Northern Ireland is a constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the north-east of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, region, or part of the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the total population. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament, Northern Ireland has historically been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown significantly since the late 1990s. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17. 2% in 1986, dropping to 6. 1% for June–August 2014,58. 2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sports persons from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough, some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British.
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, in many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century, the English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Victories by English forces in war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and their intention was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community.
In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks. Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws, the new state, formed in 1801, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was governed from a single government and parliament based in London. Between 1717 and 1775 some 250,000 people from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies and it is estimated that there are more than 27 million Scotch-Irish Americans now living in the US. By the close of the century, autonomy for Ireland within the United Kingdom, in 1912, after decades of obstruction from the House of Lords, Home Rule became a near-certainty. A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Act 1911, which enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted, in 1914, they smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers, a paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Gerard Eamonn Greene is a Northern Irish former professional snooker player. He represented Northern Ireland in international events, as his parents are from Belfast, alongside this, Greene reached a ranking semi-final, at the 2007 Grand Prix, losing to the eventual champion Marco Fu, and five quarter-finals. Representing Northern Ireland with teammate Mark Allen, he reached the final of the 2011 World Cup, where they lost to China. Greene qualified for the World Championship five times without winning a match at the Crucible Theatre, although he drew the defending champion – John Higgins in 1999. He was ranked within the worlds top 64 players from 1997 until he fell off the tour, losing his professional status. Greene turned pro and joined the ranks in 1993/94 at the age of 20. In 1995/96 he got to the stages of three events and was up 38 places to 72nd in the World Rankings. He reached the last 32 of the LG Cup and he was briefly provisionally in the top 16 but suffered a mid season slump. Things picked up a in the campaign and he was assured of a place in the top 32 for the first time at number 26.
He returned to the top 32 after 2006/2007, the highlight being a run to the last 16 of the Northern Ireland Trophy and he reached his first ranking semi-final at the 2007 Grand Prix. Greene came through Group B which included Ronnie OSullivan, Steve Davis, Dominic Dale and qualifiers Tom Ford and he beat Davis and Dale 4–0, Ford 4–3 and Joyce 4–2, his only defeat coming at the hands of Ronnie OSullivan, 4–2. He defeated qualifier Ricky Walden 5–0 in the last 16 with breaks of 101 and 91, in his quarter-final he faced Joe Perry, who he defeated 5–3 with breaks of 68,57,123 and rounding of the match with a 53. Eventual champion Marco Fu edged him out 6–5 in the semi-final, for a while before this tournament, he had no snooker club to practice in. Showing his best form for years, he reached the Quarter-final of the 2007 Northern Ireland Trophy. Then he beat former World Champions Mark Williams and Ken Doherty on the way and his run ended in the hands of Mark Allen, who he lost to 5–3. He lost form in 2008 however, failing to qualify for the World Championship after a 2–10 defeat to journeyman Mark Davis, greenes 2008/2009 season was solid but unspectacular.
He won his match in six of the seasons eight tournaments. Crucially, he qualified for the World Championship by defeating Liu Song and he was beaten 10–5 by Ali Carter in the first round
Scott Donaldson is a Scottish professional snooker player. Donaldson turned professional in 2012 after winning the 2012 EBSA European Snooker Championships and he reached his first ranking event semi-final at the 2017 Welsh Open. Donaldson did not participate on 2012 Wuxi Classic and 2012 Australian Goldfields Open and his first match as a professional was a 4-2 win over Liam Highfield in the minor-ranking PTC Event 1. He was placed 70th on the Order of Merit and his best run of results for the ranking event came in Shanghai Masters Qualifying, where he defeated Chen Zhe and Yu Delu, but lost 1–5 to Nigel Bond. Donaldsons season ended when he was beaten 6–10 by Thepchaiya Un-Nooh in the first round of World Championship Qualifying and he finished his first year on tour ranked world number 89. In his opening match, Donaldson defeated Tom Ford 5–1 to qualify for the 2013 Wuxi Classic in China. In his first appearance in the first round of an event he defeated Gareth Green 5–3 and beat Jimmy Robertson 5–4.
