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5.56×45mm NATO

The 5.56×45mm NATO is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in the late 1970s in Belgium by FN Herstal. It consists of the SS109, SS110, SS111 cartridges. On 28 October 1980 under STANAG 4172 it was standardized as the second standard service rifle cartridge for NATO forces as well as many non-NATO countries; the 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge family was derived from, but is not identical to, the.223 Remington cartridge designed by Remington Arms in the early 1960s. In 1954, the larger 7.62×51mm NATO rifle cartridge was selected as the first standard NATO rifle cartridge. At the time of selection there had been criticism that the recoil power of the 7.62×51mm NATO, when fired from a hand-held lightweight modern service rifle, did not allow a sufficient automatic rate of fire for modern combat. The British had extensive evidence through their own experimentation with intermediate cartridges since 1945 and were on the point of adopting a.280 inch cartridge when the selection of the 7.62×51mm NATO was made.

The FN company had been involved in the development of the.280 round, including developing a version of the FN FAL in.280. The concerns about recoil and effectiveness were overruled by the US within NATO, the other NATO nations accepted that standardization was more important at the time than selection of the ideal cartridge; the development of the cartridge that became the.223 Remington would be intrinsically linked to the development of a new lightweight combat rifle. The cartridge and rifle were developed as one unit by Fairchild Industries, Remington Arms, several engineers working toward a goal developed by U. S. Continental Army Command. Early development work began in 1957. A project to create a small-calibre, high-velocity firearm was created. Eugene Stoner of Armalite was invited to scale down the AR-10 design. Winchester was invited to participate; the parameters that were requested by CONARC:.22 Caliber Bullet exceeding supersonic speed at 500 yards Rifle weight of 6 lb Magazine capacity of 20 rounds Select fire for both semi-automatic and automatic use Penetration of US steel helmet through one side at 500 yards Penetration of.135-inch steel plate at 500 yards Accuracy and ballistics equal to M2 ball ammunition out to 500 yards Wounding ability equal to M1 Carbine Springfield Armory's Earle Harvey lengthened the.222 Remington cartridge case to meet the requirements.

It was known as the.224 Springfield. Concurrently with the SCHV project, Springfield Armory was developing a 7.62mm rifle. Harvey was ordered to cease all work on the SCHV to avoid any competition of resources. Eugene Stoner of Armalite had been advised to produce a scaled-down version of the 7.62mm AR-10 design. In May 1957 Stoner gave a live-fire demonstration of the prototype of the AR-15 for General Willard Wyman, Commander-in-Chief of CONARC; as a result, CONARC ordered rifles to test. Stoner and Sierra Bullet's Frank Snow began work on the.222 Remington cartridge. Using a ballistic calculator, they determined that a 55-grain bullet would have to be fired at 3,300 ft/s to achieve the 500-yard performance necessary. Robert Hutton started development of a powder load to reach the 3,300 ft/s goal, he used DuPont IMR4198, IMR3031, an Olin Powder to work up loads. Testing was done with a Remington 722 rifle with a 22-inch Apex barrel. During a public demonstration the round penetrated the U. S. steel helmet.

But testing showed chamber pressures to be excessively high. Stoner contacted both Remington about increasing the case capacity. Remington created a larger cartridge called the.222 Special, loaded with DuPont IMR4475 powder. During parallel testing of the T44E4 and the AR-15 in 1958, the T44E4 experienced 16 failures per 1,000 rounds fired compared to 6.1 for the AR-15. Due to several different.222 caliber cartridges being developed for the SCHV project, the 222 Special was renamed.223 Remington in 1959. In May of that year, a report was produced stating that 5 to 7-man squads armed with AR-15 rifles had a higher hit probability than 11-man squads armed with M-14 rifles. At a 4th of July picnic, Air Force General Curtis LeMay fired the AR-15 and was impressed with it, he ordered a number of them to replace M2 carbines by the Air Force. By November, testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground showed that the AR-15 failure rate had declined to 2.5 failures per 1,000 rounds, resulting in the M-16 being approved for Air Force Trials.

