The Gallipoli Campaign known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale, was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula. The Entente powers and France, sought to weaken the Ottoman Empire by taking control of the straits that provided a supply route to Russia, the third member of the Entente; the invaders launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, to capture the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn, it was a costly and humiliating defeat for the Allies and for the sponsors Winston Churchill. The campaign was a major Ottoman victory in the war. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the history of the state, a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire retreated. Arabs formed a substantial force in the Gallipoli Peninsula being part of the 72nd and 77th regiments.
According to several sources, Arabs made up two thirds of the 19th Division under Colonel Mustafa Kemal. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey eight years with Kemal, who rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli, as president; the campaign is considered to be the beginning of Australian and New Zealand national consciousness. On 27 October 1914, two former German warships, now the Ottoman Yavûz Sultân Selîm and Midilli, still under the command of German officers, conducted the Black Sea Raid, in which they bombarded the Russian port of Odessa and sank several ships. On 31 October, the Ottomans began the Caucasus Campaign against Russia; the British bombarded forts in Gallipoli, invaded Mesopotamia and studied the possibility of forcing the Dardanelles. Before the Dardanelles operation was conceived, the British had planned to conduct an amphibious invasion near Alexandretta on the Mediterranean, an idea presented by Boghos Nubar in 1914.
This plan was developed by the Secretary of State for War, Field Marshal Earl Kitchener to sever the capital from Syria and Egypt. Alexandretta was an area with a Christian population and was the strategic centre of the Empire's railway network—its capture would have cut the empire in two. Vice Admiral Sir Richard Peirse, East Indies Station, ordered Captain Frank Larkin of HMS Doris to Alexandretta on 13 December 1914; the Russian cruiser Askold and the French cruiser Requin were there. Kitchener was working on the plan as late as March 1915 and was the beginning of the British attempt to incite an Arab Revolt; the Alexandretta landing was abandoned because militarily it would have required more resources than France could allocate and politically France did not want the British operating in their sphere of influence, a position to which Britain had agreed in 1912. By late 1914, on the Western Front, the Franco-British counter-offensive of the First Battle of the Marne had ended and the Belgians and French had suffered many casualties in the First Battle of Ypres in Flanders.
The war of manoeuvre had been replaced by trench warfare. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary closed the overland trade routes between Britain and France in the west and Russia in the east; the White Sea in the arctic north and the Sea of Okhotsk in the Far East were icebound in winter and distant from the Eastern Front. While the Ottomans remained neutral, supplies could still be sent to Russia through the Dardanelles but prior to the Ottoman entry into the war, the straits had been closed; the French Minister of Justice, Aristide Briand, proposed in November to attack the Ottoman Empire but this was rejected and an attempt by the British to bribe the Ottomans to join the Allied side failed. That month, Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed a naval attack on the Dardanelles, based in part on erroneous reports of Ottoman troop strength. Churchill wanted to use a large number of obsolete battleships, which could not operate against the German High Seas Fleet, in a Dardanelles operation, with a small occupation force provided by the army.
It was hoped that an attack on the Ottomans would draw Bulgaria and Greece into the war on the Allied side. On 2 January 1915, Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia appealed to Britain for assistance against the Ottomans, who were conducting an offensive in the Caucasus. Planning began for a naval demonstration in the Dardanelles. On 17 February 1915, a British seaplane from HMS Ark Royal flew a reconnaissance sortie over the Straits. Two days the first attack on the Dardanelles began when a strong Anglo-French task force, including the British dreadnought HMS Queen Elizabeth, began a long-range bombardment of Ottoman coastal artillery batteries; the British had intended to use eight aircraft from Ark Royal to spot for the bombardment but harsh conditions rendered all but one of these, a Short Type 136, unserviceable. A period of bad weather slowed the initial phase but by 25 February the outer forts had been reduced and the entrance cleared of mines. After this, Royal Marines were landed to destroy guns at
Port Moresby referred to as Pom City or Moresby, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea and the largest city in the South Pacific outside of Australia and New Zealand. It is located on the shores of the Gulf of Papua, on the south-western coast of the Papuan Peninsula of the island of New Guinea; the city emerged as a trade centre in the second half of the 19th century. During World War II it was a prime objective for conquest by the Imperial Japanese forces during 1942–43 as a staging point and air base to cut off Australia from Southeast Asia and the Americas. In 2000 it had a population of 254,158; as of 2011, it had a population of 364,145, giving it an annual growth rate of 2.1% over a nine-year period. The place where the city was founded has been inhabited by the Motu-Koitabu people for centuries; the first Briton to see it was Captain John Moresby in 1873. It was named in honour of Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. Although Port Moresby is surrounded by Central Province, of which it is the capital, it is not part of that province, but forms the National Capital District.
