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2017 United Kingdom general election

The 2017 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 8 June 2017, two years after the previous general election in 2015. The governing Conservative Party remained the largest single party in the House of Commons but unexpectedly lost its small overall majority, resulting in the formation of a minority government with a confidence-and-supply arrangement with the Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland; the Conservative Party, which had governed as a senior coalition partner from 2010 and as a single-party majority government from 2015, was defending a working majority of 17 seats against the Labour Party, the official opposition led by Jeremy Corbyn. Under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 an election had not been due until May 2020, but a call by Prime Minister Theresa May for a snap election was ratified by the necessary two-thirds vote in a 522–13 vote in the House of Commons on 19 April 2017. May said that she hoped to secure a larger majority to "strengthen hand" in the forthcoming Brexit negotiations.

Opinion polls had shown strong leads for the Conservatives over Labour. From a 21-point lead, the Conservatives' lead began to diminish in the final weeks of the campaign. In a surprising result, the Conservative Party made a net loss of 13 seats despite winning 42.4% of the vote, whereas Labour made a net gain of 30 seats with 40.0%. This was the closest result between the two major parties since February 1974 and their highest combined vote share since 1970; the Scottish National Party and the Liberal Democrats, the third- and fourth-largest parties, both lost vote share. The SNP, which had won 56 of the 59 Scottish seats at the previous general election in 2015, lost 21; the Liberal Democrats made a net gain of four seats. UKIP, the third-largest party in 2015 by number of votes, saw its share of the vote reduced from 12.6% to 1.8% and lost its only seat. In Wales, Plaid Cymru gained one seat; the Green Party saw its share of the vote reduced. In Northern Ireland, the Democratic Unionist Party won 10 seats, Sinn Féin won seven, Independent Unionist Sylvia Hermon retained her seat.

The Social Democratic and Labour Party and Ulster Unionist Party lost all their seats. The Conservatives were narrowly victorious and remained in power as a minority government, having secured a confidence and supply deal with the DUP. Negotiation positions following the UK's invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union in March 2017 to leave the EU were expected to feature in the campaign, but did not; the campaign was interrupted by two major terrorist attacks: London Bridge. Each parliamentary constituency of the United Kingdom elects one MP to the House of Commons using the "first past the post" system. If one party obtains a majority of seats that party is entitled to form the Government, with its leader as Prime Minister. If the election results in no single party having a majority, there is a hung parliament. In this case, the options for forming the Government are either a minority government or a coalition; the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies was not due to report until 2018, therefore this general election took place under existing boundaries, enabling direct comparisons with the results by constituency in 2015.

To vote in the general election, one had to be: on the Electoral Register. Individuals had to be registered to vote by midnight twelve working days before polling day. Anyone who qualified as an anonymous elector had until midnight on 31 May to register. A person who has two homes may be registered to vote at both addresses, as long as they are not in the same electoral area, but can vote in only one constituency at the general election. On 18 May, The Independent reported that more than 1.1 million people between 18 and 35 had registered to vote since the election was announced on 18 April. Of those, 591,730 were under the age of 25; the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 introduced fixed-term Parliaments to the United Kingdom, with elections scheduled every five years since the general election on 7 May 2015. This removed the power of the Prime Minister, using the royal prerogative, to dissolve Parliament before its five-year maximum length; the Act permits early dissolution if the House of Commons votes by a supermajority of two-thirds of the entire membership of the House.

On 18 April 2017, Prime Minister Theresa May announced she would seek an election on 8 June, despite ruling out an early election. A House of Commons motion to allow this was passed on 19 April, with 522 votes for and 13 against, a majority of 509; the motion was supported by the Conservatives, the Liberal Democrats and the Greens, while the SNP abstained. Nine Labour MPs, one SDLP MP and three independents voted against the motion. Labour leader J

