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3D computer graphics

3D computer graphics, or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data, stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. The resulting images may be stored for viewing or displayed in real time. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, 3D may use some 2D rendering techniques; the objects in 3D computer graphics are referred to as 3D models. Unlike the rendered image, a model's data is contained within a graphical data file. A 3D model is a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering, or it can be used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations.

With 3D printing, models are rendered into an actual 3D physical representation of themselves, with some limitations as to how the physical model can match the virtual model. William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1961 to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld, which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had appeared in the 1971 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.3D computer graphics software began appearing for home computers in the late 1970s. The earliest known example is 3D Art Graphics, a set of 3D computer graphics effects, written by Kazumasa Mitazawa and released in June 1978 for the Apple II. 3D computer graphics creation falls into three basic phases: 3D modeling – the process of forming a computer model of an object's shape Layout and animation – the placement and movement of objects within a scene 3D rendering – the computer calculations that, based on light placement, surface types, other qualities, generate the image The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object.

The two most common sources of 3D models are those that an artist or engineer originates on the computer with some kind of 3D modeling tool, models scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can be produced procedurally or via physical simulation. A 3D model is formed from points called vertices that define the shape and form polygons. A polygon is an area formed from at least three vertexes. A polygon of n points is an n-gon; the overall integrity of the model and its suitability to use in animation depend on the structure of the polygons. Materials and textures are properties. One can give the model materials to tell the render engine how to treat light when it hits the surface. Textures are used to give the material color using a color or albedo map, or give the surface features using a bump or normal map, it can be used to deform the model itself using a displacement map. Before rendering into an image, objects must be laid out in a scene; this defines spatial relationships including location and size.

Animation refers to the temporal description of an object. These techniques are used in combination; as with animation, physical simulation specifies motion. Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photo-realistic images, or by applying an art style as in non-photorealistic rendering; the two basic operations in realistic rendering are scattering. This step is performed using 3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. Altering the scene into a suitable form for rendering involves 3D projection, which displays a three-dimensional image in two dimensions. Although 3D modeling and CAD software may perform 3D rendering as well, exclusive 3D rendering software exists. 3D computer graphics software produces computer-generated imagery through 3D modeling and 3D rendering or produces 3D models for analytic and industrial purposes. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers. 3D modelers allow users to alter models via their 3D mesh.

Users can add, subtract and otherwise change the mesh to their desire. Models can be viewed from a variety of angles simultaneously. Models can be rotated and the view can be zoomed in and out. 3D modelers can export their models to files, which can be imported into other applications as long as the metadata are compatible. Many modelers allow importers and exporters to be plugged-in, so they can read and write data in the native formats of other applications. Most 3D modelers contain a number of related features, such as ray tracers and other rendering alternatives and texture mapping facilities; some contain features that support or allow animation of models. Some may be able to generate full-motion video of a series of rendered scenes. Computer aided design software may employ the same fundamental 3D modeling techniques that 3D modeling software use but their goal differs, they are used in computer-aided engineering, computer

Jonathan Miller (West Virginia politician)

Jonathan Miller is a health insurance salesman and former Republican member of the West Virginia House of Delegates from Berkeley County. He is the son of Rita Miller. Miller graduated from Musselman High School attended High Point University, earning a B. A. in political science. He works as occasional substitute teacher. In 2006, Miller was elected as a member of the House of Delegates, where he served on the Health and Human Resources and Insurance, Government Organization, Political Subdivisions Committees, he was re-elected in 2008 without opposition. Miller is the West Virginia state co-chair of the conservative American Legislative Exchange Council, he is a member of The Heartland Institute, the Cato Institute, the Club for Growth. In June 2008, Miller was replaced on the Eastern Panhandle Regional Planning and Development Council because he had failed to attend a number of meetings. In May 2011, Miller announced that he would vacate his seat in the House of Delegates and enter the race for the Republican nomination for West Virginia's 2nd congressional district.

He challenged current by U. S. Congresswoman Shelley Moore Capito, who had announced her intentions to run for re-election. Miller expressed his religion being a factor in running, saying in a video: "I believe that God has called me to run for this office now."In May 2012, Miller would lose the primary race, with incumbent Shelley Moore Capito winning the nomination. Miller's campaign website

Eugene Field

Eugene Field Sr. was an American writer, best known for his children's poetry and humorous essays. He was known as the "poet of childhood". Field was born in St. Louis, Missouri at 634 S. Broadway where today his boyhood home is open to the public as The Eugene Field House and St. Louis Toy Museum. After the death of his mother in 1856, he was raised by a cousin, Mary Field French, in Amherst, Massachusetts. Field's father, attorney Roswell Martin Field, was famous for his representation of Dred Scott, the slave who sued for his freedom. Field filed the complaint in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case on behalf of Scott in the federal court in St. Louis, whence it progressed to the U. S. Supreme Court. Field attended Williams College in Massachusetts, his father died when Eugene turned 19, he subsequently dropped out of Williams after eight months. He went to Knox College in Galesburg, but dropped out after a year, followed by the University of Missouri in Columbia, where his brother Roswell was attending.