Marksmanship testing in 1961 comparing the M-16 to the M-14 indicated 43% of M-16 shooters achieved Expert while only 22% of M-14 shooters did. General LeMay subsequently ordered 80,000 rifles. In the spring of 1962, Remington submitted the specifications of the.223 Remington to the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute. In July 1962, operational testing ended with a recommendation for adoption of the M-16 rifle chambered in 5.56 x 45mm. In September 1963, the.223 Remington cartridge is accepted and named "Cartridge, 5.56mm Ball, M193." The specification includes a Remington-designed bullet and the use of IMR4475 Powder which resulted in a muzzle velocity of 3,250 ft/s and a chamber pressure of 52,000 psi. In 1970, NATO members signed an agreement to select a second, smaller caliber cartridge to replace the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. Of the cartridges tendered, the.223 Remington was the basis for a new design created by FN Herstal. The FN-created cartridge was named 5.56×45mm NATO with a military designation of SS109 i

Mort Schell

Morton William "Mort" Schell is a former Australian politician, a National Party member of the Legislative Assembly of Western Australia between 1986 and 1989, representing the seat of Mount Marshall. Born in Goomalling, a small Wheatbelt town, to Winifred Lilia and Roland William Schell, Schell was educated in Perth, boarding at Wesley College, he subsequently returned to Goomalling to farm with his family and independently, became involved with what is now the Western Australian Farmers Federation. He obtained a pilot's licence in 1966, for several years worked as a commercial pilot and flying instructor based at Jandakot Airport. A former state secretary of the Young Country Party, a member of each of the various iterations of the National Party, Schell was third on the Nationals' ticket for the Senate at the 1984 federal election, he contested Mount Marshall at the 1986 state election, winning the seat off a sitting Liberal member, Bill McNee, on a nine-point swing. However, prior to the 1989 election, Mount Marshall was abolished in a redistribution, with Schell instead contesting the neighbouring Liberal-held seat of Moore.

Bill McNee was contesting Moore, replacing the retiring Bert Crane as the Liberal candidate, defeated Schell's bid for re-election. After losing his seat in parliament, Schell became the owner and manager of the Joondalup franchise of Jetset, a travel agency

Lake Quinault Lodge

The Lake Quinault Lodge is a historic hotel on the southeast shore of Lake Quinault in the Olympic National Forest in Washington, USA. The hotel was built in 1926 and designed by Robert Reamer, a Seattle architect, in a rustic style reminiscent of Reamer's work at the Old Faithful Inn in Yellowstone National Park, it is a notable example of a rustic wilderness lodging, suited to its woodland environment on the southern side of the Olympic Mountains. The two-story wood frame structure replaced a previous building on the site, built by Jack Ewell for the Olson family in 1903; the Olsons sold their interest in the first hotel to the Seaman family in 1921. On August 24, 1924, the original hotel burned, its replacement was funded by lumberman Ralph Emerson of Hoquiam. The first stage was a plain 1-1/2 story structure which still stands as the annex, restored in 2007, it became so popular that expansion was needed, a new, more elaborate lodge was planned. Robert Reamer was associated with the contractor, the Metropolitan Building Company, the company's construction superintendent was Roy Garrison, who had worked with Reamer.

Reamer had completed work on the Hotel Emerson in Hoquiam, had extensive experience in the design of hotels in natural settings. Work started on June 9, 1926, was complete fifty-three days on August 18, 1926. Emerson sold the lodge in 1939, it closed during World War II. After the war it was operated by the Walker family. In 1988, the hotel was purchased by the Aramark corporation; the Lake Quinault Lodge is an informal retreat, similar in nature to the Rosemary Inn and Singer's Tavern. The V-shaped main lodge is centered on a lobby at the angle of the V, with a masonry fireplace as its focus, overlooking the lake. Dormers and a cupola in the steep roof emphasize the central wing; the hotel is a 2-1/2 story wood-frame structure clad in cedar shingles. The extremities of the wings project over sloping ground; the walls of the upper floor project outward from the ground floor, are capped with a steeply-sloping roof housing an attic floor. Large expanses of windows face in either direction from the lobby.

Two smaller 1-1/2 story wings extend from the reception side, framing the entrance court, with an entry porch at the end of one wing. The interior features expanses of smooth, finished timbers supporting the upper floor, itself finished timber; the chimney is decorated with a totem pole-shaped rain gauge. The Lake Quinault Lodge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 9, 1998. Lake Quinault Lodge website