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2019 Rugby World Cup

The 2019 Rugby World Cup was the ninth edition of the Rugby World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's rugby union teams. It was hosted in Japan from 20 September to 2 November in 12 venues all across the country; the opening match was played at Tokyo Stadium in Chōfu, Tokyo with the final match being held at International Stadium Yokohama in Yokohama. This was the first time that the tournament had taken place in Asia and outside the traditional Tier 1 rugby nations; the tournament saw the first cancellation of matches at the Rugby World Cup with Typhoon Hagibis affecting three matches due to the expected impact on safety that the typhoon would have. South Africa beat England 32−12 in the final to claim their third title, equalling New Zealand's record. In doing so, South Africa became the first team to win the title after losing a match in the pool stage; the defending champions, New Zealand, finished third after defeating Wales in the bronze final. The International Rugby Board requested that any members wishing to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup and/or the 2019 event should indicate their interest by 15 August 2008, though no details had to be provided at that stage.

A record 10 unions responded, with the 2019 tournament of interest to nine nations. Russia announced plans to bid for both events, but withdrew both in February 2009 in favour of what proved to be a successful bid for the 2013 Rugby World Cup Sevens. Australia withdrew from the bidding process on 6 May 2009; the three potential hosts – Italy and South Africa – were announced on 8 May 2009. At a special meeting held in Dublin on 28 July 2009, the IRB confirmed that England would be hosts in 2015 and Japan in 2019, with the approval of the tournament organisers Rugby World Cup Ltd, going in favour 16–10; the IRB, RWC Ltd, the Japan Rugby Football Union and host organisers Japan 2019 went through a process of asking for expressions of interest and meeting with and explaining game hosting requirements to interested parties from late 2013. In May 2014, it was announced that 22 municipal and prefectural organisations across Japan had expressed interest; those organisations were asked to enter formal bids by 31 October 2014.

On 5 November, organisers announced. Hong Kong and Singapore had expressed interest in hosting some of the matches and were included in Japan's bid, but were not among the 14 stadiums announced in 2014. Nissan Stadium in Yokohama, venue for the 2002 FIFA World Cup Final and Niigata's Denka Big Swan Stadium a World Cup venue, decided not to bid. Several changes to the venues submitted in the JRFU's original 2009 bid were made; the JRFU's own Chichibunomiya Stadium in Tokyo, suitable for smaller interest games in the capital, was not included in the plan. The JRFU selected the larger and more modern 50,000-seat Nagai multi-purpose stadium as its preferred venue for games in Osaka, though East Osaka City, which had taken over the Hanazono Rugby Stadium from long-time corporate owners Kintetsu in April 2015, submitted a joint bid with Osaka Municipality, intending to refurbish the stadium. Kamaishi, Kyoto, Ōita and Kumamoto were not part of the JRFU's bid. While the bids included venues from a broad area of Japan, two areas were not involved in hosting: Hokushin'etsu, which includes the city of Niigata.

No city in Chūgoku hosted games at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, but Hiroshima did host games in the 2006 FIBA World Championship. The new National Stadium in Tokyo being constructed for the 2020 Summer Olympics was expected to be the primary venue of the tournament. However, the original plans were scrapped and rebid in 2015 due to criticism over its design and increasing costs; as a consequence, it would no longer be completed in time. The fixtures assigned to the stadium were re-located, with the opening match moved to Ajinomoto Stadium and the final moved to Nissan Stadium in Yokohama; the top three teams from the pools at the 2015 World Cup received an automatic spot, with the remaining eight teams coming from the qualifying series around the world. Six of the remaining eight spots available were filled by regional qualifiers with the additional two spots being filled in play-off. Qualifying was split into five regional groups. On 1 July 2017, the United States became the first team to qualify after defeating Canada in the two-leg match to qualify as America 1.

The following two weeks saw Tonga booking their spots as Oceania 1 and 2 respectively. Samoa confirmed their spot as the third Oceanic team with a win over Germany in a two-legged tie the following year. In January 2018, Uruguay became the fourth team to qualify with a 10-point victory over Canada across the two legs to book a spot as Americas 2. In March, Romania qualified to take the spot as Europe 1, but after complaints from the Spanish into an investigation of ineligible players, it was deemed that Romania and Belgium all broke the eligibility rules and was deducted points which meant Russia qualified through to the World Cup while Germany headed to the play-off against Samoa. In August, Namibia became the final team to qualify from the continental tournaments after defeating Kenya in the final round of the Rugby Africa Gold Cup; the final spot was decided by a repechage tournament in Marseille in November 2018, won by Canada after winning all three of their games. The pool draw took place on 10 May 2017, in Kyoto.

