click links in text for more info


The 32X is an add-on for the Sega Genesis video game console. Codenamed "Project Mars", the 32X was designed to expand the power of the Genesis and serve as a transitional console into the 32-bit era until the release of the Sega Saturn. Independent of the Genesis, the 32X has its own library of games; the add-on was distributed under the name Super 32X in Japan, Genesis 32X in North America, Mega Drive 32X in the PAL region, Mega 32X in Brazil. Unveiled by Sega at June 1994's Consumer Electronics Show, the 32X was presented as a low-cost option for consumers looking to play 32-bit games. Developed in response to the Atari Jaguar and concerns that the Saturn would not make it to market by the end of 1994, the product was conceived as an new console. At the suggestion of Sega of America executive Joe Miller and his team, the console was converted into an add-on to the existing Genesis and made more powerful; the final design contained a 3D graphics processor. To bring the new add-on to market by its scheduled release date of November 1994, development of the new system and its games was rushed.

The console failed to attract third-party video game developers and consumers because of the announcement of the Sega Saturn's simultaneous release in Japan. Sega's efforts to rush the 32X to market cut into available time for game development, resulting in a weak library of forty titles that could not use the add-on's hardware, including Genesis ports. Sega produced 800,000 units of the 32X and managed to sell an estimated 665,000 by the end of 1994, selling the rest at steep discounts until it was discontinued in 1996 as Sega turned its focus to the Saturn; the 32X is considered a commercial failure. Reception after the add-on's unveiling and launch was positive, highlighting the low price of the system and power expansion to the Genesis. Reviews, both contemporary and retrospective, for the 32X have been negative because of its shallow game library, poor market timing and the resulting market fragmentation for the Genesis; the Sega Genesis released in Japan as the Mega Drive in 1988, was Sega's entry into the 16-bit era of video game consoles.

The console was released as the Genesis in 1989 for the North American market, with releases in other regions following a year later. Although the earlier release of the Sega CD add-on had been commercially disappointing, Sega began to develop a stop-gap solution that would bridge the gap between the Genesis and the Sega Saturn, serving as a less expensive entry into the 32-bit era; the decision to create a new system was made by Sega CEO Hayao Nakayama and broadly supported by Sega of America employees. According to former Sega of America producer Scot Bayless, Nakayama was worried that the Saturn would not be available until after 1994, about the recent release of the 64-bit Atari Jaguar; as a result, the direction given was to have this second release to market by the end of the year. During the Winter Consumer Electronics Show in January 1994, Sega of America research and development head Joe Miller took a phone call in his Las Vegas hotel suite from Nakayama, in which Nakayama stressed the importance of coming up with a quick response to the Jaguar.

Included on this call were Bayless, Sega hardware team head Hideki Sato, Sega of America vice president of technology Marty Franz. One potential idea for this came from a concept from Sega of Japan known as "Project Jupiter", an new independent console. Project Jupiter was slated to be a new version of the Genesis, with an upgraded color palette and a lower cost than the upcoming Saturn, as well as with some limited 3D capabilities thanks to integration of ideas from the development of the Sega Virtua Processor chip. Miller suggested an alternative strategy, citing concerns with releasing a new console with no previous design specifications within six to nine months. According to former Sega of America producer Michael Latham, Miller said, "Oh, that's just a horrible idea. If all you're going to do is enhance the system, you should make it an add-on. If it's a new system with legitimate new software, great, but if the only thing it does is double the colors...." Miller, insists that the decision was made collectively to talk about alternative solutions.

One idea was to leverage the existing Genesis as a way to keep from alienating Sega customers, who would otherwise be required to discard their Genesis systems to play 32-bit games, to control the cost of the new system. This would come in the form of an add-on. From these discussions, Project Jupiter was discontinued and the new add-on, codenamed "Project Mars", was advanced. At the suggestion from Miller and his team, Sega designed the 32X as a peripheral for the existing Genesis, expanding its power with two 32-bit SuperH-2 processors; the SH-2 had been developed in 1993 as a joint venture between Sega and Japanese electronics company Hitachi. The original design for the 32X add-on, according to Bayless, was created on a cocktail napkin, but Miller insists that this was not the case. At the end of the Consumer Electronics show, with the basic design of the 32X in place, Sega of Japan invited Sega of America to assist in development of the new add-on. Although the new unit was a stronger console than proposed, it was not compatible with Saturn games.