Port Moresby hosted the APEC summit in November 2018, however there were concerns about security given the capital's reputation for violent crime. The Motuan people of the area now known as Port Moresby traded their pots for sago, other food and canoe logs, sailing from Hanuabada and other villages built on stilts above the waters of the bay, their language, was the basis of Hiri Motu, an official language of Papua New Guinea. It has been in decline since the 1960s when Tok Pisin began to grow in popularity; the Hiri expeditions were large scale. As many as 20 multi-hulled canoes or lakatoi, crewed by some 600 men, carried about 20,000 clay pots on each journey. To the Motuans, the Hiri was an economic enterprise and it confirmed their tribal identity through its long and dangerous voyages. There was an important trade centre on the site of Port Moresby when the English Captain John Moresby of HMS Basilisk first visited it, he sailed through the Coral Sea at the eastern end of New Guinea, saw three unknown islands, landed there.
At 10 a.m. on 20 February 1873, he claimed the land for Britain and named it after his father, Admiral Sir Fairfax Moresby. He called the other Port Moresby. In 1883 Queensland attempted to annex the south-eastern corner of the New Guinea Island, fearing that Germany would take control of the entire eastern half of the island. British authorities refused to approve the annexation following the German annexation of New Guinea in 1884, but four years it established a protectorate over Papua as British New Guinea. In 1905 the federated Australian government passed the Papua Act which came into effect in 1906; the act transferred Papua, with Port Moreseby as its capital. From until 1941 Port Moresby grew slowly; the main growth was on the peninsula, where port facilities and other services were improved. The first butcher's shop and grocery opened in 1909, electricity was introduced in 1925, piped water supply provided in 1941. During World War II, some Papuan men enlisted in the Papua Infantry Battalion and others as carriers over trails and rough terrains as supply support to Allied and Japanese armies during long jungle marches.
Historian William Manchester makes it plain in his biography of General Douglas MacArthur, American Caesar, that acting as porters was well down the natives' list of acceptable voluntary activities and that they would fade away without great inducements. Many Papuan residents of Port Moresby either returned to their family villages or were evacuated to camps when the threat of Japanese invasion loomed; the city became, by September 1942, home to an important Allied complex of bases and thousands of troops were stationed in the area or more staged through it, as it was the last Allied bastion on the island and, conversely, a key staging and jumping off point as the Allies began conducting offensive warfare themselves, pushing back the Japanese advances. In 1945, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was formed when Papua and the former German New Guinea, administered by Australia since 1918, were amalgamated under a single Australian administration though several laws remained in two territories and remain so, which can be complicating with provinces sitting on two sides of the otherwise extinct boundary.
Port Moresby became the capital of the new combined territory and a focal point for the expansion of public services. In September 1975, Papua New Guinea became an independent country with Port Moresby as its capital city. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, represented the Queen of Papua New Guinea at the celebrations. New government and cultural buildings were constructed in the suburb of Waigani to supplement and replace those of downtown Port Moresby, they included those for government departments, including a National Parliament Building, opened in 1984 by Prince Charles and blends traditional design with modern building technology. The Papua New Guinea National Museum and National Library are in Waigani. A mansion was built in Port Moresby just west of the old legislative building but the last pre-independence chief minister and first prime minister of the sovereign state declared it not nearly grand enough. Several of the government buildings have been abandoned due to long-term neglect. Ch
Greenbank is a rural-residential suburb within Logan City in Queensland, Australia. Once divided between the Shire of Beaudesert and Logan City, the Queensland Government's council amalgamations resulted in Greenbank becoming within Logan City, since 15 March 2008; the size of Greenbank is 49 km². It has 7 parks covering nearly 18% of the total area; the suburb is surrounded by farmland and includes the forested Greenbank Military Range, on the Commonwealth Heritage List. A strip of parkland and a watercourse named The Platypus Pools and Bracken Way is a natural habitat for a number of species of flora and fauna including platypus, the rare black cockatoo, the blue wren, honeyeaters, kangaroos, koalas, bearded dragons, legless lizards and water monitors up to 2.5 metres in length. Many more species have been sighted living in this natural habitat; the watercourse and natural forest are fed by torrential rains and natural springs dotted throughout the Spring Mountain area, continuing through to Greenbank, Browns Plains and finishing at Karrawatha National Park.
Snakes consisting of python, whip snakes and red-bellied black snakes, to a much lesser degree brown snakes. Bird-eating spiders, huntsman spiders, redback spiders and the orb-weaver spider share the watercourse and forest area; the parkland stretches along on either side of the watercourse and a variety of walking tracks of different fitness levels are used by residents for casual strolls, nature lovers and athletic enthusiasts and bike riding. The tracks extend out into estates of Greenbank; the walking track connects with neighbouring Boronia Heights. The early name of the district was Teviot but derives its present name Greenbank from the name of a cattle property belonging to William Slack. Greenbank was first settled by Europeans in the 1840s. In the 1880s the main industries were dairying and timber cutting. Cobb & Co had a changing station for their coaches at a hotel on the corner of Teviot Road and Pub Lane; when the coach service ceased in 1924, the hotel licence lapsed. Greenbank Provision School was built by volunteer labour and opened on 23 January 1893 with 12 pupils under teacher Mary Mulroney who received an annual salary of £50.
It became Greenbank State School in 1909. It closed between 1950 due to low student numbers. Greenbank State School, a government co-educational primary school, is located at 24-36 Goodna Road. In 2013, the school had an enrolment of 1117 students with 72 teachers; the Greenbank Community Centre and Library, operated since March 2008 by the Logan City Council, is located at 145-167 Teviot Road. The Greenbank Recreation Reserve is home to the Greenbank Sports & Recreation Club and the Greenbank Raiders Rugby League Club. Situated on Middle Rd the rugby club caters for teams from under 6 to under 18 in 2009. Three teams won premierships in 2009. Under 15 division 4, Under 18 division 1 and the successful under 16 division 2 which completed the year undefeated, they were minor won the grand final. Greenbank is home to the successful Greenbank Football Club. In 2011, the team made history by winning three senior Premierships and two Championships in three divisions. Greenbank FC is affiliated with Football Brisbane and provides an avenue for both junior and senior players.
In 2011, Greenbank FC fielded teams from squirts up to under 14 age groups and both men and women teams. 2016 was Greenbank FC's 40th anniversary. The population of Greenbank in 1996 was 5,098 people. By 2001 the population was 5,261 showing a population growth of 3% in the area during that time. In 2011, the figure had grown to 7,328. Consisting of acreage blocks close to Springfield, households in Greenbank are couples with children and are to be repaying between $800.00 – $1500.00 per month on mortgage repayments. In general, people in Greenbank work in a trades position occupation, through to management positions and owner operated businesses. In 1996, 84% of the homes in Greenbank were owner-occupied compared with 86% in 2001. In May 2014, the median sale price of houses in the area in Australian dollars was $395,000; as of June 2017, the median sale price of houses had risen to $560,000In the 2011 census, Greenbank recorded a population of 7,328 people, 49.4% female and 50.6% male. The median age of the Greenbank population was 36 years, 1 year below the national median of 37.
75.1% of people living in Greenbank were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were England 5.8%, New Zealand 5.5%, Vietnam 0.9%, Taiwan 0.7%, South Africa 0.6%. 87.6% of people spoke only English at home. Scott, Joanne; the Brisbane Courier. National Library of Australia. 4 October 1930. — a description of Greenbank in 1930
Battle of Buna–Gona
The Battle of Buna–Gona was part of the New Guinea campaign in the Pacific Theatre during World War II. It followed the conclusion of the Kokoda Track campaign and lasted from 16 November 1942 until 22 January 1943; the battle was conducted by Australian and United States forces against the Japanese beachheads at Buna and Gona. From these, the Japanese had launched an overland attack on Port Moresby. In light of developments in the Solomon Islands campaign, Japanese forces approaching Port Moresby were ordered to withdraw to and secure these bases on the northern coast. Australian forces maintained contact; the Allied objective was to eject the Japanese forces from these positions and deny them their further use. The Japanese forces were well prepared and resolute in their defence, they had developed a strong network of well-concealed defences. Operations in Papua and New Guinea were hampered by terrain, climate and the lack of infrastructure. During the Kokoda Track campaign, these factors applied more-or-less to both belligerents but favoured the defender in attacks against well-fortified positions.
The battlefield and logistical constraints limited the applicability of conventional Allied doctrine of manoeuvre and firepower. During the opening stages of the offensive, the Allies faced a severe shortage of food and ammunition; this problem was never resolved. The battle exposed critical problems with the suitability and performance of Allied equipment; the combat effectiveness of US forces the US 32nd Division, has been criticised. These factors were compounded by repeated demands from General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, for a rapid conclusion to the battle; the demands were more to politically secure MacArthur's command than for any strategic need. In consequence, troops were hastily committed to battle on repeated occasions, increasing Allied losses and lengthening the battle. Allied air power interrupted the Japanese capacity to reinforce and resupply the beachheads from Rabaul; this made the Japanese position untenable. There was widespread evidence of the Japanese defenders cannibalising the dead.
In the closing stages of the battle, significant numbers of the defenders were withdrawn by sea or escaped overland toward the west and the Japanese base around Salamaua and Lae. The remaining garrison fought to the death to the man; the resolve and tenacity of the Japanese in defence was unprecedented and had not been encountered. It was to mark the desperate nature of fighting that characterised battles for the remainder of the Pacific war. For the Allies, there were a number of costly lessons in the conduct of jungle warfare. Allied losses in the battle were at a rate higher than that experienced at Guadalcanal. For the first time, the American public was confronted with the images of dead American troops. Japan's entry into World War II and the war in the Pacific commenced with the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, coordinated with coinciding attacks on Thailand, the Philippines, the American bases on Guam and Wake Island, the British possessions of Malaya and Hong Kong. Japanese forces secured territory in South-East Asia, the East Indies, the Central and South-West Pacific.
Australia had been shocked by the fall of Singapore. With the fall, nearly 15,000 Australian soldiers became prisoners of war along with the rest of the garrison of some 85,000. US President Franklin Roosevelt ordered General Douglas MacArthur in the Philippines to formulate a Pacific defence plan with Australia in March 1942; the Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, agreed to place Australian forces under the command of MacArthur, who became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. MacArthur moved his headquarters to Melbourne in March 1942; the Japanese assaulted Rabaul on 23 January 1942. Rabaul became the forward base for the Japanese campaigns in mainland New Guinea. Japanese forces first landed on the mainland of New Guinea on 8 March 1942 when they invaded Lae and Salamaua to secure bases for the defence of the important base they were developing at Rabaul; the Japanese 17th Army under Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake was a corps-sized command involved in the New Guinea and Solomon Islands campaigns.
The Japanese 8th Area Army, under General Hitoshi Imamura, was mobilised to take overall command in the areas from 16 November 1942. It was responsible for both the New Solomon Islands campaigns. Imamura was based at Rabaul; the Japanese 18th Army, under Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi, was formed to take over responsibilities for Japanese operations on mainland New Guinea, leaving the 17th Army responsible for the Solomon Islands. Despite Australian fears, the Japanese never intended to invade the Australian mainland. While an invasion was considered by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters in February 1942, it was judged to be beyond the capability of the Japanese military and no planning or other preparations were undertaken. Instead, in March 1942 the Japanese adopted a strategy of isolating Australia from the United States; the first part of this plan, codenamed Operation Mo, was an amphibious landing to capture Port Moresby, capital of the Australian Territory of Papua. This was frustrated by the Japanese defeat in the Battle of the Coral Sea and postponed indefinitely after the Battle of Midway.
Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands
The Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands known as Operation Helpem Fren and Operation Anode, was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor-General of Solomon Islands. Helpem Fren means "help a friend" in Solomon Islands Pidgin; the mission ended on 30 June 2017. Deep seated problems of land alienation dating from colonialism, unresolved after independence, have led to a number of compensation claims on land use. "The Honiara Peace Accord, signed by the warring parties, the government and the Commonwealth Special Envoy recognised several root causes of the conflict: Land demands – Guadalcanal leaders wanted all alienated land titles, leased to government and to individual developers, to be returned to landowners. Political demands – Guadalcanal wanted the establishment of a state government in order to have control over: the sale or use of local land. Compensation demands – Guadalcanal wanted payment for the lives of its indigenous people, who have been brutally murdered for their lands or for other reasons."The warring parties mentioned were the Solomon Islands Government, the Isatabu Freedom Movement and the Malaita Eagle Force led by, among others, Jimmy Rasta and Harold Keke.
A sizeable international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, with representatives from about six other Pacific nations began arriving on 24 July 2003. Nick Warner assumed the role of Special Coordinator as leader of RAMSI, working with the Solomon Islands Government and assisted by a New Zealand Deputy Special Coordinator, Peter Noble, Fijian Assistant Special Coordinator, Sekove Naqiolevu. Major contributing nations to RAMSI include Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Tonga. Pacific countries contribute to RAMSI including Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Vanuatu. Personnel from the Pacific countries are predominantly police officers served as part of RAMSI's Participating Police Force; the commander of "Combined Task Force 635" – the military element of the Mission – was Lieutenant Colonel John Frewen, commanding officer of the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, the deputy commander Major Vern Bennett, New Zealand Army, from Linton.
The Land Component included HQ 2 RAR from Townsville, 200 Australian infantry from 2 RAR, a Fijian rifle company from 3 Fiji Infantry Regiment, Queen Elizabeth Bks, a Pacific Islands Company, under an Australian Company commander, with Tongan, PNG, Australian rifle platoons. Supporting elements included eight Iroquois Helicopters, four each from 3 SQN, Royal New Zealand Air Force and 171 Operational Support Squadron, Australian Army, a PNG engineer troop, New Zealand engineer and medical elements, an Australian Combat Service Support Team, with some personnel from Army level troops from Sydney plus logistics personnel from New Zealand, four Australian Project Nervana Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for surveillance. In 2004, James Batley took over as Special Coordinator, followed by Tim George in late 2006. In 2005 New Zealander Paul Ash became Deputy Special Coordinator, followed by Dr Jonathan Austin in 2007. Mataiasi Lomaloma succeeded Naqiolevu as Assistant Special Coordinator in late 2005. Military personnel provide security and logistical assistance to police forces assisting the Solomon Islands Government in the restoration of law and order.
From November 2003, the military component was reduced, as stability returned to the country, a sizeable civilian contingent, composed of economists, development assistance specialists and budget advisors commenced the reconstruction of the government and finances of the Solomon Islands. The civilian contingent is now made up of around 130 personnel from many pacific countries, the most sizeable being Australia and New Zealand. Early successes included the stabilisation of government finances and normalisation of debt, as well as a number of economic reforms. Civilians in RAMSI are now focussing on capacity building of Solomon Islanders to take over the roles. Difficulties include the lack of available skilled Solomon Islanders. Former Solomon Islands Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was outspoken in his criticism of RAMSI, which he accused of being dominated by Australia and of undermining the Solomons' sovereignty. By contrast, his successor Prime Minister Derek Sikua has stated he supports RAMSI, has criticised his predecessor, saying in January 2008: "I think for some time in the last 18 months, the Solomon Islands government was preoccupied with finding fault in RAMSI."
Sikua has stated: " provide leadership that will work with RAMSI to achieve stated and agreed objectives for the long-term benefit of Solomon Islands. RAMSI is here on our invitation. Is important to Solomon Islands as it provides security, development of our police service, the strengthening of the capacity of government institutions."Sikua has asked RAMSI to assist the Solomons' rural areas "in the health sector and in the education sector as well as in infrastructure and other sectors to do with income generation and economic activities". A documentary film about the tension times and the RAMSI intervention was filmed in 2013, directed by Michael Bainbridge and Mark Power. In the early hours
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force. It is part of the Australian Defence Force along with the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force. While the Chief of the Defence Force commands the ADF, the Army is commanded by the Chief of Army; the CA is therefore subordinate to the CDF, but is directly responsible to the Minister for Defence. Although Australian soldiers have been involved in a number of minor and major conflicts throughout its history, only in World War II has Australian territory come under direct attack. Formed in March 1901, with the amalgamation of the six separate colonial military forces, the history of the Australian Army can be divided into two periods: 1901–47, when limits were set on the size of the regular Army, the vast majority of peacetime soldiers were in reserve units of the Citizens Military Force, expeditionary forces were formed to serve overseas, Post-1947, when a standing peacetime regular infantry force was formed and the CMF began to decline in importance.
During its history the Australian Army has fought in a number of major wars, including: Second Boer War, First World War, the Second World War, Korean War, Malayan Emergency, Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Vietnam War, more in Afghanistan and Iraq. Since 1947 the Australian Army has been involved in many peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations, however the non-United Nations sponsored Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai is a notable exception. Australia's largest peacekeeping deployment began in 1999 in East Timor, while other ongoing operations include peacekeeping on Bougainville, in the Sinai, in the Solomon Islands. Humanitarian relief after 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in Aceh Province, Operation Sumatra Assist, ended on 24 March 2005; the 1st Division comprises a deployable headquarters, while 2nd Division under the command of Forces Command is the main home-defence formation, containing Army Reserve units. 2nd Division's headquarters only performs administrative functions.
The Australian Army has not deployed a divisional-sized formation since 1945 and does not expect to do so in the future. 1st Division carries out high-level training activities and deploys to command large-scale ground operations. It has few combat units permanently assigned to it, although it does command the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment as part of Australia's amphibious task group. Forces Command controls for administrative purposes all non-special-forces assets of the Australian Army, it is neither an a deployable command. 1 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Darwin and Adelaide. 3 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Townsville. 6 Brigade – Mixed brigade based in Sydney. 7 Brigade – Multi-role Combat Brigade based in Brisbane. 16 Aviation Brigade – Army Aviation brigade based in Enoggera, Brisbane. 17 Combat Service Support Brigade – Logistic brigade based in Sydney. 2nd Division administers the reserve forces from its headquarters located in Sydney. 4 Brigade – based in Victoria.
5 Brigade – based in New South Wales. 8 Brigade – training brigade with units around Australia 9 Brigade – based in South Australia and Tasmania. 11 Brigade – based in Queensland. 13 Brigade – based in Western Australia. Additionally, Forces Command includes the following training establishments: Army Recruit Training Centre at Kapooka, NSW. Special Operations Command comprises a command formation of equal status to the other commands in the ADF, it includes all of Army's special forces assets. Under a restructuring program known as Plan Beersheba announced in late 2011, the 1st, 3rd and 7th Brigades will be re-formed as combined-arms multi-role manoeuvre brigades with the 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment forming the core of a future amphibious force; the force will be known as the Amphibious Ready Element and will be embarked on the Navy's new Canberra-class amphibious assault ships. Infantry, some other combat units of the Australian Army carry flags called the Queen's Colour and the Regimental Colour, known as "the Colours".
Armoured units carry Standards and Guidons – flags smaller than Colours and traditionally carried by Cavalry, Light Horse and Mounted Infantry units. The 1st Armoured Regiment is the only unit in the Australian Army to carry a Standard, in the tradition of heavy armoured units. Artillery units' guns are considered to be their Colours, on parade are provided with the same respect. Non-combat units do not have Colours, as Colours are battle flags and so are only available to combat units; as a substitute, many have Banners. Units awarded battle honours have them emblazoned on their Colours and Guidons, they are a memorial to the fallen. Artillery do not have Battle Honours – their single Honour is "Ubique" which means "Everywhere" – although they can receive Honour Titles; the Army is the guardian of the National Flag and as such, unlike the Royal Australian Air Force, does not have a flag or Colours. The Army, has a banner, known as the Army Banner. To commemorate the centenary of the Army, the Governor General Sir William Deane, presented the Army with a new Banner at a parade in front of the Australian War Memorial on 10 March 2001.
The Banner was
Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service upon the United States against the naval base at Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' formal entry into World War II the next day; the Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, as Operation Z during its planning. Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the United States Pacific Fleet from interfering with its planned military actions in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States. Over the course of seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S.-held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya and Hong Kong. Additionally, from the Japanese viewpoint, it was seen as a preemptive strike; the attack commenced at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian Time; the base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese aircraft in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers.
All eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but USS Arizona were raised, six were returned to service and went on to fight in the war; the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed. Important base installations such as the power station, dry dock, shipyard and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building, were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, 64 servicemen killed. One Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. Japan declared war on the United States on December 8. According to historians David M. Kennedy and Lizabeth Cohen: The sneak attack aroused and united America as nothing else could have done. To the day of the blowup, a strong majority of Americans still wanted to keep out of war, but the bombs that pulverized Pearl Harbor blasted the isolationists into silence. The only thing left to do, growled isolationist Senator Wheeler, was to'lick hell out of them.'
The following day, December 8, Congress declared war on Japan. On December 11, Germany and Italy each declared war on the U. S; the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Italy. There were numerous historical precedents for the unannounced military action by Japan, but the lack of any formal warning while peace negotiations were still ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, "a date which will live in infamy"; because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, the attack on Pearl Harbor was judged in the Tokyo Trials to be a war crime. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation had been aware of, planned for, since the 1920s; the relationship between the two countries was cordial enough. Tensions did not grow until Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931. Over the next decade, Japan expanded into China, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China, endeavored to secure enough independent resources to attain victory on the mainland.
The "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts. Starting in December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, the Nanking Massacre swung Western public opinion against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, United Kingdom, France assisted China with its loans for war supply contracts. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina, attempting to stymie the flow of supplies reaching China; the United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, aviation gasoline to Japan, which the latter perceived as an unfriendly act. The United States did not stop oil exports, however because of the prevailing sentiment in Washington: given Japanese dependence on American oil, such an action was to be considered an extreme provocation. In mid-1940, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Hawaii, he ordered a military buildup in the Philippines, taking both actions in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.
Because the Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's Southeast Asian colonies, including Singapore, would bring the U. S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to prevent American naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners; the U. S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with an elite force of 40,000 men. By 1941, U. S. planners expected to abandon the Philippines at the outbreak of war. Late that year, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, was given orders to that effect; the U. S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following the seizure of French Indochina after the Fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption. Because of this decision, Japan proceeded with plans to take the oil-rich Dutch East Indies. On August 17, Roosevelt warned Japan that America was prepared to take opposing steps if "neighboring countries" were attacked.
The Japanese wer