26th of July Movement

The 26th of July Movement was a Cuban vanguard revolutionary organization and a political party led by Fidel Castro. The movement's name commemorates its 26th July 1953 attack on the army barracks on Santiago de Cuba in an attempt to start the overthrowing of the dictator Fulgencio Batista. Fidel Castro's nationalist ideology was founded in the ideas of José Martí; this is considered one of the most important organizations among the Cuban Revolution. At the end of 1956, Castro established a guerrilla base in the Sierra Maestra; this base defeated the troops of Batista on December 31, 1958, setting into motion the Cuban Revolution and installing a government led by Manuel Urrutia Lleó. The Movement fought the Batista regime on both urban fronts; the movement's main objectives were distribution of land to peasants, nationalization of public services, industrialization, honest elections, large scale education reform. In July 1961, the 26th of July Movement was one of the parties that integrated into the Organizaciones Revolucionarias Integradas of the Integrated Revolutionary Organization as well as the Popular Socialist Party and the March 13 Revolutionary Directory.

On March 26, 1962, the party dissolved to form the Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba or the United Party of the Socialist Revolution of Cuba, which held a communist ideology. The 26th of July Movement's name originated from the failed attack on the Moncada Barracks, an army facility in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on 26 July 1953; this attack was led by a young Fidel Castro, a legislative candidate in a free election, cancelled by Batista. The attack had been intended as a rallying cry for the revolution. Castro was captured and sentenced to 15 years in prison but, along with his group, was granted an amnesty after two years following a political campaign on their behalf. Castro traveled to Mexico to reorganize the movement in 1955 with several other exiled revolutionaries, their task was to form a disciplined guerrilla force to overthrow Batista. The original core of the group was organized around the attack on the Moncada Barracks merged with the National Revolutionary Movement led and Rafael García Bárcenas and with a majority of the Orthodox Youth.

Soon after, National Revolutionary Action led by Frank País would join. Because of the commonality in their ideology and their goal of wanting to topple the Batista regime, the M-26-7 would add more young people from diverse political backgrounds. On 2 December 1956, 82 men landed in Cuba, having sailed in the boat Granma from Tuxpan, ready to organize and lead a revolution; the early signs were not good for the movement. They landed in daylight, were attacked by the Cuban Air Force, suffered numerous casualties; the landing party was split into two and wandered lost for two days, most of their supplies abandoned where they landed. They were betrayed by their peasant guide in an ambush, which killed more of those who had landed. Batista mistakenly announced Fidel Castro's death at this point. Of the 82 who sailed aboard the Granma, only 12 regrouped in the Sierra Maestra mountain range. While the revolutionaries were setting up camp in the mountains, "Civic Resistance" groups were formulating in the cities, putting pressure on the Batista regime.

Many middle-class and professional persons flocked toward his movement. While in the Sierra Maestra mountains the guerrilla forces attracted hundreds of Cuban volunteers and won several battles against the Cuban Army. Ernesto'Che' Guevara was shot in the neck and chest during the fighting, but was not injured; this was the opening phase of the war of the Cuban Revolution, which continued for the next two years. It ended in January 1959, after Batista fled Cuba for Dominican Republic, on New Year's Eve when the Movement's forces marched into Havana; the guerrillas increased their ranks to 400 men in February 1958. In comparison, the forces of Batista reached 50,000 men, but only 10,000 were able to be used at once to confront the guerrillas. Batista launched an offensive of 10,000 with air and land support to encircle and destroy the guerrillas hidden in the Sierra between April and August 1958, this campaign ended in a decisive failure for the development of the conflict. After two years of war, the rebels defeated the Batista forces, causing them to flee to the Dominican Republic and take power January 1, 1959.

At that time they added around 20,000 to 30,000 guerrillas and the war had cost the lives of between 1,000 and 2,500 people. After the takeover, anti-Batistas, urban workers and idealists became the dominant followers of the M-26-7 movement, which gained control over Cuba; the Movement was joined with other bodies to form the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, which in turn became the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965. Cuba modeled itself after the Eastern European nations that made up the Warsaw Pact, becoming the first socialistic government in the Americas. Once it was learned that Cuba would adopt a strict Marxist–Leninist political and economic system, opposition was raised not only by dissident party members, but by the United States as well. Fidel Castro's government seized private land, nationalized hundreds of private companies—including several local subsidiaries of U. S. corporations—and taxed American products so that U. S. exports were cut half in just two years. The Eisenhower Administration imposed trade restrictions on everything except food and medical supplies.

As a result, Cuba turned to the Soviet Union fo

Polysiphonia ceramiaeformis

Polysiphonia ceramiaeformis called banded siphon weed, is a small red algae, in the genus Polysiphonia. Individuals are irregularly branched with the branches extending up to 5.5 centimetres from a central node and ending in dense tufts of fibres. This small red algae lacks a to be seen main axis; each branch is formed of axial cells with 10 - 12 periaxial cells of equal length, with forcipate incurved tips. It is densely attached by tangled prostrate axes. All axes are ecorticate; the rhizoids are numerous. The alga bears spermatangial branches on a cylindrical axis. Cystocarps are oval with a narrow ostiole; the tetraspores cells divide to forms cells in fours, these occur in a spiral series. In pools at low water in sheltered sites. Rare on the British Isles. Recorded from a few sites in Dorset recorded from north west France and the Mediterranean

Felix Jacoby

Felix Jacoby was a German classicist and philologist. He is best known among classicists for his important work Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, a collection of text fragments of ancient Greek historians. Jacoby was born in Magdeburg to Jewish parents. There he attended the grammar school at the monastery of Unser Lieben Frauen in Magdeburg and was baptised a Protestant in St John's Church at the age of 11. From 1906 to 1934 he was professor of Classics at Kiel. Though he was expelled from the University of Kiel during the Gleichschaltung of Nazi Germany, Jacoby is said by some to have been one of a small number of German Jews who supported Adolf Hitler. According to some witnesses, he went so far as to make the startling comparison in 1933: As a Jew I find myself in a difficult position, but as a historian I have long learned not to view historical events from a private perspective. I have voted for Adolf Hitler since 1927 and I am happy that in the year of the National Rising I am allowed to lecture on Augustus, because Augustus is the only figure in world history that may be compared to Adolf Hitler.

However, others doubt. In 1939, Jacoby fled to England, where he stayed at Oxford, continuing his work on the fragments of the Greek Historians, he returned to Germany in 1956 and died in Berlin in 1959. He is best known among classicists for his important work Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, a collection of text fragments of ancient Greek historians. Significant is his long entry in the Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft on the Greek historian Herodotus. Carmine Ampolo: Aspetti dell’ opera di Felix Jacoby. Pisa 2006. Eckart Mensching: Finkenkrug, Neuseeland und Oxford. Über Felix Jacoby und seine Familie 1938/39. In: Eckart Mensching: Nugae zur Philologie-Geschichte. Berlin 2003, pp. 42–53. Willy Theiler: Nachruf auf Felix Jacoby. In: Gnomon 32, 1960, pp. 387–391. Annegret Wittram: Fragmenta. Felix Jacoby und Kiel. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Kieler Christian-Albrechts-Universität. Frankfurt am Main 2004