on the former site of Holloway Prison, demanding that the land be used for a women's centre and social housing.

A protest on the red carpet at the British Academy Film and Television Arts Awards in February 2018 against the government's planned Domestic Violence and Abuse Bill, which they argued would harm survivors by increasing criminal justice powers rather than funding support services. The delivery of 30,000 pieces of paper which blocked the doors to the Crown Prosecution Service in Westminster, highlighting the CPS policy of demanding that the police download the data from the mobile phones of sexual violence survivors, a process which focuses on the investigation of survivors instead of their abusers; the offices were subsequently evacuated. The action coincided with Max Hill QC's first day in post as the head of the CPS in November 2018. Ad-Hacking London Tube posters replacing adverts with poems from women & non-binary people who have been silenced by the state; the poems share real stories of how government cuts and ‘hostile environment’ policies have left survivors locked up in prison, locked out of refuges, locked in violent relationships.

Anti-austerity protests UK Uncut Sisters Uncut homepage Sisters Uncut Facebook page

East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company

The East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company is a 3 ft narrow gauge historic railroad headquartered in Rockhill Furnace, Pennsylvania, 19 miles north of Interstate 76 and 11 miles south of U. S. Route 22, the William Penn Highway. Operating from 1871 to 1956, it is one of the nation's oldest and best-preserved narrow-gauge railroads, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964; the railroad, now preserved for use as a tourist attraction, has not operated public excursions since December 2011 and has operated no excursions since October 2013. As of March 2019 the railroad was still for sale from its current owner. However, in February 2020 it was announced that the railroad had been bought by a non-profit foundation; the East Broad Top Railroad and Coal Company was chartered in 1856. Due to financial constraints and the American Civil War, the railroad was not built by its original charterers, but a new group of investors began to acquire right-of-way in 1867 and was able to construct the railroad as a 3 ft narrow gauge line in 1872–1874.

Service began from Mount Union, Pennsylvania to Orbisonia, Pennsylvania in August, 1873, to Robertsdale in November, 1874. The line was extended to Woodvale and Alvan, with several short branches. At its height, it had over 60 miles of track and 33 miles of main line; the primary purpose of the railroad was to haul semi-bituminous coal from the mines on the east side of the remote Broad Top Mountain plateau to the Pennsylvania Railroad in Mount Union. The railroad carried substantial amounts of ganister rock and passengers with some agricultural goods, road tar and general freight. In its first three decades the railroad supplied much of its coal to the Rockhill Iron Furnace, operated by the railroad's sister company, the Rockhill Iron and Coal Company, in turn hauled the pig iron from the furnace; as the iron industry in the region faded in the early 1900s, the railroad came to subsist on coal traffic for about 90% of its revenue. Large plants for the manufacture of silica brick were developed at Mount Union around the turn of the 20th century, these became major customers for coal and for ganister rock, quarried at multiple points along the railroad.

The EBT maintained an office in Philadelphia, PA. An 1893 timetable lists their executive offices at 320 Walnut St. the main commercial area of the city. The city's business center migrated west and by 1939 the EBT's office was at 1421 Chestnut St. EBT was profitable from the 1880s through the 1940s and was able to modernize its infrastructure far more than other narrow gauge railroads; the railroad's roundhouse, one of the oldest railroad roundhouses in the US still in operation, was built in 1882. A coal cleaning plant and a full maintenance shops complex were built, bridges were upgraded from iron and wood to steel and concrete, wood rolling stock was replaced by steel, modern high-powered steam locomotives were bought from the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia. In the 1950s, coal demand plummeted as industries switched to cheap oil and gas; the last nail in the coffin came when the silica brick plants in Mount Union converted to oil and gas and not enough coal could be sold to support the mines and the railroad.

The railroad closed as a coal hauler April 14, 1956, along with the coal-mining company was sold for scrap to the Kovalchick Salvage Corporation. Nick Kovalchick, president of Kovalchick Salvage, elected not to scrap the railroad right away, instead letting it sit in place. In 1960, the twin boroughs of Orbisonia and Rockhill Furnace—the latter being the operating hub for the railroad—celebrated their Bicentennial and asked Kovalchick to put a train out for display. Doing them one better, he rehabilitated four miles of track and two locomotives and operated tourist train rides for several months that summer; the new attraction was so successful that the ride, extended to five miles, opened as a regular tourist operation in 1961. The railroad operated tourist trains every summer through 2011; the EBT was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The railroad was added in 1996 to the National Trust for Historic Preservation's list of America's Most Endangered Places.

