4th millennium BC

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Millennia:
Centuries:

The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.

Monte d'Accoddi is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia, Italy, located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres. 4th millennium BC.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.

Culture[edit]

The Neolithic
Mesolithic
Fertile Crescent
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Pre-Pottery (A, B)
Qaraoun culture
Tahunian culture
Yarmukian Culture
Halaf culture
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
Ubaid culture
Nile valley
Faiyum A culture
Tasian culture
Merimde culture
El Omari culture
Maadi culture
Badari culture
Amratian culture
Europe
Arzachena culture
Boian culture
Butmir culture
Cardium Pottery culture
Cernavodă culture
Coțofeni culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Dudeşti culture
Gorneşti culture
Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture
Hamangia culture
Khirokitia
Linear Pottery culture
Malta Temples
Ozieri culture
Petreşti culture
San Ciriaco culture
Shulaveri-Shomu culture
Sesklo culture
Tisza culture
Tiszapolgár culture
Usatovo culture
Varna culture
Vinča culture
Vučedol culture
Neolithic Transylvania
Neolithic Southeastern Europe
China
Peiligang culture
Pengtoushan culture
Beixin culture
Cishan culture
Dadiwan culture
Houli culture
Xinglongwa culture
Xinle culture
Zhaobaogou culture
Hemudu culture
Daxi culture
Majiabang culture
Yangshao culture
Hongshan culture
Dawenkou culture
Songze culture
Liangzhu culture
Majiayao culture
Qujialing culture
Longshan culture
Baodun culture
Shijiahe culture
Yueshi culture
Tibet
South Asia
Mehrgarh
Chirand
Mundigak
Brahmagiri
Philippine Jade culture
Capsian culture
Savanna Pastoral Neolithic

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion

Chalcolithic
Near East
Europe
Central Asia
East Asia
  • Neolithic Chinese settlements. They produced silk and pottery (chiefly the Yangshao and the Lungshan cultures), wore hemp clothing, and domesticated pigs and dogs.
  • Vietnamese Bronze Age culture. The Đồng Đậu Culture, 4000–2500 BC, produced many wealthy bronze objects.
South Asia
Americas
Australia
Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa remains in the Paleolithic period, except for the earliest neolithization of the Sahel following following the desiccation of the Sahara in c. 3500 BC.[5][6] As the grasslands of the Sahara began drying after 3900 BC, herders spread into the Nile Valley and into eastern Africa (Eburan 5, Elmenteitan). The desiccation of the Sahara and the associated neolithisation of West Africa is also cited as a possible cause for the dispersal of the Niger-Congo linguistic phylum.[7]

Environment[edit]

Holocene Epoch
Pleistocene
Holocene
Preboreal (10.3–9 ka)
Boreal (9–7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.55 ka)
Subboreal (52.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka–present)

Based on studies by glaciologist Lonnie Thompson, professor at Ohio State University and researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center, a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago, probably due to a drop in solar energy output as hypothesized by Ohio State University.[8]

Calendars and chronology[edit]

  • The Maya civilization created several distinct calendars, one of which is called the "Long Count" (see Mayan calendar and Mesoamerican Long Count dates the beginning or zero date of the calendar (not the creation of the Earth) to August 11 or August 13, 3114 BC. It is important not to confuse cosmogenesis narratives or creation that simultaneously assert the origins of the cosmos and the legitimacy of kings as divine descendants of primordial gods with ideas about literal creation of the physical earth. Based in the Maya mathematical and calendrical notation, this calendar zero date is represented as 13.0.0.0.0. This date is also NOT the beginning of Maya civilization. As is the case with all calendars zero dates are always projected into the past -- often centuries into the past. Based on archaeological evidence, the existence of discreetly identifiable Maya peoples, cultures, communities or civilization occurs from 1000 to 2000 years after this zero date of August 11 or August 13, 3114 BCE. In other words, the coming into existence of Maya society and culture dates to the Preclassic period (c. 2000 BC to 250 AD) whereas the Maya Long Count calendar was first used approximately 236 BCE (see Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar#Earliest_Long_Counts.
  • According to calculations of Aryabhata (6th century), the Hindu Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BC. Consequently, Aryabhata dates the events of the Mahabharata to around 3137 BC.
  • 7 October 3761 BC—Epoch of the Hebrew Calendar (introduced in the 12th century).
  • 3929 BC—Creation according to John Lightfoot based on the Old Testament of the Bible, and often associated with the Ussher chronology.
  • 1 January 4000 BC—Epoch of the Masonic calendar's Anno Lucis era.
  • The Mahabharata is set in the 4th millennium BC according to some traditions of Hindu astrology[clarification needed][11][12]
  • The antediluvian patriarchs of the Hebrew Bible (including Adam, Cain, Enoch etc.) are set in the 4th millennium BC according to the rabbinical Hebrew calendar epoch.[13][unreliable source?]

Centuries[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Sumeria". Historia 16, 1999.
  2. ^ Roberts, J: History of the World. Penguin, 1994.
  3. ^ Gasser, Aleksander (March 2003). "World's Oldest Wheel Found in Slovenia". Government Communication Office of the Republic of Slovenia. 
  4. ^ Australia's top 7 Aboriginal rock art sites by Australian Geographic
  5. ^ Katie Manning, The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara (2014), The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara
  6. ^ Igor Kopytoff, The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies (1989), 9–10 (cited afer Igbo Language Roots and (Pre)-History, A Mighty Tree, 2011).
  7. ^ Katie Manning, The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara (2014), The demographic response to Holocene climate change in the Sahara. Igor Kopytoff, The African Frontier: The Reproduction of Traditional African Societies (1989), 9–10 (cited afer Igbo Language Roots and (Pre)-History, A Mighty Tree, 2011).
  8. ^ "Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself". Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2004-12-17. 
  9. ^ Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Brecher, H.; Davis, M.; León, B.; Les, D.; Lin, P. -N.; Mashiotta, T.; Mountain, K. (2006). "Inaugural Article: Abrupt tropical climate change: Past and present". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (28): 10536. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10310536T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603900103. PMC 1484420Freely accessible. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself". Science Daily. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  11. ^ See horoscope number 1 in Dr. B. V. Raman (1991). Notable Horoscopes. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0901-7. 
  12. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004. "Krishna (b. July 21, 3228 BC)". Archived from the original on 2009-04-26. 
  13. ^ Annals of the World Biblical source, as well as the above sources