1968 Winter Universiade

The 1968 Winter Universiade, the V Winter Universiade, took place in Innsbruck, Austria. * Host nation Men: Slalom Gold – Milan Pazout Silver – Per Sunde Bronze – Bill Marolt Men: Giant slalom Gold – Per Sunde Silver – Milan Pazout Bronze – Franz Vogler Men: Downhill Gold – Scott Pyles Silver – Günther Scheuerl Bronze – Loris Werner Men: Combined Combined event is the overall standings of all disciplines on the Universiade program. Gold – Milan Pazout Silver – Robert Wollek Bronze – Scott Pyles Women: Slalom Gold – Kathy Nagel Silver – Viki Jones Bronze – Christina Ditfurth Women: Giant slalom Gold – Kathy Nagel Silver – Viki Jones Bronze – Marisella Chevallard Women: Downhill Gold – Heidi Obrecht Silver – Christina Ditfurth Bronze – Paola Strauss Women: Combined Combined event is the overall standings of all disciplines on the Universiade program. Gold – Kathy Nagel Silver – Viki Jones Bronze – Christina Ditfurth Men: 15km Gold – Jon Hoias Silver – Yevgeniy Platunov Bronze – Anatoliy Zakharov Men: 4 x 10 km relay Gold – Soviet Union Silver – Japan Bronze – Finland Women: 10km Gold – Yanna Yelistratova Silver – Lyubov Menchikova Bronze – Lidiya Doronina Women: 3 x 5 km relay Gold – Soviet Union Silver – Poland Bronze – Czechoslovakia Small hill ski jumping and 15km cross-country Men: Gold – Hiroshi Itagaki Silver – Masatoshi Sudo Bronze – Antonin Kucera Men: Small Hill - K90 Gold – Hiroshi Itagaki Silver – Masakatsu Asari Bronze – Yukio Kasaya Men: Gold – Vladimir Kurenbin Silver – Marian Filc Bronze – Günter Anderl Women: Gold – Kumiko Okawa Silver – Helli Sengstschmid Bronze – Kazumi Yamashita Pairs: Gold – Bohunka Šrámková / Jan Šrámek Silver – Tatiana Sharanova / Anatoli Evdokimov Bronze – Lyudmila Suslina / Alexander Tikhomirov Ice dancing: Gold – Heidi Mezger / Herbert Rothkappl Silver – Diana Skotnická / Martin Skotnický Bronze – none Men: Gold – Soviet Union Silver – Czechoslovakia Bronze – Canada Men: 500M Gold – Erhard Keller Silver – Keiichi Suzuki Bronze – Takayuki Hida Men: 1500M Gold – Aleksandr Zhekulayev Silver – Valeriy Bayonov Bronze – Arkadiy Kichenko Bronze – Pekka Halinen Men: 3000M Gold – Aleksandr Zhekulayev Silver – Pekka Halinen Bronze – Anatoliy Nokhrin Men: 5000M Gold – Aleksandr Zhekulayev Silver – Anatoliy Nokhrin Bronze – Yoshiaki Demachi

Megathura crenulata

Megathura crenulata is a northeastern Pacific Ocean species of limpet in the family Fissurellidae known as the great keyhole limpet or giant keyhole limpet. Megathura is a monotypic genus, in other words, this is the only species in that genus; this species occurs along the rocky coast of western North America, its distribution extending from Southern California to the Baja California peninsula in Mexico. It is found in the sea up to a depth of 33 meters. Limpets of this family have a hole at the top of the shell, the portal through which waste products are released; this makes them different from the true limpets, which release waste from the mantle beneath the shell. This species is one of the largest keyhole limpets; this species consumes a varied diet of plant, animal and algal material. It has been noted to consume filamentous cyanobacteria, diatoms and red algaes such as seaweeds, forams, bryozoans, bivalves, gastropods and tunicates; the larger part of its diet is composed of brown and red algae, hydrozoans of the genus Eudendrium and bryozoans of the genus Crisia.

M. Crenulata has been used for experimental studies on gamete agglutination, its blood contains a hemocyanin. This protein carries oxygen. Unlike hemoglobin, the hemocyanin is not bound to cells but is dissolved in the hemolymph, the fluid part of the blood. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin from Megathura crenulata is used as vaccine carrier protein. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is a copper containing respiratory protein, similar to hemoglobin in humans. KLH is a large protein that acts as the hapten carrier part of the vaccine component, is so far thought to be non-toxic; the major potential use of KLH is for bladder carcinoma by stimulating a specific immune response, but there are many other medical uses such as stress assessment, understanding inflammatory conditions, treating drug addiction. Vaccines and other KLH uses are in the trial phases. A liter of blood from a keyhole limpet will produce 20 grams of protein, which can be worth as much as $100,000. Beninger, P. G. et al.. Reproductive characteristics of the archaeogastropod Megathura crenulata.

Journal of Shellfish Research, 20, 301-307


Boshof is a farming town in the west of the Free State province, South Africa. Town 55 km north-east of Kimberley. Established in March 1856 on the farm Vanwyksvlei, named after a Griqua who sowed his crops on it from time to time. Named in honour of Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof, second President of the Orange Free State and founder of its civil service. Became a municipality in 1872; the local commando was involved in the Siege of Kimberley, notably the disruption of the city’s water supply at Riverton. The Battle of Boshof which resulted in the death of the Comte de Villebois-Mareuil was fought nearby on 5 April 1900

Flavio Zanonato

Flavio Zanonato is an Italian politician. He is the former mayor of Padua. A long-time member of the Italian Communist Party and of its successor parties, he joined the Democratic Party. After two terms as mayor of Padua, he was defeated by Giustina Mistrello Destro in 1999. From 2000 to 2004 he was floor leader of the Democrats of the Left in the Regional Council of Veneto, where he was elected as the most voted regional deputy in the 2000 regional election. In 2004 Zanonato defeated incumbent Giustina Mistrello Destro and was elected for the third time Mayor of Padua with an absolute majority of 51.9% at the first round. In 2009 Zanonato defeated Marco Marin and was elected mayor of Padua for the fourth time in the second round run off winning 52% of the vote. From April 2013 to February 2014 he was minister of economic development in the cabinet of Prime Minister Enrico Letta. Zanonato became a Member of the European Parliament in the 2014 European elections. In Parliament, he was a member of the Committee on Industry and Energy.

In addition to his committee assignments, he served as a member of the European Parliament Intergroup on Western Sahara and the European Parliament Intergroup on Integrity. He joined the Article 1 – Democratic and Progressive Movement in 2017. Municipal elections in Padua Official website Personal profile of Flavio Zanonato in the European Parliament's database of members

Orbital-free density functional theory

In computational chemistry, orbital-free density functional theory is a quantum mechanical approach to electronic structure determination, based on functionals of the electronic density. It is most related to the Thomas–Fermi model. Orbital-free density functional theory is, at present, less accurate than Kohn–Sham density functional theory models, but has the advantage of being fast, so that it can be applied to large systems; the Hohenberg–Kohn theorems guarantee that, for a system of atoms, there exists a functional of the electron density that yields the total energy. Minimization of this functional with respect to the density gives the ground-state density from which all of the system's properties can be obtained. Although the Hohenberg–Kohn theorems tell us that such a functional exists, they do not give us guidance on how to find it. In practice, the density functional is known except for two terms; these are the exchange-correlation energy. The lack of the true exchange-correlation functional is a well known problem in DFT and there exists a huge variety of approaches to approximate this crucial component.

In general, there is no known form for the interacting kinetic energy in terms of electron density. In practice, instead of deriving approximations for interacting kinetic energy, much effort was devoted to deriving approximations for non-interacting kinetic energy, defined as T s = ∑ i − 1 2 ⟨ ϕ i | ∇ 2 | ϕ i ⟩,where | ϕ i ⟩ is the ith Kohn–Sham orbital; the sum is performed over all the occupied Kohn–Sham orbitals. One of the first attempts to do this was the Thomas–Fermi model, which wrote the kinetic energy as E T F = 3 10 2 3 ∫ 5 3 d 3 r; this expression is based on the homogeneous electron gas and, thus, is not accurate for most physical systems. Finding more accurate and transferable kinetic energy density functionals is the focus of ongoing research. By formulating Kohn–Sham kinetic energy in terms of electron density, one avoids diagonalizing the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian for solving for the Kohn–Sham orbitals, therefore saving the computational cost. Since no Kohn–Sham orbital is involved in orbital-free density functional theory, one only needs to minimize the system's energy with respect to the electron density