He was knocked out by Barry Hawkins in the quarter-finals of the minor-ranking Bulgarian Open and in the semi-finals of the Asian Tour event, the Yixing Open. He did not have to qualify for the UK Championship or the Welsh Open as all players on the tour began the events at the stage this season and Donaldson took advantage. In the UK he saw off Matthew Selt 6–4 and secured what he called the best victory of his career to date by taking the last two frames against world number 13 Mark Davis in a 6–5 win. He lost a high quality encounter 6–3 to Joe Perry in the last 32, donaldsons play in Asian Tour events this year helped him to finish eighth on the Order of Merit to qualify for the Finals for the first time. He met reigning world champion Ronnie OSullivan and was comfortably defeated 4–0, donaldsons campaign ended with him at 65th in the world rankings, agonosingly short of reaching the top 64 who stay on tour. Donaldson began the season by qualifying for the 2014 Wuxi Classic and he won four matches to qualify for the Australian Goldfields Open, which concluded with a 5–2 success over Kurt Maflin, before being whitewashed 5–0 by Stuart Bingham in the first round.
At the minor-ranking Yixing Open, Donaldson won four matches to reach the quarter-finals, after a 6–4 loss to Marcus Campbell in the first round of the UK Championship, Donaldson lost a further eight matches in a row to end the season. At the Paul Hunter Classic, Donaldson beat Ashley Hugill 4–1,2014 world champion Mark Selby 4–2 and he came close to qualifying for the International Championship by winning two successive frames to force a decider against Mark Allen, but lost it. Donaldson finished 59th on the European Order of Merit which was enough to earn him a new two-year card for the snooker tour. Donaldson won four matches to meet Ding Junhui in the round of the Shanghai Masters and had leads of 3–1 and 4–3. Donaldson had a chance to pull off the shock, but missed a simple black, Donaldson reached the last 16 of both the European Masters and Northern Ireland Open, losing 4–3 to Anthony McGill and 4–2 to Hossein Vafaei respectively
The Betway Group is a global online gambling company providing entertainment across a number of brands including Betway Sportsbook, Betway Casino, Betway Vegas, Betway Bingo and Betway Poker. The Group operate a number of brands including Dream Bingo, Bingo on the Box. The Betway Group has a partnership with the Professional Players Federation, Betway is a supporter of the Responsible Gambling Trust. Betway has sponsored a number of high-profile UK-based sporting events through its flagship sportsbook brand Betway including boxing, football, tennis, horse racing and eSports. On February 6,2015 it was announced that Betway had become the principal sponsor of West Ham United FC in an initial two and half year deal worth £20m. Betway entered into negotiations with the Premier League club after former sponsor Alpari filed for insolvency in January 2015, the landmark deal, West Hams biggest ever commercial agreement, included prominent shirt and in-stadium branding rights and would prove transformation for both parties.
West Ham would soon after former player Slaven Bilic as manager who would lead the club to its highest league finishing position for 12 seasons. Although limiting its football activity in England to West Ham. Following the agreement with West Ham, Betway continued to add to its portfolio of sponsorships across snooker, tennis, the International Tennis Federation announced in late 2015 that Betway was to be the international sponsor of the Davis Cup and Fed Cup international tennis competitions. Great Britain, led by Andy Murray, would go on to win the Davis Cup for the first time since 1936, in September 2016, Betway announced that they had become the headline sponsor of eSports team Ninjas in Pyjamas. In 2017, Betway furthered its presence in the racing industry with a three-year deal with Aintree Racecourse to become the official betting partner of the Grand National Festival. Other British horse racing sponsorship deals made in 2017 include the Grade 2 Betway Kingmaker Novices’ Chase at Warwick, Betway secured deals to sponsor key races on the Flat in 2017.