This was justified by Sega's statement that both platforms would run at the same time, that the 32X would be aimed at players who could not afford the more expensive Saturn. Bayless praised the potential of this system at this point, calling it "a coder's dream for the day" with its twin processors and 3D capabilities. Sega of America headed up the development of the 32X, with some assistance from Sato's tea

Ladder Creek

Ladder Creek is a 230-mile-long stream in the central Great Plains of North America. A tributary of the Smoky Hill River, it flows from eastern Colorado into western Kansas. Ladder Creek known locally as Beaver Creek, was named by a surveying party "who found a ladder imbedded in the grass by the creek hidden; when they tried to pull it out, it broke to pieces. It was a great mystery; the rounds or steps had been tied to the sides with rawhide. There were notches around the steps and around the side poles; this was such an important find that the surveying crew called the stream Ladder Creek." Ladder Creek rises in the High Plains region of the Great Plains and flows east. Its source lies just south of Firstview, Colorado in central Cheyenne County in the far eastern part of the state; the river flows east into western Kansas, turning southeast in southern Wallace County and east again in north-central Wichita County. In Scott County, it turns north, joining the Smoky Hill River at Elkader, Kansas in southwestern Logan County.

In north-central Scott County, Ladder Creek has been dammed to form Lake Scott. In 1664, a group of Taos people fleeing Spanish rule built a small pueblo on the west bank of Ladder Creek in what is today north-central Scott County, Kansas; the site was occupied intermittently until it was abandoned in 1727. University of Kansas archaeologists excavated the site in the 1890s, it became known as El Cuartelejo, the northernmost pueblo ruins in the United States. In 1928, the Government of Kansas acquired El Cuartelejo and the surrounding land to create a state park; the following year, it dammed Ladder Creek a few miles north of the ruins to create Lake Scott, the park became known as Lake Scott State Park. In September 1878, the U. S. Army fought the Northern Cheyenne in the Battle of Punished Woman's Fork on bluffs overlooking the creek a few miles south of El Cuartelejo. List of rivers of Colorado List of rivers of Kansas

Legislature Parliament of Nepal

Legislature Parliament of Nepal was the unicameral legislature of Nepal. It was formed as the result of the 2013 Constituent Assembly elections after the failure of the first Constituent Assembly to promulgate a new constitution; the legislature ended its term on 14 October 2017. Former Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa, the oldest member of the house, assumed chairmanship of the CA on January 20, 2014 and administered the oath of office to 565 lawmakers at the first meeting of the assembly on January 21, 2014. Leaders of the NC, CPN-UML and UCPN pledged to draft a new constitution within a year. More than 80% of the members are new faces. On January 26, 2014, President Ram Baran Yadav called for the election of a Prime Minister and the formation of a consensus government within a week as per article 38 of the constitution which provides for the formation of a government through political understanding; the Nepali Congress obtained the support of the CPN-UML for a NC-led consensus government and the two parties agreed to hold local body elections within six months and adopt a new constitution within a year.

An all-party meeting followed at which the CPN-UML, UCPN and MPRF-Loktantrik expressed support for a government under Sushil Koirala. The RRP-N boycotted the meeting. Further discussions were held between the NC, CPN-UML and UCPN at which the Maoists expressed support for the idea of a NC-led government but did not agree to join the government and decided to stay in opposition. On February 2, 2014, the NC abandoned its pursuit of a consensus government under article 38 of the constitution after the UCPN and RPP-N, the third and fourth largest parties, decided not to join the government; the party has initiated talks with the CPN-UML to form a majority government under article 38 of the constitution. A total of thirty political parties and two independents were represented at the start of the second constituent assembly. However, some parties have merged and the number of parties has declined. State Affairs Committee Public Accounts Committee Environment Protection Committee International Relations and Labour Committee Legislation Committee Good Governance and Monitoring Committee Industry Commerce and Consumer Welfare Committee Women, Senior Citizen and Social Welfare Committee Development Committee Agriculture and Water Resources Committee Finance Committee Parliamentary Hearing Special Committee

