click links in text for more info

2018 Winter Olympics

The 2018 Winter Olympics known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games and known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event, held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the day before the opening ceremony. Pyeongchang was elected as the host city in July 2011, at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa; this was the second time that South Korea had hosted the Olympic Games, having hosted the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, but it was only the first Winter Olympics to be held in the country. It was the first of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, the following two being Tokyo 2020 and Beijing 2022, it was the third time that an East Asian country had hosted the Winter Games, after Sapporo and Nagano, both of these cities in Japan. It was the first Winter Olympics to be held in mainland Asia; the Games featured 102 events over a record number of events for the Winter Games.

Four events made their Olympic debut in 2018: "big air" snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, mixed team alpine skiing. A total of 2,914 athletes from 92 NOCs competed, including the national debuts of Ecuador, Kosovo, Malaysia and Singapore. After a state-sponsored doping program was exposed following the 2014 Winter Olympics, the Russian Olympic Committee was suspended, but selected athletes were allowed to compete neutrally under the special IOC designation of "Olympic Athletes from Russia". North Korea agreed to participate in the Games despite tense relations with South Korea. Norway led the total medal tally with 39, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29. Germany and Norway were tied for the highest number of gold medals, both winning 14. Host nation South Korea won 17 medals, their highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics, five of which were gold. Pyeongchang bid to host both the 2010 and 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost in the final rounds of voting to Vancouver and Sochi respectively.

Munich launched a bid to host these Games. Prior to Beijing's successful 2022 Winter Olympics bid, Munich would have become the first city to host both the Winter and the Summer Games, having hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics, but received only 25 votes. Annecy launched their own bid, which failed to secure public support from the local citizens, their bid ended up receiving seven votes. Pyeongchang was elected as the host city at the 123rd IOC Session in Durban in 2011, earning the necessary majority of at least 48 votes in just one round of voting, more votes than its competitors combined. With this, Pyeongchang became the third Asian city to host the Winter Games. On 5 August 2011, the International Olympic Committee announced the formation of the Pyeongchang 2018 Coordination Commission. On 4 October 2011, it was announced that the Organizing Committee for the 2018 Winter Olympics would be headed by Kim Jin-sun; the Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games was launched at its inaugural assembly on 19 October 2011.

The first tasks of the organizing committee were putting together a master plan for the Games as well as forming a design for the venues. The IOC Coordination Commission for the 2018 Winter Olympics made their first visit to Pyeongchang in March 2012. By construction was underway on the Olympic Village. In June 2012, construction began on a high-speed rail line; the International Paralympic Committee met for an orientation with the Pyeongchang 2018 organizing committee in July 2012. Then-IOC President Jacques Rogge visited Pyeongchang for the first time in February 2013; the Pyeongchang Organizing Committee for the 2018 Olympic & Paralympic Winter Games created Pyeongchang WINNERS in 2014 by recruiting university students living in South Korea to spread awareness of the Olympic Games through social networking services and news articles. The design for the Games' medals was unveiled on 21 September 2017. Created by Lee Suk-woo, the design features a pattern of diagonal ridges on both sides, with the Olympic rings on the front, the obverse showing the 2018 Olympics' emblem, the event name and the discipline.

The edge of each medal is marked with extrusions of hangul alphabets, while the ribbons are made from a traditional South Korean textile. The torch relay started on 24 October 2017 in Greece and lasted for 101 days, ending at the start of the Olympics on 9 February 2018; the Olympic torch entered South Korea on 1 November 2017. There were 7,500 torch bearers to represent the combined Korean population of 75 million people. There were 2,018 support runners to guard the torch and act as messengers; the torch and its bearers traveled by a diverse means of transportation, including by turtle ship in Hansando Island, sailboat on the Baengmagang River in Buyeo, marine cable car in Yeosu, zip-wire over Bamseom Island, steam train in the Gokseong Train Village, marine rail bike along the east coast in Samcheok, by yacht in Busan Metropolitan City. There were robot torch relays in Jeju and Daejeon. Most of the outdoor snow events were held in the county of Pyeongchang, while some of the alpine skiing events took place in the neighboring county of Jeongseon.

The indoor ice events were held in the nearby city of Gangneung. The Alpensia Sports Park in Daeg

Murowana Goślina

Murowana Goślina (. It lies 20 kilometres north of the major city of Poznań, on the main road and railway line to Wągrowiec; the Trojanka stream flows through northern and western parts of the town, reaching the river Warta a few kilometres to the west. The town is divided into two main parts – the older part of the town to the north, centred on the market square and St. James' church, the modern estate of Zielone Wzgórza to the south, consisting of blocks of flats and houses built since 1983. Murowana Goślina is the seat of the municipality called Gmina Murowana Goślina, which has a total population of 15,713 and covers an area of 172 square kilometres; the area around Murowana Goślina contains many lakes and forest areas within the protected area called Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park. The region is popular with day-trippers. In mediaeval times the settlement was called Górka – this name appears in chronicles from the reigns of Mieszko I and Bolesław the Brave in the late 10th and early 11th centuries.

The name Goślina was derived from the personal name Gostl, which referred to a warrior from outside the region, given the local estates as a reward for service to the state. When a church was built in the late 11th century, the place was referred to as Goślina Templi. Around 1200, outside the wooden palisade around the wooden church, the ruling family erected a granite tower as a residence, it was this that gave rise to the name Murowana Goślina, first attested in 1355. In the 13th century a large area on the right bank of the Warta around the Trojanka belonged to the Gostl family, Murowana Goślina developed along a new trading route leading northwards from Poznań to Nakło. In local colloquial speech the name of the town is shortened to just the prefix "Murowana". There is a village called Długa Goślina about 8 kilometres to the north. Murowana Goślina lies about 20 kilometres north of the major city of Poznań, on the main road and railway line between Poznań and Wągrowiec; the Trojanka stream flows through northern and western parts of the town, flowing into the river Warta a few kilometres to the west.

The municipal buildings and many shops are situated on or close to the old marketplace in the town centre, which contains St. James' church; however a large part of the town's population lives on the modern Zielone Wzgórza estate, located to the south of the old part of the town. Murowana Goślina is the seat of a municipality, called Gmina Murowana Goślina, which has a total population of 15,713 and covers an area of 172 square kilometres; the area around Murowana Goślina contains many lakes and forest areas, including the Puszcza Zielonka forest, incorporated into the protected area called Puszcza Zielonka Landscape Park. The region is popular with holiday-makers and day-trippers, there are a large number of summer vacation properties in the area. In the region around Murowana Goślina, there have been archeological finds dating from the Paleolithic and the Neolithic. In a triangle between Murowana Goślina, Długa Goślina and the Warta, early mediaeval treasure from the 10th and early 11th centuries have been found.

The area lay on the ancient route from the early Polish capital Gniezno to western Pomerania via a crossing of the Warta at Radzim. It is not known when Murowana Goślina received town rights, although it must have occurred before 1389, in the reign of Władysław Jagiełło. In that year there is a reference to the wójt Andrzej of Górka, in 1391 there is mentioned a local resident called Staszek; the town took over the function of a castellany from Radzim. Murowana Goślina was a owned town, changed owners often. From 1593 it was owned by Jan Rozdrażewski, who granted privileges and a coat of arms – a blue shield with three rosettes on a silver diagonal stripe. In 1605 the old wooden church was replaced with a brick church with a single nave, built onto the two-storey rectangular tower. In 1651 the town was acquired by Jan Leszczyński, his family held it until 1694. In 1724-1726 the priest, Filip Woliński, added a presbytery to the church in place of the earlier apse; the tower was by this time raised above the level of contained bells.

The town was struck by plague on many occasions, was devastated during the Swedish Wars. In the 18th century, under the Gurowski family, the town prospered and many craftsmen were settled there. In 1736 Melchior Gurowski founded the village of Hamer, where iron and oil were made and grain ground. There were Dutch settlements around existing villages. In 1752 a new street, Zamkowa was laid out in the town and a school was opened. In 1763 a potters' guild received privileges. In 1782 Jews were allowed to live in the town. In 1785 king Stanisław August granted the town the right to hold fairs, clothiers settled there. In 1793, with the Second Partition of Poland, the town came under Prussian rule. At that time it had a population of 903, with 99 houses. Most of the population was engaged in crafts and trade; the main street was paved, on the Warta was a ferry belonging to the town owner. The town's name became Germanized as Murowana Go


Jarosław is a town in south-eastern Poland, with 38,970 inhabitants, as of 30 June 2014. Situated in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship in Przemyśl Voivodeship, it is the capital of Jarosław County; the city was established on 1031 by Yaroslav the Wise, a grand prince of Kievan Rus'. It was granted Magdeburg rights by Polish prince Władysław Opolczyk in 1375; the city developed as important trade centre and a port on the San river, reaching the period of its greatest prosperity in 16th and 17th century, with trade routes linking Silesia with Ruthenia and Gdańsk with Hungary coming through it and merchants from such distant countries as Spain, Finland and Persia arriving at the annual three-week-long fair on the feast of the Assumption. In 1574 a Jesuit college was established in Jarosław. In the 1590s Tatars from the Ottoman Empire pillaged the surrounding countryside, they were unable to overcome the city's fortifications, but their raids started to diminish the city's economic strength and importance.

Outbreaks of bubonic plague in the 1620s and the Swedish The Deluge in 1655-60 further undermined its prominence. In the Great Northern War of 1700-21 the region was pillaged by Russian and Swedish armies, causing the city to decline further. In the mid-eighteenth century, Roman Catholics constituted 53.7% of the population, members of the Greek Catholic Church 23.9%, Jews 22.3%. Jarosław was under Austrian rule from the First Partition of Poland in 1772 until Poland regained independence in 1918. After the Second World War the city remained part of Poland. Poland's communist government expelled most of Jarosław's Ukrainian population, at first to Soviet territories and to territories transferred from Germany to Poland in 1944-45; the first Jews arrived in Jarosław in 1464. The first rabbi of Jarosław was Rabbi Nathan Neta Ashkenazi, in 1590. A year the new Council of Four Lands began convening in Jarosław, rotating the meeting with the city of Lwów; until 1608 with a small Jewish community, religious facilities were not allowed.

Still, Rabbi Solomon Efraim of Lontschitz, a prominent and well known rabbi, lived here. By 1670 there was a large "government" synagogue created, although protested by the Christian community of the city. During attacks on the city by Tatars and Swedes, Jewish merchandise and sometimes homes were set on fire. In 1765, there were towns around it. A Jewish school was established sometime later; the famous rabbi Levi Isaac of Berdyczów studied in Jarosław circa 1760 and was called "the genius of Yeruslav". A fire in 1805 burnt down the old synagogue and a new one was established more according to tradition to replace it; the new synagogue was completed in 1811. A census taken in 1901 notes. In a story about Jacob Kranc told by Rabbi Jacob Orenstein around 1850, about the appointment of the Jarosław rabbi, Rabbi Orenstein had refused the appointment of Rabbi of Jarosław because it would be against his old uncle's appointment; the city council had written his appointment and wished to express their sorrow for its cancellation.

The Dubner Magid had just entered the city on a snowy winter day, was taken directly to Orenstein's house, together with the city council, who happened to pass by him. But the walk up the steps was enough to create a moving speech, remembered years and accounted for in the book. In 1921 the last rabbi was appointed, Rabbi Shmaiya HaLevi Steinberg, he wrote a book about the Jews of his town, in the 1930s sent two copies to the National Hebrew Library in Jerusalem. These copies are the only surviving copies of the book after the Holocaust. In September 1939, Jarosław was captured by Germans. Most of the Jews crossed the San river to the Soviet side and hid in the Carpathian mountains, including the elder rabbi and his family; those that stayed were killed by the German soldiers. Jarosław Hassidim in Modern day Israel Jarosław is twinned with: Walddeutsche Jarosław city portal Jewish Jarosław

Whirly tube

The whirly tube, corrugaphone, or bloogle resonator is an experimental musical instrument which consists of a corrugated plastic tube or hose, open at both ends and wider at one end, the thinner of, rotated in a circle to play. It may be a few feet long and about a few inches wide; the faster the toy is swung the higher the pitch of the note it produces, it produces discrete notes in the harmonic series like a valveless brass instrument, but the fundamental and second harmonic are difficult to excite. To be played in concert the length of the tube must be trimmed to tune it. Hornbostel–Sachs number: 412.22, the tube is a whirling non-idiophonic interruptive free aerophone, but is included in the percussion section with sound effects such as chains and thunder sheets. Hopkin describes a single whirled corrugaphone as capable of producing three or four different pitches. Crawford describes harmonics two through seven as reachable while whirling, though seven takes, "great effort." Hopkin describes that with a corrugahorn, "with tubes of suitable length and diameters, the range extends well up the series, where the available tones are close together and you can, with practice, play quite melodically."

In fact, since each harmonic plays throughout a range of speeds, it is difficult to skip over harmonics, as this requires a jump in speed, though this is done using one's tongue and throat to interrupt the air flow with a corrugahorn. Many sales offers describe the tubes as producing up to five distinct notes, while higher harmonics may be possible, if hard work, dissonant adjacent harmonics may sound such as 15 and 16; the fundamental and harmonics of a corrugated tube are lower than those of an uncorrugated tube of the same length and diameter, and, "audible vibration in the whirly tube appears only when air flow velocity exceeds a certain minimum, which may preclude the sounding of the fundamental or lower harmonics." The timbre of the notes produced by the whirly tube are, "almost all fundamental," according to Fourier analysis. Tubes longer than many feet may have one end whirled while held near its middle or may be held out a car window; the equations describing the sound produced when the tube is whirled are as follows, where a "bump" is when air bumps into the corrugations.

Frequency = bumps sec = bumps inch × flow velocity = cm sec = cm bump × bump sec = corrugation distance × bump frequency Thus the faster the tube is swung or the more dense the corrugation the higher the pitch of the note produced. The difference in speed between the moving end of the tube and the stationary, hand-held end creates a difference in air pressure. A higher pressure is at the fixed end and a lower pressure is at the moving end; this difference pulls air through the air's speed changes with the speed of the spin. The pitch and tone of the sound come from the tube's length and diameter, the distance between each ridge, the speed the tube spins around, which moves the air faster or slower through the tube changing the tone in steps.... As the air flows first over one ridge over a second it tumbles into a vortex; the faster the air flows through the tube, the higher the frequency of the sound produced by the vortex. When the frequency of the vortex matches one of the natural resonant frequencies of the tube, it is amplified.

According to Bernoulli's principle, as speed increases, pressure decreases. The characteristic speed is the mean flow through the pipe U and the characteristic length must be a multiple of the spacing between corrugations, nL, where n is an integer number and L is the distance between corrugations. At low speeds, the unstable interior flow needs to travel several corrugations to establish the feedback loop; as the speed increases, the loop can be established with fewer corrugations. The Strouhal number S t = f n n L U was used as the scaling factor. A unique aspect of this whistle is that the internal flow carries both the unstable vortex downstream and the returning feedback signal upstream. An ensemble of whirlies produces astounding musical patterns of vibrant clear pitch, sometimes hauntingly beautiful, sometimes dramatic, sometimes soft, sometimes strong and robust, but at all times inspiring and thought provoking; the instrument was designed to

Corporate services

Corporate services are activities that combine or consolidate certain enterprise-wide needed support services, provided based on specialized knowledge, best practices, technology to serve internal customers and business partners. The term corporate services providers is used. In the United Kingdom, the public audit agencies produced a report in May 2007 called "Value for Money in public sector corporate services"; this provides performance indicators in five categories: Finance, Human Resources, Information & Communication Technology and Estates Management. Business advisory service advises current and future businesses prospects of a client, with the aim of advancing their business or company; this service is used by all types of businesses and would involve examining the legal, finance and risks factors involved to start up a business or making new changes to the business. Business advisory services are given by organisations with experience in company formation. Company incorporation is the process of forming a company corporation in the country of residence.

It is possible non-residents to set up a company: see offshore company. However, laws vary in all countries. International corporate service consultants specialise in dealing with incorporation in the country in question. Once application is successful, the company will receive a certificate of incorporation. Which provides valid existence of the company under the registered name given. A registered agent known as a resident agent or statutory agent, is a business or individual designated to receive service of process when a business entity is a party in a legal action such as a lawsuit or summons; some examples of related services include: Compliance services Business licensing DBA Doing Business As filings. Preparation and filing of reports that must be filed from time to time Corporate services such as finance and banking were first introduced to remove pressure from the client's organisation when dealing with complex banking and finance issues. Specialist information and tips are provided by the consultancy to manage finances appropriately, some can set up a corporate bank account for clients.