The leading online bookmaker now sponsors the Listed Betway King Charles II Stakes, previous ambassadors include England rugby World Cup winner Mike Tindall, ex-Irish and Munster rugby player David Wallace, and Sky Sports golf presenter Sarah Stirk. The Dream Bingo brand, operated by the Betway Group, was re-launched in April 2015, supported by a new website, brand, in June 2015, Betway Bingo was recognised as the best new online bingo site at the 2015 WhichBingo Awards. Live Chat Bestway have 24 hours live chat support for its customers according to their ￼￼website. REFERENCE Official website Sports betting site Corporate site
Mark Anthony Selby is an English professional snooker player from Leicester. He is the reigning World Snooker and UK champion, having won titles for a second time in 2016, and is the current world number one. Selby joined the professional snooker tour in 1999 at the age of 16. In 2007, he was runner-up to John Higgins at the World Snooker Championship and his other ranking titles include the Welsh Open in 2008, the Shanghai Masters in 2011, the German Masters in 2015, the China Open in 2015 and the International Championship in 2016. Known as a patient, tough competitor with strong safety play and his nickname, The Jester from Leicester, was given to him by snooker compere Richard Beare after Willie Thorne came up with it during commentary. Selby is a pool player and he is the 2006 WEPF eight-ball pool world champion and the 2015 Chinese Pool World Championship finalist. Selby was born in Leicester, malcolm Thorne, the brother of Leicester-born snooker player Willie Thorne, spotted Selbys snooker ability and provided Selby practice so he could practise every day after school.
Selbys father died of cancer when Mark was 16, two months before he joined the professional tour. Mark showed potential as a teenager, but did not consistently shine until his twenties and he began his career on the UK Tour in 1998, at the time the second-level professional tour. He reached his first ranking final aged 19, the Regal Scottish in 2003, where he finished runner-up to David Gray, losing 9–7 in the final. Before that, he had already reached the semi-finals of the 2002 China Open. Selby reached the qualifying round of the World Snooker Championship in 2002 and 2003 losing both times. In the 2007 World Championships, Selby beat Stephen Lee 10–7 in the first round and he defeated former World Champion Peter Ebdon 13–8, with five centuries to reach the quarter-finals. In the quarter-final, he beat Ali Carter 13–12, from 11–8 up and 11–12 down and he went on to reach the final by beating Shaun Murphy 17–16 from 14–16 down, in another deciding frame which he won thanks to a 64 break. Thus he entered the session only 10–12 down and closed to within one frame at 13–14.
It was noted by eventual world champion John Higgins, amongst others, in his victory speech and these performances in the 2006/07 season earned Selby a place in the top 16 for the very first time for the 2007/08 season, where he was ranked 11th. After a moderate start to the season, Selby had a run in the second highest ranking tournament. He led eventual winner Ronnie OSullivan 7–5, fell 7–8 behind, in the deciding frame, however, OSullivan made a 147 break to win 9–8
Robert Milkins is an English professional snooker player from Gloucester. Milkins turned professional in 1995, but dropped off the Main Tour when it was reduced in size after the 1996/1997 season, but returned a year via the UK Tour. After four seasons of solid progress with occasional last-16 runs, he reached the last 16 of the World Snooker Championship in 2002, and he made history in qualifying for the 2006 World Snooker Championship by making a 147 break in his match against Mark Selby. He became only the player to achieve a maximum in the tournament. He ultimately lost to Selby 4–10, becoming only the player to lose a World Championship match despite a 147. Milkins made a break against Xiao Guodong in the fourth qualifying round of the 2012 tournament. He has been on the end of a 147 in the tournament – Mark Williams completed a 10–1 victory in the first round of the 2005 tournament with a final-frame maximum. In 2005 he reached the Irish Masters semi-final, but lost 8–9 against Matthew Stevens and he lost in the final qualifying round of the World Championships for the second year in a row in 2007 – 10–4 against Mark Allen.
In 2008 he did not get far, losing 10–4 to Barry Pinches. At the 2006 Grand Prix he and Ronnie OSullivan were the players to win all 5 group matches. The 2007/2008 season was a one for Milkins, and he has slipped down the rankings to number 51. Milkins had a run at the 2008 Bahrain Championship. In 2009, Milkins joined player management company on Q Promotions, Milkins reached the second ranking event semi-final of his career in the 2012 World Open. He qualified for the tournament with 5–1 and 5–0 wins over Sam Craigie and he defeated Jin Long 5–2, before dispatching reigning world champion John Higgins 5–3 in the quarter-finals. However, Milkins lost his last 4 encounter with Stephen Lee 2–6 and he finished 2011/12 ranked world number 36. Milkins began the 2012/2013 season by qualifying for the Wuxi Classic by beating Liu Chuang, after this Milkins lost in the qualifying draw of the Australian Goldfields Open and in the first round of four consecutive ranking events. He bucked the trend at the Welsh Open by scoring 4–1 and 4–2 wins over Mark Williams and Sam Baird, Milkins followed this up by reaching the second round of both the World Open and the China Open, losing to Mark Allen and Stuart Bingham respectively.