The draw was moved from its traditional place of December in the year following the previous World Cup, after the November internationals, so that nations had a longer period of time

Ullasa Paravaigal

Ullasa Paravaigal is a 1980 Tamil-language Indian Romantic film directed by C. V. Rajendran, starring Kamal Haasan in the lead role; the movie has evergreen songs that are murmured today. The movie was a hit at the box office; this film has been dubbed into Telugu in Hindi as Do Dil Deewane. Ravi is in denial about his mental health as a result of the death of his girlfriend, his father and friend Raju played by Suruli Rajan hatch a plan to take him overseas to get him treatment for his illness. He meets his childhood friend Nirmala Rati Agnihotri. With the help of Nirmala and Raju, Ravi gets better; the second half of the film deals with how Ravi's uncle tries to kill him to get his hands on his fortune and how Ravi overcomes his uncle. The film is famous for its songs, some of which are considered Ilaiyaraaja's masterpieces, including "Deiveega Raagam", "Azhagu Aayiram" and "Germaniyin Senthen Malare". Rati Agnihotri played the heroine's role. Major Sundarajan played the role of Kamal Haasan's father.

Kamal Haasan as Ravi aka Rajnikanth Rati Agnihotri as Nirmala Deepa as Ravi's Girlfriend Major Sundarrajan as Madanagopal Suruli Rajan as Raju Veniradai Moorthy as Film Director K. Natraj as Rajagopal Ullasa Paravaigal was shot extensively in Europe and the United States. All lyrics are written by Panju Arunachalam. All lyrics are written by Prem Dhawan. Tribune commented,"Even the magic could not sustain this ambitiously produced film, directed by C. V. Rajendran for long as the story slipped more into a travelogue that circled the high, the bright and the night spots of Paris with its suburbs." Ullasa Paravaigal on IMDb

Narayana Pandita

Narayaṇa Paṇḍita was a major mathematician of India. Plofker writes that his texts were the most significant Sanskrit mathematics treatises after those of Bhaskara II, other than the Kerala school, he wrote the Ganita Kaumudi in 1356 about mathematical operations. The work anticipated many developments in combinatorics. About his life, the most, known is that: His father’s name was Nṛsiṃha or Narasiṃha, the distribution of the manuscripts of his works suggests that he may have lived and worked in the northern half of India. Narayana Pandit had written two works, an arithmetical treatise called Ganita Kaumudi and an algebraic treatise called Bijaganita Vatamsa. Narayanan is thought to be the author of an elaborate commentary of Bhaskara II's Lilavati, titled Karmapradipika. Although the Karmapradipika contains little original work, it contains seven different methods for squaring numbers, a contribution, wholly original to the author, as well as contributions to algebra and magic squares. Narayana's other major works contain a variety of mathematical developments, including a rule to calculate approximate values of square roots, investigations into the second order indeterminate equation nq2 + 1 = p2, solutions of indeterminate higher-order equations, mathematical operations with zero, several geometrical rules, methods of integer factorization, a discussion of magic squares and similar figures.

Evidence exists that Narayana made minor contributions to the ideas of differential calculus found in Bhaskara II's work. Narayana has made contributions to the topic of cyclic quadrilaterals. Narayana is credited with developing a method for systematic generation of all permutations of a given sequence. Narayana's cows is an integer sequence which Narayana described as the number of cows present each year, starting from one cow in the first year, where every cow has one baby cow each year starting in its fourth year of life; the first few terms of the sequence are as follows: 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 19, … Narayana's cows is sequence A000930 in OEIS. The ratio of consecutive terms approaches the supergolden ratio

Harbour Group

The Harbour Group, LLC is a Washington D. C. lobbying and public relations firm. It was founded in 2001 by former Clinton Senior Advisor for Policy and Communications Joel Johnson, who left in 2005 to join the Glover Park Group; as of 2018, it continues to be led by co-founder Richard Marcus. The Harbour Group worked with the Alexander Strategy Group to provide "unparalleled access to Washington decision makers on both sides of the aisle" as a lobbying "powerhouse", according to ASG's website, before ASG was dissolved in late 2005; the Harbour Group was associated with the Washington law firm Swidler Berlin Shereff Friedman LLP, until February 28, 2006, when that firm merged with Bingham McCutchen LLP. On September 27, 2001, Belle Haven Consultants, a Hong Kong consulting firm run by Heritage Foundation principals, hired Alexander Strategy Group to represent Malaysian interests. According to U. S. Senate lobbying records, Belle Haven paid ASG $620,000 over two years "on behalf of unspecified Malaysian business interests seeking to present a positive image of their country in the United States".