Joseph Hasner

Joseph Hasner, Ritter von Artha was an Austrian ophthalmologist born in Prague. His brother, Leopold Hasner von Artha, was an influential Austrian politician, he studied medicine at the University of Prague, subsequently worked at the local general hospital. In 1843 he was an assistant at Johann Fischer's eye clinic. In 1848 he gained his habilitation, in 1852 he became an associate professor. From 1856 he was a primary physician in Prague. Starting in 1869 he was an editor of the Vierteljahrsschrift für die praktische Heilkunde. Hasner is remembered for the discovery of plica lacrimalis, a fold of mucous membrane that guards the lower opening of the nasolacrimal duct; this membrane goes by other names, including "Hasner's valve" and "Hasner's fold". He put forth the theory that myopia was caused by stretching of the eyeball — this being due to pulling on the posterior pole by the optic nerve. Among his numerous publications is Klinische Vorträge über Augenheilkunde, a collection of Hasner's lectures on eye diseases and ophthalmoscopy.

Other noted writings by Hasner include: Beiträge zur Physiologie und Pathologie des Tränenableitungsapparats, 1851 Beiträge zur Physiologie und Pathologie des Auges, 1873 Über die Grenzen der Akkommodation des Auges, 1875 Das mittlere Auge in seinen physiologischen und pathologischen Beziehungen, 1879 Die Verletzungen des Auges in gerichtsärztlicher Beziehung, In: Maschka's Handbuch der gerichtlichen Medizin, Tübingen 1880 Tycho Brahe und I. Kepler in Prag, 1872 The Bernard Becker Collection in Ophthalmology List of publications and parts of the biography based on a translation of the German Wikipedia. 4. Auflage. Band 8, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1885–1892, S. 203. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 50, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1905, S. 54

The Beatles' 1965 UK tour

The Beatles' 1965 tour of the United Kingdom was a concert tour that took place between 3 and 12 December 1965, comprising 18 shows at nine venues across England and Wales. It coincided with the release of the Beatles' studio album Rubber Soul and their double A-side single "Day Tripper" / "We Can Work It Out", was the final UK tour undertaken by the band. Weary of Beatlemania, the group conceded to do the tour but refused to perform a season of Christmas concerts as they had done over the 1963–64 and 1964–65 holiday seasons. Whereas the venues for the Beatles' summer 1965 tour of the United States had been arenas and large auditoriums, their UK concerts were all held in theatres and cinemas; the Beatles rehearsed for the tour. The album marked a significant progression from the band's Merseybeat roots, furthering the musical direction they had first adopted with their late 1964 release, Beatles for Sale. For the first time in their setlist for a tour, they now eschewed any songs from before the Beatles for Sale era.

The band chose their 1964 hit "I Feel Fine", sung by John Lennon, to open the shows, while their closing song, Paul McCartney's "I'm Down", became what NME journalist Alan Smith described as "the 1965'Twist And Shout'". For the 1960s, the UK concerts were arranged in a package-tour format, with multiple acts on the bill and two performances held each day; the support acts on the program were the Moody Blues, the Paramounts, Beryl Marsden, Steve Aldo, the Koobas, the Marionettes. At £1000 per engagement, the Beatles' fee was the highest paid to a performing act in Britain up to that time; the group's preparation ended with a rehearsal on 1 December at the London flat shared by Neil Aspinall and Mal Evans – the Beatles' long-serving road managers and roadies. Aside from the four band members and their manager, Brian Epstein, the tour personnel comprised only Aspinall, press officer Tony Barrow and a chauffeur, Alf Bicknell. On the way to Scotland for the first show, Harrison's Gretsch Country Gentleman fell from the group's car and into the path of a truck, destroying the instrument and leaving him with two guitars for the tour.

The opening shows took place at the Odeon Cinema in Glasgow on 2 December. In his feature article covering the first four stops on the itinerary – Glasgow, Newcastle and Manchester – Smith reported that while the fans' reaction did not seem as wild as it had been in previous years, "it's been capacity audiences and better-than-ever performances by the group all the way." Part of the reason for the less-frenzied mood surrounding the tour, Smith said, was due to a heavy police presence, which meant that roads around the venues were closed off and crowd numbers were confined to only those attending the concerts. The Beatles returned to their former hometown of Liverpool on 5 December to play at the Empire Theatre, with their friends and family members among the audience. At the second show that evening, McCartney accompanied the Koobas during their performance of "Dizzy Miss Lizzy". Otherwise, McCartney expressed disappointment at the level of police protection, saying: "just it's getting ridiculous.

There are so many of them about, it ruins the whole atmosphere of enjoyment."The winter weather hindered the band's progress throughout the tour. In Glasgow, Epstein was forced to change their accommodation to an inner-city hotel, to ensure that the Beatles made it on stage. Travel was affected by snow on the roads around Newcastle, by dense fog in Manchester, by heavy rain on the way to Birmingham. At the first performance at that city's Odeon Cinema, the Moody Blues extended their set to cover for the Beatles' late arrival; the Beatles played the first of two London venues, the Hammersmith Odeon, on 10 December – the day the NME announced that its readers had voted them Best British Group and Best World Group for 1965. In the same poll, Lennon won in the "British Vocal Personality" category; the following day, Melody Maker listed Rubber Soul at number 1 on its national albums chart. The 11 December concerts, at the Astoria in Finsbury Park, north London, received what author Barry Miles described as a "tremendous" reception.

Retracting his earlier statement about the growing maturity of the group's fans, Smith wrote: "I have not seen hysteria like this at a Beatles show since the word Beatlemania erupted into headlines … George Harrison staggered off the stage soaking in perspiration as he told me:'This is one of the most incredible shows we've done. Not just because of the audience, but because they're Londoners!'" Lennon elaborated: "We used to think Londoners had that cool we've-seen-it-all-before outlook but we take it all back!"The tour ended on 12 December with two performances at the Capitol Cinema in Cardiff. Some 25,000 applications were received for the 5000 tickets; these shows proved to be the final UK concerts the Beatles played outside London, where they went on to perform for the last time at the NME Poll-Winners' Concert in May 1966. According to Walter Everett: "I Feel Fine" "She's a Woman" "If I Needed Someone" "Act Naturally" "Nowhere Man" "Baby's in Black" "Help!" "We Can Work It Out" "Yesterday" "Day Tripper" "I'm Down" According to Barry Miles and Walter Everett

Ice formation on aircraft

"Ice Formation on Aircraft" was the first issue in the Aerology Series produced by the Bureau of Aeronautics Training Division, Navy Department, Washington D. C.. The issue does not credit a single author or artist for the work, as the manual is meant for training purposes and was provided to Naval Aviation Cadets; this issue of Ice Formation on Aircraft was published in 1943. The first issue of Ice Formation on Aircraft cover features an aircraft flying in a straight line under the title, which references one of the purveying points within the issue to "maintain your flying speed"; the cover is a gradient variation of blue to white. The cover features the insignia of the naval aviators, a set of wings behind an anchor and a United States flag on a shield. All of the inner pages are printed in black and white and combine illustrations with instructional text; the manual has two holes punched through it in order for it to be placed into a binder or bound in some fashion with the other manuals in the series once they were received.

The manual states on the first page that it, plus the other issues in the series, once bound together will make a “complete text on Aerology”. The issue features 40 pages. Within those 40 pages there are illustrations along with technical instructions detailing the formation of ice on aircraft; each section of the manual deals with its ramifications for aircraft. The illustrations for the manual feature flight patterns during different types of icy weather as well as images that depict ice build up on essential aircraft parts such as the carburetor The end of the manual features a summary section and another section entitled “Pilot counsel”; the text features a glossary section that defines some of the terms used throughout. Unlike some of the releases by the Bureau of Aeronautics Training Division, such as the Sense series, this series featured less of an entertainment element for the readers. "Taxi Sense", an issue of the Sense series made for the same audience of navy aviators featured many more humorous illustrations than "Ice Formation on Aircraft".

This issue only features one cartoonish drawing without dialogue, whereas the Sense manuals contain numerous funny illustrations for the reader. "Ice formation on aircraft" was made into a short film of the same name in 1960 for instructional use. The film was produced by Walt E. Disney; the animated version of the issue is available for free viewing and download at the Internet Archive. The video features some of the same illustrations featured within the physical manual, but provides detailed animations showing the formation of ice and appropriate flight patterns when certain types of ice are encountered; the film is 48 minutes in black and white. The animated film, much like the individual issue are less for entertainment and more based on the delivery of instructional training information