Field was spent much of his time at school playing practical jokes. He led raids on the president's wine cellar, painted the president's house school colors, fired the school's landmark cannons at midnight. Field tried acting, studied law with little success, wrote for the student newspaper, he set off for a trip through Europe but returned to the United States six months penniless. Field set to work as a journalist for the St. Joseph Gazette in Saint Joseph, Missouri, in 1875; that same year he married Julia Comstock. For the rest of his life he arranged for all the money he earned to be sent to his wife, saying that he had no head for money himself. Field soon rose to city editor of the Gazette, he became known for his light, humorous articles written in a gossipy style, some of which were reprinted by other newspapers around the country. It was during this time that he wrote the famous poem "Lovers Lane" about a street in St. Joseph, Missouri. From 1876 through 1880, Field lived in St. Louis, first as an editorial writer for the Morning Journal and subsequently for the Times-Journal.

After a brief stint as managing editor of the Kansas City Times, he worked for two years as editor of the Denver Tribune. In 1883, Field moved to Chicago where he wrote a humorous newspaper column called Sharps and Flats for the Chicago Daily News, his home in Chicago was near the intersection of N. Clarendon and W. Hutchinson in the neighborhood now known as Buena Park; the Sharps and Flats column ran in the newspaper's morning edition. In it, Field made quips about issues and personalities of the day in the arts and literature. A pet subject was the intellectual greatness of Chicago compared to Boston. In April 1887, Field wrote, "While Chicago is humping herself in the interests of literature and the sciences, vain old Boston is frivoling away her precious time in an attempted renaissance of the cod fisheries." That year, Chicago's National League baseball club sold future baseball Hall of Famer Mike "King" Kelly to Boston, coincidentally soon after, famous Boston poet and diplomat James Russell Lowell made a speaking tour of Chicago.

"Chicago feels a special interest in Mr. Lowell at this particular time because he is the foremost representative of the enterprising and opulent community which within the last week has secured the services of one of Chicago's honored sons for the base-ball season of 1887," Field wrote. "The fact that Boston has come to Chicago for the captain of her baseball nine has reinvigorated the bonds of affection between the metropolis of the Bay state and the metropolis of the mighty west. Four months upon Kelly's first return to Chicago as a player for Boston, Field would speak to "Col. Samuel J. Bosbyshell, the Prairie avenue millionaire." Bosbyshell said, "I like Mr. Kelly better; when Lowell was here I had him out to the house to a $3,500 dinner, do what I could, I couldn't get him waked up. He didn't seem to want to talk about anything but literature. Now, when I'm out in society I make it a point never to talk shop, Lowell's peculiarity mortified me. If it hadn't been for Frank Lincoln, with his imitations and funny stories, the dinner would have been a stupid affair.

But Kelly is another kind of man. I don't believe he mentioned books once during the four hours we sat at dinner last Saturday evening. Nor did he confine his conversation to base-ball topics. Over a dozen volumes of poetry followed and he became well known for his light-hearted poems for children, among the most famous of which are "Wynken and Nod" and "The Duel". Famous is his poem about the death of a child, "Little Boy Blue". Field published a number of short stories, including "The Holy Cross" and "Daniel and the Devil." Field died in Chicago of a heart attack at the age of 45. He is buried at the Church of the Holy Comforter in Illinois. Slason Thompson's 1901 biography of Field states that he was buried in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago, but his son-in-law, Senior Warden of the Church of the Holy Comforter, had h

Lancia Epsilon

The Lancia 20/30 HP known as Lancia Epsilon, is a passenger car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lancia between 1911 and 1912. The car was quite similar to the previous 20/30 HP Delta model. In total 357 were made. Three wheelbase lengths were offered, resulting in a choice of five different models—depending on the desired body style: Type A: normal wheelbase, for phaetons, landaulets and coupés Type B: long wheelbase, for phaetons and limousines Type C: short wheelbase Corsa, for competition two- or three-seaters Type D: normal wheelbase, for torpedoes Type E: long wheelbase, for torpedoes and cabriolets The Epsilon was powered by a Tipo 58 side valve monobloc inline-four, displacing 4,080 cc, which produced 60 hp at 1,500 rpm. Top speed was 115 km/h; the separate body was built on a ladder frame. The brakes were on the rear wheels; the transmission was a 4-speed gearbox with a multi-plate wet clutch

Ben Templesmith

Ben Templesmith is an Australian comic book artist best known for his work in the American comic book industry, most notably the Image Comics series Fell, with writer Warren Ellis, IDW's 30 Days of Night with writer Steve Niles, adapted into a motion picture of the same name. He has created book covers, movie posters, trading cards, concept work for film. Templesmith was born 7 March 1984, in Western Australia, he graduated from Curtin University with a bachelor's degree in Design, holds a diploma of Cartoon and Graphic Art from the Australian College of Journalism. Templesmith produced his first commercial American comics work in 2001, providing the art for Todd McFarlane Productions' Hellspawn, published by Image Comics, he has gone on to create his own original works as well as contribute to many licensed properties at various publishers, most notably IDW Publishing, with which he had an exclusive agreement through most of 2008 and part of 2009 before returning to being a freelancer. Other licensed properties that Templesmith has worked on include illustrating "Dark Journey", a story in issue #17 of the Dark Horse Comics anthology series Star Wars Tales in 2003, the covers to Devil's Due Publishing's Army of Darkness: Ashes to Ashes #1 in 2004 and IDW's G.

I. Joe #0 in 2008. Original works Templesmith has produced include the miniseries Welcome to Hoxford, the New York Times best-selling Wormwood: Gentleman Corpse Tommyrot: The Art of Ben Templesmith and Choker at Image Comics with writer Ben McCool, he provided a number of covers for the Oni Press series Wasteland. In April 2012 DC Entertainment announced that Templesmith will be one of the artists illustrating a new digital Batman series whose stories will be set outside of the regular DC continuity. Starting in November 2014, Templesmith launched Gotham by Midnight from DC Comics with writer Ray Fawkes. 2007 International Horror Guild Award for Illustrated Narrative 2007 Spike TV Scream Award for Best Comic Book 2010 Eagle Award for Favourite Colourist 2005 Eisner Award for Best Limited Series 2005 Eisner Award for Best Painter/Multimedia Artist 2006 Eisner Award for Best Continuing Series 2006 Eisner Award for Best New Series 2006 Eisner Award for Best Painter/Multimedia Artist 2007 Eisner Award for Best Limited Series 2007 Eisner Award for Painter/Multimedia Artist 2006 International Horror Guild Award for Illustrated Narrative 2006 International Horror Guild Award for Graphic Narrative 2007 Horror Guild Award for Illustrated Narrative Hellspawn 30 Days of Night Dark Days Criminal Macabre Wormwood: Gentleman Corpse 30 Days of Night: Return to Barrow Singularity 7 Blood-Stained Sword Silent Hill: Dying Inside 30 Days of Night: Bloodsucker Tales Hatter M Shadowplay Fell 30 Days of Night: Red Snow Dead Space Welcome To Hoxford Doctor Who - The Whispering Gallery Groom Lake Choker Ten Grand, with J. Michael Straczynski, Image Comics, 2013 Gotham By Midnight Superiors 4: Rogues to Riches Steve Jackson Games, Interior Artist Faiths and Pantheons Wizards of the Coast, Interior Artist City of the Spider Queen Wizards of the Coast, Interior Artist Fiend Folio Wizards of the Coast, Interior Artist Nomads Tommyrot: The Art of Ben Templesmith Conluvio: The Art of Ben Templesmith, Vol. 2 SquidGirls: Erotica Tentacular Official website Ben Templesmith at the Comic Book DB "Ben Templesmith on LiveJournal, his official blog".

Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. "Ben Templesmith at Pen n Paper". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007

1961 Open Championship

The 1961 Open Championship was the 90th Open Championship, played 12–15 July at Royal Birkdale Golf Club in Southport, England. Arnold Palmer won the first of two consecutive Open Championships, one stroke ahead of Dai Rees, it was the second Open for Palmer, the runner-up in his first in 1960, the fourth of his seven major titles. He was the first American to win the Claret Jug since Ben Hogan in 1953; this was the second Open Championship at Royal Birkdale, which hosted in 1954. Qualifying took place on 10–11 July. Entries played 18 holes on 18 holes at Hillside Golf Club; the number of qualifiers was limited to a maximum of 120. Ties for 120th place would not qualify; the qualifying score was 108 players qualified. There were 22 players on 152. Bob Charles led the qualifiers two ahead of Gary Player. A maximum of 50 players could make the cut after 36 holes. Ties for 50th place did not make the cut. Gale-force winds caused scores to soar during the second round on Thursday, followed by heavy rains which washed out both rounds on Friday.

Cancellation was a possibility, but the weather cooperated enough to play the third and fourth rounds in showers on Saturday.1959 Open champion and reigning Masters champion Gary Player withdrew early in the third round due to a stomach ailment. Wednesday, 12 July 1961 Thursday, 13 July 1961 Amateurs: Christmas, Chapman, Carr, Pearson Saturday, 15 July 1961 - Saturday, 15 July 1961 - Amateurs: White, Christmas 90th Open - Royal Birkdale 1961 1961 Open Championship