Some examples of tailored services include: Corporate bank accounts Offshore bank accounts Multi-currency accounts Brokerage accounts Private banking Corporate loan applications Accounting and tax services are useful for companies wanting to outsource their basic work. The services involve preparing and submitting obligatory documents required by authorities associated with business practice; some basic services include: Payroll Maintaining cash flow books Tax registration Tax returns Corporation tax Tax avoidance Market research for investment along with risk evaluation is another corporate service designed to help clients make financial decisions. Intellectual property protection is seen as an investment, this is a service some consultancies may advise on. Stock exchange services can bring about specialist reports on past and forecasted stock exchange trends, with a personalised analysis. Where local Corporate Service Providers offer bundled basic services to support tax residency tests such as "central management and control" type tests of a brass plate company, shell company or other special-purpose vehicle, set up in the jurisdiction.

Located in either offshore financial centres or in onshore financial centres. Typical services include: Maintain books and records Compiling annual accounts Conducting annual audits Filing tax returns Providing local Directors Providing registered office address Providing meeting rooms for Board meetings Financial adviser

MF 67

The MF 67 is a fleet of steel-wheel electric multiple unit trains for the Paris Métro. The first MF 67 trains entered service on Line 3 in June 1968, became one of the biggest orders for the Métro, with 1,482 cars constructed; the need to replace the Sprague-Thomson fleet, as well as increasing costs associated with the later-cancelled plan to introduce rubber-tyred trains on all Métro lines, were the main factors for the size of the order. At its peak, during the late-1980s and the early-1990s, the MF 67 operated on eight of the fifteen Métro lines: the MF 67 operated on Lines 7, 8 and 13, all before the introduction of the MF 77 in 1978. Many of the MF 67 trains have been removed from service: throughout 1994, the MF 88 displaced the MF 67 from Line 7bis, from 2008 to 2016, the MF 01 replaced the MF 67 on Lines 2, 5, 9; the MF 67 remains in service on Lines 3, 3bis, 10 and 12, where the Île-de-France Mobilités intends to replace the remaining MF 67 trains with new trains provisionally known as the MF 19.

It was envisioned by the RATP to convert all Metro lines to rubber-tyred pneumatic operation. However, this plan was abandoned due to high costs, which in turn, would have prolonged the service of the aging Sprague-Thomson trainsets to 80 years. Therefore, a new class of steel-wheel rolling stock was developed. During the development phase, the MF 67 was known as the MF 65; the MF 67 comprises seven different series. Series A: 200 cars were delivered to Lines 3 and 9 between 1967–1969 One train in this series was the Zébulon, a stainless-steel prototype that never saw passenger service, it was used as a training train for many years, until it succumbed to heavy vandalism in 2010. All cars except for one driving car were scrapped as of 2011. Series B: 6 cars were delivered in 1968 as prototype trains that never saw commercial service. Series C: 340 cars delivered to Lines 3 and 7 between 1972 and 1975. Series CX: 16 prototype cars that were fitted with "plug" type door openers, similar to that of the MF 77.

These ran on Line 9. Series D: 363 cars that were deployed to Lines 3, 5, 9 between 1973 and 1975, they now operate on Lines 3, 3bis, 10, 12. Series E: 56 trains that were deployed to Lines 2, 7bis, 8 between 1974 and 1976. Many trains were replaced by the MF 01 cars between 2009 and 2011, though some were displaced much earlier by the MF 88 cars to Line 10; the trains operating on Line 10 were retired between 2014 and 2016. Five trains were retained for training in the USFRT tunnel, replacing the Zebulon, but they were retired in 2017. Series F: 51 trains that were deployed to Lines 7 and 13 between 1975 and 1978, they were redeployed to Line 5. Despite being the youngest series, they have suffered from excessive wear and tear, as well as weather impacts sustained from being stored in the outdoor Bobigny depot, they were replaced by the MF 01 cars between 2011 and 2013. Train-sets delivered: 297 Configuration: M+R+M+R+M Length: 15.145 m, 14.390 m Maximum width: 2.40 m Power: 1,272 kW or 1,080 kW Braking: rheostatic brake and electric brake on the series E and F Bogies: single or twin with pneumatic suspension on the series E and F Maximum speed: 80 km/h Authorized speed: 70 km/h Doors: 4 doors by vis-à-vis manual opening, opening of 1,300 mm Air-conditioning: None Currently, the RATP uses a string of MF-67 "Auteuil Convoy" trains, to supply the Auteuil and Vaugirard Depots, these trains are colored yellow and brown and serve as auxiliary equipment of the work of the RATP.

They replaced the aging tractor variants of the Sprague-Thomson. The information in this article is based on that in its French equivalent