The majority of the railroad is still owned by Kovalchick Salvage and was for years overseen by Nick's son and his wife, Judy. From May 2009 until April 2011, the EBT was leased for three years to the East Broad Top Railroad Preservation Association, a non-profit founded with the intention of acquiring the railroad and reactivating all 33 miles of the railroad's original main line; the EBTPA made a number of improvements on site as well as adding numerous special events and in 2011 extended the season and operating days of the week. Maintenance standards and customer service were enhanced; the original three-year lease expired in April 2012 and the owners and the EBTPA were unable to reach an agreement to continue operations. When running, the line operated as a heritage railway, with trains pulled by 3 ft narrow gauge 2-8-2 steam locomotives. Vintage diesels operated as backup power. Excursions ran May through October. Special events and holidays trains ran in December; the rides took about an hour.

The EBT annual Fall Spectacular, when all operating equipment was in use, was held on the Saturday and Sunday of Columbus Day weekend in October. There were local events such as Community Appreciation Day; the train stopped at Colgate Grove, a picnic grove at the far end of the operable excursion trackage. The train was turned on a wy

Wayne County Bridge

The Wayne County Bridge is a swing bridge that crosses the Trenton Channel in the Detroit River. Located in Wayne County, Michigan, it connects Grosse Ile Township to mainland Trenton and is one of two bridges connecting the island of Grosse Ile to the mainland — the other being the tolled Grosse Ile Toll Bridge to the north. Locally, it is known as "The Free Bridge". During 1931, Wayne County converted the Michigan Central Railroad's defunct rail bridge crossing the Trenton Channel into the Wayne County Bridge for use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Canada Southern Bridge Company, a subsidiary of the Canada Southern Railroad Company, built the rail bridge in 1873. A number of the original support piers and other parts of the bridge served as the foundation for the Wayne County Bridge; the rail tracks across the island were replaced by a roadway, now known as Grosse Ile Parkway. The Wayne County Bridge is called the "Free Bridge" by Grosse Ile residents because of the absence of a user fee toll for crossing.

Today, about three-quarters of the vehicle traffic going to and from Grosse Ile travels over the Wayne County Bridge while one-quarter crosses the Grosse Ile Toll Bridge. Wayne County closed the bridge to vehicle traffic from May 2, 2007 until December 21, 2007 to enable the replacement of the bridge deck and related major repairs; the previous replacement of the bridge deck took place in 1979. During much of the 1979 closure period, one lane of traffic remained open on the County Bridge. At the times when the span was closed, the only vehicle access to and from the island was via the Grosse Ile Toll Bridge; the bridge was closed on November 13, 2019 after township officials learned a report on a safety inspection of the bridge conducted three months earlier found deterioration that "caused some alarm," according to one official. Authorities said; the bridge was temporarily closed while emergency repairs could be made, at which point the bridge was reopened but scheduled for extensive repairs and closures in 2020.

"Wayne County Receives a Grant for the Grosse Ile Bridge". "Smoke Speaks". Ile Camera. July 21, 2006. Karmazin, Nancy G. "Quick History of Grosse Ile", 1999. "The Bridges of Wayne County". Grosse Ile Bridge Company

Silver Cross Tavern

The Silver Cross Tavern is a pub on Whitehall in London, England. It was first opened as a licensed pub in 1674; the building had been an establishment at that location since the thirteenth century. It has been argued to be the only theoretically legal brothel in the country, on the grounds that a 17th century royal licence on the building was never revoked; the Silver Cross Tavern was first licensed and opened as a pub in 1674 as "The Garter" after having been a licensed brothel beforehand. It was owned by William Waad, son of politician Sir William Waad, who sold it to Joseph Craig in its first licensed year. Craig had bought a number of buildings near the Silver Cross Tavern; the pub was subsequently acquired by the Earls of Harrington. In 1861, it was leased from the Earl of Harrington by the Earl of St Vincent, being referred to as The Silver Cross. In the twentieth century, the pub was owned by TJ Bernard; because of its location near British government buildings and Trafalgar Square, the pub is frequented by members of Her Majesty's Civil Service and tourists.

In 1999, the BBC claimed that the Silver Cross Tavern was the only legal brothel in the United Kingdom, although not in operation as such, on the basis that a royal licence granted by Charles I was never revoked. A building on the site, part of "St Katherine's Hermitage" was constructed in the thirteenth century with lead-lined walls; the tavern has undergone a number of rebuilds, with the last one occurring in 1900. The pub has a wagon vaulted ceiling. Shortly after opening, the pub had a plaster ceiling installed in the bar area when King Charles I lived in Whitehall. In the Victorian era, the building had a new façade built, it was subsequently renumbered as 37 Whitehall and is the red tiled façade building at the far right or west end of the structures from Craig Court. In the 1990s, the pub was expanded into numbers 33-35 which themselves had been combined by previous occupiers the last after the pizza restaurant next door was closed and the pub took over the premises