Belle Haven paid the Harbour Group and the Western Strategy Group and a third lobbying firm another $640,000 to represent Malaysian interests at the same time. Clients have included Asbestos Study Group, Business Roundtable, Consumer Electronics Association, Major League Baseball Players Association, US Airways. Official website

E. W. Swackhamer

Egbert Warnderink "E. W." Swackhamer Jr. was an American television and film director. Swackhamer's credits included M*A*S*H, L. A. Law, She Wrote, The Partridge Family and The Flying Nun. Of the 27 pilots for television series directed by Swackhamer, 18 went into regular production, including Law & Order, Eight Is Enough, Quincy, M. E. S. W. A. T. and Nancy Drew. Swackhamer was the stage manager for the original Broadway production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, he went to Hollywood in 1961, after working on and off-Broadway and for national companies as an actor, stage manager and director. Swackhamer received an Emmy Award for directing the six-hour miniseries The Dain Curse during the 1977-78 season, he was the father of Ten Eyck Swackhamer and Elizabeth Swackhamer with his first wife, Gretchen Shane. He married actress Bridget Hanley on April 26, 1969 and they had two daughters and Meagan, he was working as a director on Star Command at the time of his death, of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, on December 5, 1994.

The Cosby Mysteries MacShayne: The Final Roll of the Dice Law & Order The Secret Passion of Robert Clayton Are You Lonesome Tonight Lookwell Columbo: Columbo Goes to College Jake and the Fatman H. E. L. P. TV series In the Heat of the Night Christine Cromwell - "Things That Go Bump in the Night" TV episode Desperado: The Outlaw Wars Murder, She Wrote - "Deadpan" TV episode Desperado: The Return of Desperado The Wizard L. A. Law - "The House of the Rising Flan" TV episode Bridge Across Time The Rousters Malibu Cocaine and Blue Eyes Carpool Disneyland - "Tales of the Apple Dumpling Gang" TV episode The Oklahoma City Dolls Longshot Tenspeed and Brown Shoe - "Pilot" TV episode The Death of Ocean View Park Vampire The Winds of Kitty Hawk The Dain Curse TV mini-series Family Spider-Man Eight Is Enough - "Never Try Eating Nectarines Since Juice May Dispense" TV episode The Hardy Boys/Nancy Drew Mysteries - "The Mystery of Pirate's Cove" TV episode Once an Eagle TV mini-series Quincy, M. E. - "Go Fight City Hall... to the Death" TV episode Death at Love House McCloud Switch S.

W. A. T. - "S. W. A. T.: Part 1" TV episode The Rookies Death Sentence Chopper One The New Perry Mason Roll Out - "The Paper Caper" TV episode The Girl with Something Extra - "No Benefit of Doubt" TV episode The Partridge Family Anna and the King - "The Chimes" TV episode Bonanza - "Stallion" TV episode Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law - "The Trouble with Ralph" TV episode M*A*S*H - "Chief Surgeon Who?" TV episode Bewitched Gidget Gets Married Love, American Style TV episode The Young Rebels - "Fort Hope" TV episode Here Come the Brides The Outcasts The Flying Nun Love on a Rooftop Hazel Gidget I Dream of Jeannie The Donna Reed Show The Lieutenant - "O'Rourke" TV episode E. W. Swackhamer on IMDb

Kiev Peninsula

Kiev Peninsula is the predominantly ice-covered, oval shaped peninsula projecting 35 km in northwest direction from the west side of Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula. It is bounded by Flandres Bay to the northeast and Beascochea Bay to the southwest, separated from Wilhelm Archipelago to the northwest by Lemaire Channel and Penola Strait; the peninsula's north extremity Cape Renard divides Graham Coast to the southwest from Danco Coast to the northeast. The peninsula is named after the capital city of Ukraine, in connection with the Ukrainian Antarctic base Vernadsky situated on nearby Galindez Island. Kiev Peninsula is centred at 65°15′00″S 63°41′00″W. British mapping in 1976. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 65 62. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, Tolworth, UK, 1976. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission.

Kiev Peninsula. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica. Kiev Peninsula. Copernix satellite image This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission