21st New Zealand Parliament

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21st Parliament of New Zealand
20th Parliament 22nd Parliament
Parliament House, Wellington, New Zealand (50).JPG
Term 7 February 1923 – 1 October 1925
Election New Zealand general election, 1922
Government Reform Government
House of Representatives
New Zealand 21st Parliament.png
Members 80
Speaker of the House Charles Statham
Prime Minister Gordon Coates from 30 May 1925
––William Massey until 14 May 1925 †
Leader of the Opposition George Forbes
––Thomas Wilford until 13 August 1925
Legislative Council
Members 38
Speaker of the Council Sir Walter Carncross
Leader of the Council Sir Francis Bell
also as Prime Minister
14–30 May 1925
Monarch HM George V
Governor-General HE Gen. Sir Charles Fergusson

The 21st New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1922 general election in December of that year.

1922 general election[edit]

The 1922 general election was held on Monday, 6 December in the Māori electorates and on Tuesday, 7 December in the general electorates, respectively.[1] A total of 80 MPs were elected; 45 represented North Island electorates, 31 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates.[2] 700,111 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 88.7%.[1]


The 21st Parliament sat for four sessions (there were two sessions in 1923), and was prorogued on 14 October 1925.[3]

Session Opened Adjouned
first 7 February 1923 17 February 1923
second 14 June 1923 29 August 1923
third 26 June 1924 6 November 1924
fourth 25 June 1925 1 October 1925

Party standings[edit]

Start of Parliament[edit]

Party Leader(s) Seats at start
Reform Party William Massey 37
Liberal Party Thomas Wilford 22
Labour Party Harry Holland 17
Independents 4

End of Parliament[edit]

Party Leader(s) Seats at end
Reform Party Gordon Coates 37
Liberal Party George Forbes 22
Labour Party Harry Holland 17
Independents 4


The second Massey Ministry led by William Massey of the Reform Party had come to power in August 1919.[4] Massey ruled until his death on 10 May 1925.[5] Francis Bell had been acting Prime Minister during Massey's illness and took on the temporary leadership following Massey's death.[6] Bell led the Bell Ministry from 14 to 30 May 1925, when the Reform Party elected Gordon Coates as its leader.[7] The Coates Ministry was in place for the remainder of the parliamentary term and for the duration of the 22nd Parliament.[8]

Reform had a narrow margin of three votes in the house if Liberal and Labour combined as they did when the houise resumed in February 1923 (but Bell, Witty and Isitt voted with Massey). Hence the Government could not introduce any controversial legislation, and Massey said it was "hell most of the time". [9]

Initial composition of the 21st Parliament[edit]

The results of the 1922 election were as follows:


 Reform    Liberal    Labour    Independent Liberal    Independent  

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1922[10][11][12]

Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Ashburton William Nosworthy 1,482[13] Henry Manwell Jones
Avon Dan Sullivan 2,036 George Warren Russell
Awarua John Hamilton Philip De La Perrelle 51[14] John Hamilton
Auckland Central Bill Parry 1,003 Albert Glover
Auckland East Clutha Mackenzie John A. Lee 751 Clutha Mackenzie
Auckland West Michael Joseph Savage 1,349 John Farrell
Bay of Islands Vernon Reed Allen Bell 188 Vernon Reed
Bay of Plenty Kenneth Williams Uncontested
Buller Harry Holland 1,541[13] John Menzies
Chalmers James McColl Dickson 679 Joseph Stephens[15]
Christchurch East Henry Thacker Tim Armstrong 1,094 Henry Thacker
Christchurch North Leonard Isitt 1,950 John Archer
Christchurch South Ted Howard 3,140 H C Lane
Clutha Alexander Malcolm John Edie 120 Alexander Malcolm
Dunedin Central Charles Statham 723 John Gilchrist
Dunedin North James Wright Munro 55 J J Clark
Dunedin West Thomas Sidey 1,281 John McManus
Dunedin South William Downie Stewart 1,727 C M Moss
Eden James Parr 675 Rex Mason
Egmont Oswald Hawken 372 D L A Astbury
Ellesmere Heaton Rhodes 732 J C Free
Franklin William Massey 2,750 Joseph Rea
Grey Lynn Fred Bartram 1,407 William John Holdsworth
Gisborne Douglas Lysnar 500[13] George Wildish[16]
Hamilton New electorate Alexander Young 2,043 Arthur Shapton Richards
Hawke's Bay Hugh Campbell Gilbert McKay 317 Andrew Hamilton Russell[17]
Hurunui George Forbes 1,198 S Andrew
Hutt Thomas Wilford 802[13] David Pritchard
Invercargill Josiah Hanan 993 J Armstead
Kaipara Gordon Coates 2,464 Robert Hornblow
Kaiapoi David Jones David Buddo 65[18] David Jones
Lyttelton James McCombs 614 R MacCartney
Manawatu Edward Newman Joseph Linklater 1,505 F D Whibley
Manukau Frederic Lang Bill Jordan 209 Frederic Lang
Marsden Francis Mander Alfred Murdoch 136 William Jones
Masterton George Sykes 556[13] A. C. Holmes
Mataura George Anderson 1,041 David McDougall
Motueka Richard Hudson 538 R Patterson
Napier Vigor Brown Lewis McIlvride 763 John Mason
Oamaru Ernest Lee John MacPherson 14 Ernest Lee
Ohinemuri Hugh Poland 939 Stephen Shepherd Allen
Oroua David Guthrie 43 John Cobbe
Nelson Harry Atmore 2,164[13] A. Gilbert
Otaki William Hughes Field 58[13] G. H. M. McClure
Pahiatua Archibald McNicol Alfred Ransom 59 Archibald McNicol
Palmerston Jimmy Nash 1,067 J Hodgens
Parnell James Samuel Dickson 2,324 S M Wren
Patea Edwin Dixon James Randall Corrigan 151 Edwin Dixon
Raglan Richard Bollard 776 S C G Lye
Rangitikei William Spiers Glenn 1,007 F P Brady
Riccarton George Witty 235 Herbert Kyle
Roskill Vivian Potter 2,007 Alfred Hall-Skelton[19]
Rotorua Frank Hockly 404 Cecil Clinkard
Stratford Robert Masters 363 John Hine
Taranaki Sydney George Smith 134 Charles Bellringer
Tauranga William Herries 1,440[20] Laurence Johnstone
Temuka Thomas Burnett 407 Thomas Herbert Langford
Thames Thomas William Rhodes 790 W A Allan
Timaru James Craigie Frank Rolleston 288[13] Percy Vinnell
Waikato Alexander Young Frederick Lye 44 J T Johnson
Waimarino Robert William Smith Frank Langstone 887 Robert William Smith
Waipawa George Hunter 1,076 John Joshua Langridge
Wairarapa Alexander Donald McLeod 698 J W Card
Waitemata Alexander Harris 1,271 Frank Henry Burbush[19]
Wairau Richard McCallum William Girling 186 Richard McCallum
Waitaki John Bitchener William Paul
Waitomo William Thomas Jennings John Rolleston 25 William Thomas Jennings
Wakatipu James Horn 1,637 J Ritchie
Wallace Adam Hamilton John Charles Thomson 205 Adam Hamilton
Wanganui Bill Veitch 1,072 John Coull
Wellington Central Peter Fraser 4,202 William Bennett
Wellington North John Luke 375 Harry Combs
Wellington East Alfred Newman Alec Monteith 473 Thomas Forsyth
Wellington South George Mitchell Robert McKeen 422 George Mitchell
Wellington Suburbs Robert Wright 291 Alexander Croskery
Westland Tom Seddon James O'Brien 487 Tom Seddon
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Āpirana Ngata 1,501 Taranaki Kanara te Uamairangi
Northern Maori Taurekareka Henare 1,441 Nau Parone Kawiti
Southern Maori Henare Uru 87 Peter MacDonald
Western Maori Māui Pōmare 798 Ngarangi Katitia

By-elections during 21st Parliament[edit]

There were a number of changes during the term of the 21st Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Tauranga 1923 28 March William Herries Death Charles MacMillan
Oamaru 1923 1 May John MacPherson Election declared void[21] John Macpherson
Franklin 1925 17 June William Massey Death Ewen McLennan


  1. ^ a b "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  2. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
  3. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 69.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 44–45.
  5. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  6. ^ Gardner, William James. "Bell, Francis Henry Dillon 1851–1936". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 46.
  8. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 46–47.
  9. ^ Bassett 1982, p. 32-33.
  10. ^ The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. 1923. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  11. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 83f.
  12. ^ Hislop 1923, pp. 1–6.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h "Official Counts". The Evening Post. CIV (144). 15 December 1922. p. 8. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  14. ^ "Awarua". Hawera & Normanby Star. XLII. 14 December 1922. p. 7. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  15. ^ "Labour's Candidates". Maoriland Worker. 12 (299). 22 November 1922. p. 12. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Women Take Part". The Evening Post. CXX (107). 1 November 1935. p. 14. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  17. ^ Pugsley, Chris. "Russell, Andrew Hamilton". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 November 2013. 
  18. ^ "The Official Count". Auckland Star. LIII (295). 13 December 1922. p. 5. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 
  19. ^ a b "Electoral". Auckland Star. LIII (296). 14 December 1922. p. 16. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  20. ^ "The Final Counts". The New Zealand Herald. LIX (18276). 18 December 1922. p. 6. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "Result of Oamaru Petition". Evening Post, Volume CV, Issue 77. 31 March 1923. p. 7. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 


  • Bassett, Michael (1982). Three Party Politics in New Zealand 1911–1931. Auckland: Historical Publications. ISBN 0-86870-006-1. 
  • Hislop, J. (1923). The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. Retrieved 20 November 2014. 
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.