Milkins finished 41st on the Players Tour Championship Order of Merit, however, he took part in all three of the new Asian PTCs and performed well enough to finish 5th on the Order of Merit, which was high enough to qualify for the Finals
Barbican Centre, York
The Barbican Centre is an indoor entertainment venue located in York, England. Named after the nearby barbican attached to Walmgate Bar, the centre hosts various events, family shows. It has a 1,500 seating capacity and a 1,900 standing capacity, the Barbican Centre has been a regular snooker venue for the second biggest-ranking tournament, the UK Championship, with the championships returning to the venue in 2011. The centre is located on the end of York city centre. The current facility was built in 1989 at a price of £15 million by York Council, adding to a swimming pool, the 1989 construction added a sports hall and auditorium, with a climbing wall facility, café and bars. By 2003, a single bidder had emerged as the company to develop the site. Proposals to build new swimming facilities were part of the plans, however, a local group of residents, Save Our Barbican spearheaded local opposition to the proposals circulated in the public consultation. Later planned developments suggested apartments on the site, or a casino, by the end of 2004, with no plans accepted and a legal case going forward by the resident group, the Barbican centre was closed and lay empty for years to come.
The swimming pool building was demolished, and the 1989 building began to show signs of weathering, in spring 2011, it finally reopened after a £1.5 million refurbishment, owned by the council but managed by SMG, an international venue operator. Official website The Save Our Barbican Site
Stephen Gordon Hendry, MBE is a Scottish former professional snooker player. Hendry became the youngest professional player in 1985 aged 16 and, in 1990, he was the youngest-ever snooker World Champion. He won the World Championship seven times, a record in the modern era, Hendry has the distinction of winning the most world ranking titles and is second on the century break list behind Ronnie OSullivan with 775 competitive century breaks. He has made 11 competitive maximum breaks, second only to OSullivan with 13, Hendry started playing snooker in 1981, aged 12, when his father, bought him a child-sized snooker table as a Christmas present. Two years he won the Scottish U-16 Championship and he appeared on BBCs Junior version of Pot Black. The following year he won the Scottish Amateur Championship and became the youngest ever entrant in the World Amateur Championship, in 1985, after retaining the Scottish Amateur Championship, he turned professional. At 16 years and three months old he was the youngest ever professional, Hendry was managed by entrepreneur Ian Doyle.
In his first season, he reached the last 32 in the Mercantile Credit Classic and was the youngest ever Scottish Professional champion. He became the youngest player ever to qualify for the World Championship and he lost 8–10 to Willie Thorne who applauded him out of the arena. Hendry and Mike Hallett combined to win that years World Doubles Championship, in 1987/88 Hendry won his first world ranking titles, the Grand Prix, beating Dennis Taylor 10–7 in the final, and the British Open. He claimed three other tournament victories, retaining both the Scottish Professional Championship and the World Doubles Championship, and the Australian Masters, by the end of that season he was ranked world no.4 and was voted the BBC Scotland Sports Personality of the Year. No ranking titles came his way the following season, although he did win the New Zealand Masters, the 1989/90 season saw the beginning of Hendrys period of dominance. The following season, he set a record of five ranking titles in one season and recorded a hat-trick of Masters, beating Mike Hallett 9–8 after coming back from 0–7.
However, Hendry failed to retain his title, losing to Steve James in the quarter-finals. In 1991/92, Hendry regained the World title, winning 10 frames in a row to come from 8–14 down to defeat White 18–14 and he won the Masters and achieved his first competitive 147 break, in the Matchroom League. A year later, he retained both his World Championship title and a fifth consecutive Masters crown, the following season, he retained the World Championship, narrowly beating Jimmy White 18–17 in the final. Also in 1997, Stephen Hendry played Ronnie OSullivan in the Liverpool Victoria charity challenge final, the match was best of 17 frames. Stephen raced into a 6-1 and 8-2 lead with breaks of 110,129 and 136, Ronnie won the next 6 frames to level the match at 8-8
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses