Hôtel de Ville, Paris
The Hôtel de Ville in Paris, France, is the building housing the city's local administration, standing on the place de l'Hôtel-de-Ville in the 4th arrondissement. The south wing was constructed by François I beginning in 1535 until 1551; the north wing was built by Henry IV and Louis XIII between 1605 and 1628. It was burned by the Paris Commune, along with all the city archives that it contained, during the Commune's final days in May 1871; the outside was rebuilt following the original design, but larger, between 1874 and 1882, while the inside was modified. It has been the headquarters of the municipality of Paris since 1357, it serves multiple functions, housing the local administration, the Mayor of Paris, serves as a venue for large receptions. In July 1357, Étienne Marcel, provost of the merchants of Paris, bought the so-called maison aux piliers in the name of the municipality on the sloping shingle beach which served as a river port for unloading wheat and wood and merged into a square, the Place de Grève, a place where Parisians gathered for public executions.
Since 1357, the City of Paris's administration has been located on the same location where the Hôtel de Ville stands today. Before 1357, the city administration was located in the so-called parloir aux bourgeois near the Châtelet. In 1533, King Francis I decided to endow the city with a city hall which would be worthy of Paris the largest city of Europe and Christendom, he appointed two architects: Italian Dominique de Cortone, nicknamed Boccador because of his red beard, Frenchman Pierre Chambiges. The House of Pillars was torn down and Boccador, steeped in the spirit of the Renaissance, drew up the plans of a building, at the same time tall, full of light and refined. Building work was not finished until 1628 during the reign of Louis XIII. During the next two centuries, no changes were made to the edifice, the stage for several famous events during the French Revolution. In 1835, on the initiative of Rambuteau, préfet of the Seine département, two wings were added to the main building and were linked to the facade by a gallery, to provide more space for the expanded city government.
The architects were Jean-Baptiste Lesueur. During the Franco-Prussian War, the building played a key role in several political events. On 30 October 1870, revolutionaries broke into the building and captured the some of the members of the Government of National Defence, while making repeated demands for the establishment of a communard government; the existing government escaped via an underground tunnel built in 1807, which still connects the Hôtel de Ville with a nearby barracks. On 18 January 1871, crowds gathered outside the building to protest against speculated surrender to the Prussians, were dispersed by soldiers firing from the building, who inflicted several casualties; the Hôtel de Ville had been the headquarters of the French Revolution, it was the headquarters of the Paris Commune. When defeat became imminent and the French army approached the building, the Communards set fire to the Hôtel de Ville, along with other government buildings, destroying the building and all of the city archives.
Reconstruction of City Hall lasted from 1873 through 1892 and was directed by architects Théodore Ballu and Édouard Deperthes, who had won the public competition for the building's reconstruction. Ballu designed the Church of La Trinité in the 9th arrondissement and the belfry of the town hall of the 1st arrondissement, opposite the Louvre's east facade, he restored the Saint-Jacques Tower, a Gothic church tower in a square 150 metres to the west of the Hôtel de Ville. The architects rebuilt the interior of the Hôtel de Ville within the stone shell that had survived the fire. While the rebuilt Hôtel de Ville from the outside appeared to be a copy of the 16th-century French Renaissance building that stood before 1871, the new interior was based on an new design, with ceremonial rooms lavishly decorated in the 1880s style; the central ceremonial doors under the clock are flanked by allegorical figures of Art, by Laurent Marqueste, Science, by Jules Blanchard. Some 230 other sculptors were commissioned to produce 338 individual figures of famous Parisians on each facade, along with lions and other sculptural features.
The sculptors included prominent academicians like Ernest-Eugène Hiolle and Henri Chapu, but the most famous was Auguste Rodin. Rodin produced the figure of the 18th-century mathematician Jean le Rond d'Alembert, finished in 1882; the statue on the garden wall on the south side is of Étienne Marcel, the most famous holder of the post of prévôt des marchands which predated the office of mayor. Marcel was lynched in 1358 by an angry mob after trying to assert the city's powers too energetically; the decor featured murals by the leading painters of the day, including Raphaël Collin, Jean-Paul Laurens, Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Gervex, Aimé Morot and Alfred Roll. Most can still be seen as part of a guided tour of the building. Since the French Revolution, the building has been the scene of a number of historical events, notably the proclamation of the French Third Republic in 1870 and the speech by Charles de Gaulle on 25 August 1944 during the Liberation of Paris when he greeted the crowd from a front window
The Gauls were a group of Celtic peoples of West-Central Europe in the Iron Age and the Roman period. The area they inhabited was known as Gaul, their Gaulish language forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps. By the 4th century BC, they spread over much of what is now France, Spain, Switzerland, Southern Germany, the Czech Republic and Slovakia by virtue of controlling the trade routes along the river systems of the Rhône, Seine and Danube, they expanded into Northern Italy, the Balkans and Galatia. Gaul was never united under a single ruler or government, but the Gallic tribes were capable of uniting their forces in large-scale military operations, they reached the peak of their power in the early 3rd century BC. The rising Roman Republic after the end of the First Punic War put pressure on the Gallic sphere of influence. After this, Gaul became a province of the Roman Empire, the Gauls culturally adapted to the Roman world, bringing about the formation of the hybrid Gallo-Roman culture.
The Gauls of Gallia Celtica according to the testimony of Caesar called themselves Celtae in their own language, Galli in Latin. As is not unusual with ancient ethnonyms, these names came to be applied more than their original sense, Celtae being the origin of the term Celts itself while Galli is the origin of the adjective Gallic, now referring to all of Gaul; the name Gaul itself is not from the Germanic word * Walhaz. Gaulish culture developed out of the Celtic cultures over the first millennia BC; the Urnfield culture represents the Celts as a distinct cultural branch of the Indo-European-speaking people. The spread of iron working led to the Hallstatt culture in the 8th century BC; the Hallstatt culture evolved into the La Tène culture in around the 5th century BC. The Greek and Etruscan civilizations and colonies began to influence the Gauls in the Mediterranean area. Gauls under Brennus invaded Rome circa 390 BC. By the 5th century BC, the tribes called Gauls had migrated from Central France to the Mediterranean coast.
Gallic invaders settled the Po Valley in the 4th century BC, defeated Roman forces in a battle under Brennus in 390 BC and raided Italy as far as Sicily. In the 3rd century BC, the Gauls attempted an eastward expansion in 281-279 BC, towards the Balkan peninsula, which at that time was a Greek province, with the ultimate goal to reach and loot the rich Greek city-states of the Greek mainland, but the majority of the Gaul army was exterminated by the Greeks and the few Gauls that survived were forced to flee. A large number of Gauls served in the armies of Carthage during the Punic Wars, one of the leading rebel leaders of the Mercenary War, was of Gallic origin. During the Balkan expedition, led by Cerethrios and Bolgios, the Gauls raided twice the Greek mainland. At the end of the second expedition the Gallic raiders had been repelled by the coalition armies of the various Greek city-states and were forced to retreat to Illyria and Thrace, but the Greeks were forced to grant safe-passage to the Gauls who made their way to Asia Minor and settled in Central Anatolia.
The Gallic area of settlement in Asia Minor was called Galatia. But they were checked through the use of war elephants and skirmishers by the Greek Seleucid king Antiochus I in 275 BC, after which they served as mercenaries across the whole Hellenistic Eastern Mediterranean, including Ptolemaic Egypt, where they, under Ptolemy II Philadelphus, attempted to seize control of the kingdom. In the first Gallic invasion of Greece, they achieved victory over the Macedonians and killed the Macedonian king Ptolemy Keraunos, they focused on looting the rich Macedonian countryside, but avoided the fortified cities. The Macedonian general Sosthenes assembled an army, defeated Bolgius and repelled the invading Gauls. In the second Gaulish invasion of Greece, the Gauls, led by Brennos, suffered heavy losses while facing the Greek coalition army at Thermopylae, but helped by the Heracleans they followed the mountain path around Thermopylae to encircle the Greek army in the same way that the Persian army had done at the Battle of Thermopylae in 480 BC, but this time deafeating the whole of the Greek army.
After passing Thermopylae the Gauls headed for the rich treasury at Delphi, where they were defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. This led to a series of retreats of the Gauls, with devastating losses, all the way up to Macedonia and out of the Greek mainland; the major part of the Gaul army was defeated in the process, those Gauls survived were forced to flee from Greece. The Gallic leader Brennos was injured at Delphi and committed suicide there. (He is not to be confused with another Gaulish leader bearing the same name who had sacked Rome a century earlier. In 278 BC Gaulish settlers in the Balkans were invited by Nicomedes I of Bithynia to help him in a dynastic struggle against his brother, they numbered about 10,000 fighting men and about the same number of
Pied-Noir, plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term referring to people of European ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962. More broadly, it can refer to other foreign-origin persons, both Christian and Jewish, from all parts of the Mediterranean whose families had migrated under French occupation in the 19th and 20th centuries to French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, or the French protectorate of Tunisia, where many carried on living for several generations but fled or were expelled at the end of French rule in North Africa between 1956 and 1962; the term sometimes includes the pre-existing North African Jews, living there prior to French colonization, whether Ladino-speaking Sephardi Jews who had arrived after the expulsion from Sepharad several centuries earlier in 1492 or earlier Berber-speaking and/or Arabic-speaking Maghrebi Jews, residing there for over a thousand years, all of which were nonetheless awarded French citizenship by the 1870 Crémieux Decree whilst the rest of the native Muslim population was maintained in a second class status with the "Code de l'Indigénat".
More the term Pied-Noir is used for those of European ancestry who "returned" to mainland France as soon as Algeria gained independence, or in the months following. From the French invasion on 18 June 1830 until its independence, Algeria was administratively part of France, its European population was called Algerians or colons, whereas the Muslim people of Algeria were called Arabs, Muslims or Indigenous; the term "pied-noir" began to be used shortly before the end of the Algerian War in 1962. As of the last census in French-ruled Algeria, taken on 1 June 1960, there were 1,050,000 non-Muslim civilians in Algeria, 10 percent of the total population. During the Algerian War the Pieds-Noirs overwhelmingly supported colonial French rule in Algeria and were opposed to Algerian nationalist groups such as the Front de libération nationale and Mouvement national algérien; the roots of the conflict reside in political and economic inequalities perceived as an "alienation" from the French rule as well as a demand for a leading position for the Berber and Islamic cultures and rules existing before the French conquest.
The conflict contributed to the fall of the French Fourth Republic and the mass exodus of Algerian Europeans and Jews to France. After Algeria became independent in 1962, about 800,000 Pieds-Noirs of French nationality were evacuated to mainland France while about 200,000 chose to remain in Algeria. Of the latter, there were still about 50,000 by the end of the 1960s; those who moved to France suffered ostracism from the Left for their perceived exploitation of native Muslims and some blamed them for the war, thus the political turmoil surrounding the collapse of the French Fourth Republic. In popular culture, the community is represented as feeling removed from French culture while longing for Algeria. Thus, the recent history of the Pieds-Noirs has been imprinted with a theme of double alienation from both their native homeland and their adopted land. Though the term rapatriés d'Algérie implies that they once lived in France, most Pieds-Noirs were born in Algeria. Many families had lived there for generations, the Algerian Jews, who were considered Pieds-Noirs, were as indigenous to Algeria as its Muslim population.
There are competing theories about the origin of the term "pied-noir". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it refers to "a person of European origin living in Algeria during the period of French rule a French person expatriated after Algeria was granted independence in 1962." The Le Robert dictionary states that in 1901 the word indicated a sailor working barefoot in the coal room of a ship, who would find his feet dirtied by the soot and dust. Since, in the Mediterranean, this was an Algerian native, the term was used pejoratively for Algerians until 1955 when it first began referring to "French born in Algeria" according to some sources; the Oxford English Dictionary claims this usage originated from mainland French as a negative nickname. There is a theory that the term comes from the black boots of French soldiers compared to the barefoot Algerians. Other theories focus on new settlers dirtying their clothing by working in swampy areas, wearing black boots when on horseback, or trampling grapes to make wine.
European settlement of Algeria began during the 1830s, after France had commenced the process of conquest with the military seizure of the city of Algiers in 1830. The invasion was instigated when the Dey of Algiers struck the French consul with a fly-swatter in 1827, although economic reasons are cited. In 1830 the government of King Charles X blockaded Algeria and an armada sailed to Algiers, followed by a land expedition. A troop of 34,000 soldiers landed on 18 June 1830, 27 kilometres west of Algiers. Following a three-week campaign, the Hussein Dey capitulated on 5 July 1830, was exiled. In the 1830s the French controlled only the northern part of the country. Entering the Oran region, they faced resistance from Emir Abd al-Kader, a leader of a Sufi Brotherhood. In 1839 Abd al-Kader began a seven-year war by declaring jihad against the French; the French signed two peace treaties with al-Kader, but they were broken because of a miscommunication between the military and the Parisian government.
In response to the breaking of the second treaty, Abd al-Kader drove the French to the coast. In reply, a force of nearl
5th arrondissement of Paris
The 5th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as cinquième; the arrondissement known as Panthéon, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It is one of the central arrondissements of the capital; the arrondissement is notable for being the location of the Quartier Latin, a district dominated by universities and prestigious high schools since the 12th century when the Sorbonne University was created. The 5th arrondissement is one of the oldest districts of the city, dating back to ancient times. Traces of the area's past survive in such sites as the Arènes de Lutèce, a Roman amphitheatre, the Thermes de Cluny, a Roman thermae; the 5th arrondissement covers some 2.541 km² in central Paris. The population of the arrondissement peaked in 1911 when the population density reached 50,000 inhabitants per km². In 1999, the population was 58,849; the Ve arrondissement is the oldest arrondissement in Paris, was first built by the Romans.
The construction of the Roman town Lutetia dates back from the 1st century BC, built after the conquest of the Gaulish site, situated on the île de la Cité by the Romans. The Ministry of Higher Education and Research has its head office in the arrondissement; the Bureau d'Enquêtes sur les Événements de Mer had its head office in the 5th arrondissement. Sony Computer Science Laboratories Paris is in the arrondissement; as part of the Latin Quarter, the 5th arrondissement is known for its high concentration of educational and research establishments. Collège de France Collège international de philosophie École Normale Supérieure École Polytechnique Jussieu Campus ENSCP - Chimie Paris ESPCI University of Paris 6 University of Paris 7 Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris Sorbonne University of Paris 1 University of Paris 3 University of Paris 4 University of Paris 5 Rectorate of Paris Famous lycées with preparatory classes to the Grandes écoles Lycée Louis-le-Grand Lycée Henri IV 5th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Arrondissements of Paris
The city of Paris is divided into twenty arrondissements municipaux, administrative districts, more referred to as arrondissements. These are not to be confused with departmental arrondissements, which subdivide the 100 French départements; the word "arrondissement", when applied to Paris, refers always to the municipal arrondissements listed below. The number of the arrondissement is indicated by the last two digits in most Parisian postal codes; the twenty arrondissements are arranged in the form of a clockwise spiral, starting from the middle of the city, with the first on the Right Bank of the Seine. Lyon and Marseille have, more also been subdivided into arrondissements. In French, notably on street signs, the number is given in Roman numerals. For example, the Eiffel Tower belongs to the VIIe arrondissement while Gare de l'Est is in the Xe arrondissement. In daily speech, people use only the ordinal number corresponding to the arrondissement, e.g. "Elle habite dans le sixième", "She lives in the 6th".
Notes: 1. With the Bois de Vincennes 2. Without the Bois de Vincennes 3. With the Bois de Boulogne 4. Without the Bois de Boulogne 5. 2005 is the year of the most recent official estimate. Paris thus has eighty quartiers administratifs, each containing a police station. For a table giving the names of the eighty quartiers, see Quarters of Paris. On 11 October 1795, Paris was divided into twelve arrondissements, they were numbered from west to east, with the numbers 1-9 situated on the Right Bank of the Seine and the numbers 10-12 on the Left Bank. Each arrondissement was subdivided into four quartiers, which corresponded to the 48 original districts created in 1790. Emperor Napoleon III and the Prefect of the Seine Baron Haussmann developed a plan to incorporate several of the surrounding communes into the Paris jurisdiction in the late 1850s. Parliament passed the necessary legislation in 1859, the expansion took effect when the law was promulgated on 3 November 1859; the previous twelve arrondissements were reorganized from twelve arrondissements into twenty.
When Haussmann released his plan for the new boundaries and numbering system, residents of Passy objected because it placed them in the new thirteenth arrondissement, at the time the expression "they were married in the thirteenth" was "a jocular way of referring to non-marital cohabitation". The mayor of Passy, devised the idea of a numbering the arrondissements in a spiral pattern beginning with the first centered on the imperial palaces, which put Passy in the sixteenth. In historical records, when it is important to distinguish between two systems, the original arrondissements are indicated by adding the term ancienne, for example, 2ème ancienne or 7ème anc. Both a city and a département, Paris has since 1982 and the PLM law both a city council and 20 arrondissement councils; the PLM law set limits to the prerogatives of the mayor of Paris, who has to deal with the powers granted to the prefect of police on security issues. The 20 arrondissement councils are similar in operation to the municipal council but with few powers.
Its members are elected at municipal elections in the same way as in municipalities with more than 3,500 inhabitants. The arrondissement council is made up of 2/3 arrondissement councilors and 1/3 of city councilors, elected in the arrondissement but who sit on the Paris city council. At its first meeting after the elections, each arrondissement council elects its mayor. Arrondissement, for other uses of the term. Historical quarters of Paris Paris, je t'aime, film composed of five-minute sequences on each arrondissement Administration of Paris Official Paris website Diagrams of each arrondissement showing its quartiers administratifs Website showing location, numbering conventions, general info for arrondissements Map of Paris arrondissements
Kashrut is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws. Food that may be consumed according to halakha is termed kosher, from the Ashkenazi pronunciation of the Hebrew term kashér, meaning "fit". Among the numerous laws that form kashrut are prohibitions on the consumption of certain animals, mixtures of meat and milk, the commandment to slaughter mammals and birds according to a process known as shechita. There are laws regarding agricultural produce that might impact the suitability of food for consumption. Most of the basic laws of kashrut are derived from the Torah's Books of Deuteronomy, their details and practical application, are set down in the oral law and elaborated on in the rabbinical literature. Although the Torah does not state the rationale for most kashrut laws, some suggest that they are only tests for man's obedience, while others have suggested philosophical and hygienic reasons. Over the past century, many rabbinical organizations have started to certify products and restaurants as kosher using a symbol to indicate their support.
About a sixth of American Jews or 0.3% of the American population keep kosher, there are many more who do not follow all the rules but still abstain from some prohibited foods. The Seventh-day Adventist Church, a Christian denomination, have a health message that expects adherence to the kosher dietary laws. Jewish philosophy divides the 613 commandments into three groups—laws that have a rational explanation and would be enacted by most orderly societies, laws that are understood after being explained but would not be legislated without the Torah's command, laws that do not have a rational explanation; some Jewish scholars say that kashrut should be categorized as laws for which there is no particular explanation since the human mind is not always capable of understanding divine intentions. In this line of thinking, the dietary laws were given as a demonstration of God's authority, man must obey without asking why. However, Maimonides believed; some theologians have said that the laws of kashrut are symbolic in character: Kosher animals represent virtues, while non-kosher animals represent vices.
The 1st-century BCE Letter of Aristeas argues that the laws "have been given... to awake pious thoughts and to form the character". This view reappears in the work of the 19th century Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch; the Torah prohibits "seething the kid in its mother's milk". While the Bible does not provide a reason, it has been suggested that the practice was perceived as cruel and insensitive. Hasidic Judaism believes that everyday life is imbued with channels connecting with Divinity, the activation of which it sees as helping the Divine Presence to be drawn into the physical world; these sparks of Holiness are released. The Hasidic argument is that animals are imbued with signs that reveal the release of these sparks, the signs are expressed in the biblical categorization of ritually clean and ritually unclean. According to Christian theologian Gordon J. Wenham, the purpose of kashrut was to help Jews maintain a distinct and separate existence from other peoples. Wenham argued that since the impact of the food laws was a public affair, this would have enhanced Jewish attachment to them as a reminder of their distinct status as Jews.
There have been attempts to provide empirical support for the view that Jewish food laws have an overarching health benefit or purpose. One of the earliest is that of Maimonides in The Guide for the Perplexed. In 1953, David Macht, an Orthodox Jew and proponent of the theory of biblical scientific foresight, conducted toxicity experiments on many kinds of animals and fish, his experiment involved lupin seedlings being supplied with extracts from the meat of various animals. At the same time, these explanations are controversial. Scholar Lester L. Grabbe, writing in the Oxford Bible Commentary on Leviticus, says "n explanation now universally rejected is that the laws in this section have hygiene as their basis. Although some of the laws of ritual purity correspond to modern ideas of physical cleanliness, many of them have little to do with hygiene. For example, there is no evidence that the'unclean' animals are intrinsically bad to eat or to be avoided in a Mediterranean climate, as is sometimes asserted."
The laws of kashrut can be classified according to the origin of the prohibition and whether the prohibition concerns the food itself or a mixture of foods. Biblically prohibited foods include: Non-kosher animals and birds: mammals require certain identifying characteristics, while birds require a tradition that they can be consumed. Fish require fins. All invertebrates are non-kosher apart from certain types of locust, on w
6th arrondissement of Paris
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km². Académie française French Senate Jardin du Luxembourg Medici Fountain Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Latin Quarter Saint-Sulpice church Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Polidor Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Café Procope Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée de Minéralogie Musée Zadkine École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École des hautes études en sciences sociales Pantheon-Assas University Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Lycée Stanislas Lycée Fénelon Institut Catholique de Paris Cherche-Midi prison Hôtel de Condé Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Comédie-Française Arcade du Pont-Neuf The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km².
In 1999, the population was 44,919 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the River side districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden. 6th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage