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24 Sussex Drive

24 Sussex Drive called Gorffwysfa and referred to as 24 Sussex, is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Canada, located in the New Edinburgh neighbourhood of Ottawa, Ontario. Built between 1866 and 1868 by Joseph Merrill Currier, it has been the official home of the Prime Minister of Canada since 1951, it is one of two official residences made available to the prime minister, the Harrington Lake estate in nearby Gatineau Park being the other. The house at 24 Sussex Drive was commissioned in 1866 by lumberman and Member of Parliament Joseph Merrill Currier as a wedding gift for his wife-to-be, it was completed in 1868 and Currier named it Gorffwysfa, Welsh for "place of rest". It was sold for $30,000 in 1901, after Currier's wife, died, to William Edwards. In 1943, the federal Crown-in-Council used its power of expropriation to divest Gordon Edwards, nephew of William Edwards, of his title to the house, to consolidate public ownership of the lands along the Ottawa River. Edwards had fought the action, but lost the dispute with the Canadian government in 1946 and died at the house that year.

After several years of uncertainty, in 1950 the government decided to refurbish the property as a residence for the prime minister, the renovations costing just over $500,000. Louis St. Laurent was the first to take up residence in 1951. Since every prime minister—except for Kim Campbell and, to date, Justin Trudeau —has resided at 24 Sussex Drive for the duration of their mandates. Previous prime ministers lived at a variety of locations around Ottawa: Sir Wilfrid Laurier and William Lyon Mackenzie King, for instance, lived at Laurier House in Sandy Hill. Laurier House was willed to the Crown upon Mackenzie King's death in 1950 and was thus available for designation as the prime minister's official residence at the time. Security at 24 Sussex was overhauled following a November 1995 attempted assassination by André Dallaire, who wandered around the house and grounds for nearly an hour before being confronted outside Jean Chrétien's bedroom by the Prime Minister's wife, Aline. Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers arrested Dallaire.

Measures put in place after the attempted assassination include the addition of several more guards and security cameras to the house's attaché, the installation of crash-proof barriers within the main gates. As of January 2019, the residence was unoccupied as the National Capital Commission is drafting plans for major renovations. Unlike 10 Downing Street or the White House, 24 Sussex is used exclusively as a place of residence. One consequence of the building's lack of official bureaucratic functions is that 24 Sussex Drive has never been used as a metonym for the Office of the Prime Minister. Despite the building not having any bureaucratic function, it has been the location of protests, such as when farmers drove their tractors in a convoy past the front of the property in 2006 and when Greenpeace activists chained themselves to the front gates in March 2007. Due to the poor state of repair, Justin Trudeau, who grew up in 24 Sussex Drive when his father was prime minister, has instead resided at Rideau Cottage since 2015 when he became prime minister himself.

24 Sussex is a large limestone structure set on 1.6 hectares on the south bank of the Ottawa River, next to the French embassy and opposite the main entrance to Rideau Hall. The residence consists of 35 rooms spread on four floors, including the basement, connected by an elevator and many staircases; the latter consists of support rooms, while the main floor holds the dining room, living room, main stair hall, prime minister's library, a sun room. The second floor is bedrooms, including the master bedroom, as well as a family room and the office of prime minister's spouse; the third floor contains a private study for the prime minister. The exterior of the house is a mid-century modern take on Norman Revival architecture; when built, it was much of the Victorian style. A turret was added by the Edwards family in 1907. After it was decided in 1950 the house would become the official residence of the prime minister, the turret, widow's walk, main gable at the front and porte-cochère were removed and an extension added to the east.

The interior was gutted. The National Capital Commission maintains the house, its property, a selection of historic furnishings from the Crown Collection for use in the public rooms of the mansion, ranging from musical instruments to chairs and paintings by famous Canadians. However, due to the lack of restraints on the prime minister of the day to do what he or she pleases with the home, several have left their own marks on the building. For example, the rear patio was enclosed and winterised while Lester B. Pearson was prime minister and inside, Pearson's wife, Mary

Kotturu, Srikakulam district

Kotturu is a village in Srikakulam district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located in Kothuru mandal of Palakonda revenue division. Kotturu is located at 18.7667°N 83.8833°E / 18.7667. It has an average elevation of 59 meters, it is now developing towards richness. Kothuru was an Assembly Constituency in Andhra Pradesh. However, Sompeta Assembly Constituency ceases to exist as an assembly constituency as per the delimitation process carried out. 1978: Viswasarai Narasimha Rao, Indian National Congress 1983: Nimmaka Gopal Rao, Telugu Desam Party 1985: Viswasarai Narasimha Rao, Indian National Congress 1989: Nimmaka Gopal Rao, Telugu Desam Party 1994: Nimmaka Gopal Rao, Telugu Desam Party 1999: Nimmaka Gopal Rao, Telugu Desam Party 2004: Janni Minathi Gomango Indian National Congress

Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble was the currency of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. One ruble was divided into 100 kopeks. Many of the ruble designs were created by Ivan Dubasov; the production of Soviet rubles was the responsibility of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, or Goznak, in charge of the printing of and materials production for banknotes and the minting of coins in Moscow and Leningrad. In addition to regular currency, some other currency units were used, such as several forms of convertible ruble, transferable ruble, clearing ruble, Vneshtorgbank cheque, etc.. In 1991, after the breakup of the USSR, the Soviet ruble continued to be used in the post-Soviet states, forming a "ruble zone", until it was replaced with the Russian ruble by 1993; the word ruble is derived from the Slavic verb рубить, rubit', i.e.'to chop'. A "ruble" was a piece of a certain weight chopped off a silver ingot, hence the name; the word kopek, copeck, or kopeyka is a diminutive form of the Russian kop'yo —a spear.

The reason for this is that a horseman armed with a spear was stamped on one of the faces of the coin. The word kopeyka is a direct translation of old Lithuanian money kapa that has the same meaning'to chop' in Lithuanian as does "ruble" in Russian. For many centuries, around 500,000 km2 of contemporary Russia were Lithuanian lands inhabited by Lithuanians, in this region Lithuanian kapa circulated. After the annexation of these lands by Muscovy, a modified version of this Lithuanian word came to be used by Russia as the hundredth fraction of the ruble; the Soviet currency had its own name in all the languages of the Soviet Union different from its Russian designation. All banknotes had the currency name and their nominal printed in the languages of every Soviet Republic; this naming is preserved in modern Russia. The current names of several currencies of Central Asia are the local names of the ruble. Finnish last appeared on 1947 banknotes since the Karelo-Finnish SSR was dissolved in 1956; the name of the currency in the languages of the fifteen republics, in the order they appeared in the banknotes: Note that the scripts for Uzbek and Turkmen have switched from Cyrillic to Latin since the breakup of the Soviet Union.

Moldovan is once again referred to as Romanian. These fifteen names derive from four roots: Slavic verb рубить, rubit', "chop" Turkic root som, "pure" Latin monēta, "coin" Old Ruthenian karbuvaty, "carve" The first ruble issued for the Socialist government was a preliminary issue still based on the previous issue of the ruble prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917, they are all in banknote form and started their issue in 1919. At this time other issues were made by other governing bodies. Denominations were as follows: 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50, 60, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000. Short term treasury certificate were issued to supplement banknote issue in 1 million, 5 million and 10 million rubles; these issue was printed in various fashions, as inflation crept up the security features were few and some were printed on one side, as was the case for the German inflationary notes. In 1918, state credit notes were introduced by the RSFSR for 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 rubles.

These were followed in 1919 by currency notes for 1, 2, 3, 15, 20, 60, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 rubles. In 1921, currency note denominations of 5, 50, 25,000, 50,000, 100,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000 and 10,000,000 rubles were added. In 1922, the first of several redenominations took place, at a rate of 1 "new" ruble for 10,000 "old" rubles; the chervonets was introduced in 1922. This currency was short-lived. Only state currency notes were issued for this currency, in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 rubles. A second redenomination took place in 1923, at a rate of 100 to 1. Again, only paper money was issued. During the lifetime of this currency, the first money of the Soviet Union was issued; this currency was short lived, not lasting too long after Vladimir Lenin's death, but lasting over two months longer than its predecessor. The first coinage after the Russian civil war was minted in 1921–1923 with silver coins in denominations of 10, 15, 20 and 50 kopecks and 1 ruble.

Gold chervonets were issued in 1923. These coins bore the emblem and legends of the RSFSR and depicted the famous slogan, "Workers of the world, Unite!". The 10, 15, 20 kopecks were minted with a purity of 50% silver while the ruble and half-ruble were minted with a purity of 90% silver; the chervonetz was 90% gold. These coins would continue to circulate after the RSFSR was consolidated into the USSR with other Soviet Republics until the discontinuation of silver coinage in 1931; as with the previous currency, only state currency notes were issued, in denominations of 50 kopeks, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 rubles. In early 1924, just before the next redenomination, the first paper money was issued in the name of the USSR, featuring the state emblem with 6 bands around the wheat, representing the languages of the 4 constituent republics of the Union: Russian SFSR, Transcaucasian SFSR (Az