20th arrondissement of Paris
The 20th arrondissement of Paris is the last of the consecutively numbered arrondissements of that French capital city. Known as Ménilmontant, it is located on the right bank of the River Seine and contains the city's cosmopolitan districts Ménilmontant and Belleville; the 20th arrondissement is internationally known for the Père Lachaise Cemetery where one can find the tombs of many famous artists. The land area of this arrondissement is 5.984 km2. The population of Paris's 20th arrondissement peaked in 1936. Today it remains dense in population and business activity with 182,952 inhabitants and 54,786 jobs as of the last census, in 1999. Parc de Belleville Père Lachaise CemeteryContaining the tombs of many famous artists: composers, painters and the playwright Molière. District of Belleville District of Ménilmontant The Directorate-General for External Security has its head office in the arrondissement; the humour publication Charlie Hebdo has its head office in the arrondissement. Senior high schools include: Lycée Hélène Boucher Lycée Maurice-Ravel Lycée Charles-de-Gaulle Lycée Beth Yacov Lycée Heikhal Menahem SinaïOther institutions: École Vitruve 20th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage Joining the Locals In Paris’s East – slideshow by The New York Times
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
6th arrondissement of Paris
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km². Académie française French Senate Jardin du Luxembourg Medici Fountain Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Latin Quarter Saint-Sulpice church Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Polidor Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Café Procope Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée de Minéralogie Musée Zadkine École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École des hautes études en sciences sociales Pantheon-Assas University Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Lycée Stanislas Lycée Fénelon Institut Catholique de Paris Cherche-Midi prison Hôtel de Condé Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Comédie-Française Arcade du Pont-Neuf The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km².
In 1999, the population was 44,919 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the River side districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden. 6th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Maghreb known as Northwest Africa or Northern Africa, Greater Arab Maghreb, Arab Maghreb or Greater Maghreb, or by some sources the Berber world and Berbery, is a major region of North Africa that consists of the countries Algeria, Tunisia and Mauritania. It additionally includes the disputed territories of Western Sahara and the cities of Melilla and Ceuta; as of 2018, the region has a population of over 100 million people. In historical English and European literature, the region was known as the Barbary Coast or the Barbary States, derived from the native Berbers. Sometimes it was referred to as the Land of the Atlas, derived from the Atlas Mountains. In current Berber language media and literature, the region is part of; the region is defined as much or most of northern Africa, including a large portion of Africa's Sahara Desert, excluding Egypt, part of Mashriq. The traditional definition of the region that restricted it to the Atlas Mountains and the coastal plains of Morocco, Algeria and Libya was expanded by the inclusion of Mauritania and of the disputed territory of Western Sahara.
During the era of Al-Andalus in the Iberian Peninsula, the Maghreb's inhabitants, the Muslim Berbers or Maghrebis, were known by Europeans as "Moors", or as "Afariqah". Morocco transliterates into Arabic as "al-Maghreb". Before the establishment of modern nation states in the region during the 20th century, Maghreb most referred to a smaller area, between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains in the south, it also included the territory of eastern Libya, but not modern Mauritania. As as the late 19th century, Maghreb was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa in general, to Algeria and Tunisia, in particular; the region was somewhat unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, followed by the Roman Empire's rule or influence. That was followed by the brief invasion of the Germanic Vandals, the brief re-establishment of a weak Roman rule by the Byzantine Empire, the rule of the Islamic Caliphates under the Umayyad Caliphate, the Abbasid Caliphate and the Fatimid Caliphate.
The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravid dynasty, Almohad Caliphate, Hammadid dynasty, Zirid dynasty, Marinid dynasty, Zayyanid dynasty, Wattasid dynasty - from the 8th to 13th centuries. The Ottoman Empire for a period controlled parts of the region. Mauritania, Tunisia and Libya established the Arab Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and economic integration in a common market, it was envisioned by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate. The union included Western Sahara implicitly under Morocco's membership, putting Morocco's long cold war with Algeria to a rest. However, this progress was short-lived, the union is now dormant. Tensions between Algeria and Morocco over Western Sahara re-emerged, reinforced by the unsolved border dispute between the two countries; these two main conflicts have hindered progress on the union's joint goals and made it inactive as a whole. However, the instability in the region and growing cross-border security threats revived the calls for regional cooperation, with foreign ministers of the Arab Maghreb Union declaring a need for coordinated security policy in May 2015 at the 33rd session of the follow-up committee meeting, which revived hope of some form of cooperation.
In classical antiquity, the Maghreb or portions of the region were known by various toponyms, including Barbary, Mauretania, Libya and the Land of the Atlas. The toponym maghrib is a geographical term that the Muslim Arabs gave to the region extending from Alexandria in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Etymologically it means both the place where the sun sets, it is composed of the prefix m−, which makes a noun out of the verb root, غرب. Muslim historians and geographers divided the region into three areas: al-Maghrib al-Adna, which included the lands extending from Alexandria to Tarabulus in the west, they disagreed, over the start of the eastern boundary. Some authors extend it as far as the sea of Kulzum and thus include Egypt and the country of Barca in the Maghrib. Ibn Khaldun does not accept this definition because, he says, the inhabitants of the Maghreb do not consider Egypt and Barca as forming part of Maghrib; the latter commences only at the province of Tripoli and includes the districts of which the country of the Berbers was composed in former times.
Maghribi writers repeated the definition of Ibn Khaldun, with a few variations in details. As of 2017 the term Maghrib is still used in opposition to Mashriq in a sense near to that which it had in medieval times, it denotes only Morocco when the full al-Maghrib al-Aksa is abbreviated. Certain politicians seek a political union of the North African countries, which they call al-Maghrib al-Kabir or al-Maghrib al-Arabi. Berber-language speakers now call this region Tamazɣa or Tama
15th arrondissement of Paris
The 15th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as quinzième; the arrondissement, called Vaugirard, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. Sharing the Montparnasse district with the 6th and 14th arrondissements, it is the city's most populous arrondissement; the Tour Montparnasse – the tallest skyscraper in Paris – and the neighbouring Gare Montparnasse are both located in the 15th arrondissement, at its border with the 14th. It is home to the convention center Paris expo Porte de Versailles and the high-rise district of the Front de Seine. In 2020, the 180 meters high Tour Triangle will house a 120-room hotel and 70,000 square metres of office space; the loi du 16 juin 1859 decreed the annexation to Paris of the area between the old Wall of the Farmers-General and the wall of Thiers. The communes of Grenelle and Javel were incorporated into Paris in 1860. Charles Michels, was elected Député for the 15th arrondissement by the Popular Front.
As in all the Parisian arrondissements, the fifteenth is made up of four administrative quarters. To the south, quartier Saint-Lambert occupies the former site of the village of Vaugirard, built along an ancient Roman road; the geography of the area was suited to wine-making, as well as quarrying. In fact, many Parisian monuments, such as the École Militaire, were built from Vaugirard stone; the village, not yet being part of Paris, was considered by Parisians to be an agreeable suburb, pleasant for country walks or its cabarets and puppet shows. In 1860 Vaugirard was annexed to Paris, along with adjoining villages. Today, notable attractions in this area include the Parc des Expositions, Parc Georges-Brassens, a park built on the former site of a slaughterhouse where every year wine by the name of Clos des Morillons is produced and auctioned at the civic center. To the east, quartier Necker was an uninhabited space between Paris and Vaugirard; the most well-known landmarks in the area are the Gare Montparnasse train station and the looming Tour Montparnasse office tower.
The area around the train station has been renovated and now contains a number of office and apartment blocks, a park, a shopping center. The quartier contains a number of public buildings: the Lycée Buffon, the Necker Children's Hospital, as well as the private foundation Pasteur Institute. To the north, quartier Grenelle was a village of the same name. Grenelle plain extended from the current Hôtel des Invalides to the suburb of Issy-les-Moulineaux on the other side of the Seine, but remained uninhabited in centuries past due to difficulties farming the land. At the beginning of the 19th century, an entrepreneur by the name of Violet divided off a section of the plain: this became the village of Beaugrenelle, known for its series of straight streets and blocks, which remain today; the whole area broke off from the commune of Vaugirard in 1830, becoming the commune of Grenelle, in turn annexed to Paris in 1860. A century a number of apartment and office towers were built along the Seine, the Front de Seine along with the Beaugrenelle shopping mall.
To the west, quartier Javel lies to the south of Grenelle plain. In years past, it was the industrial area of the arrondissement: first with chemical companies electrical companies, car manufacturers, whose factories occupied a large part of the quartier up until the early 1970s; the industrial areas have since been rehabilitated, the neighbourhood now contains Parc André Citroën, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, a number of large office buildings and television studios. In addition, to the south of the circular highway, an extension of the 15th an aerodrome at the beginning of the 20th century, is now a heliport, a gym and a recreation center; the early airfield here has been encroached upon by urban development and a sports centre, but the residual area laid to grass, continues to serve Paris as a heliport. The Sécurité Civile has a detachment there close to maintenance facilities. Customs facilities are available and busy during the Salon d'Aeronautique airshows held at Le Bourget on the other side of the city.
The land area of this arrondissement is 8.502 km2. The peak of population of Paris's 15th arrondissement occurred in 1962, when it had 250,551 inhabitants. Since it has lost one-tenth of its population, but it remains the most populous arrondissement of Paris, with 225,362 inhabitants at the last census in 1999. With 144,667 jobs at the same census, the 15th is very dense in business activities; this arrondissement is home to many families and is known in Paris as one of the quietest sections in Paris. The majority of the arrondissement is unfrequented by tourists, a rarity for one of the world's most visited cities. Musée Pasteur Musée du Service des Objets Trouvés Musée Bourdelle Musée Mendjisky, specializing in school of Paris artists, housed in a Robert Mallet-Stevens building. Musée Jean Moulin, French Resistance – Church of Notre-Dame de la Salette in Paris Beaugrenelle Shopping Center Parts of the Montparnasse area; the former workshop of Constantin Brâncuși, where the sculptor
The Seine is a 777-kilometre-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. It rises at Source-Seine, 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon in northeastern France in the Langres plateau, flowing through Paris and into the English Channel at Le Havre, it is navigable by ocean-going vessels as far as Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Over 60 percent of its length, as far as Burgundy, is negotiable by commercial riverboats, nearly its whole length is available for recreational boating. There are 37 bridges within dozens more spanning the river outside the city. Examples in Paris include the Pont Alexandre III and Pont Neuf, the latter of which dates back to 1607. Outside the city, examples include the Pont de Normandie, one of the longest cable-stayed bridges in the world, which links Le Havre to Honfleur; the Seine rises in the commune of Source-Seine, about 30 kilometres northwest of Dijon. The source has been owned by the city of Paris since 1864. A number of associated small ditches or depressions provide the source waters, with an artificial grotto laid out to highlight and contain a deemed main source.
The grotto includes a statue of a nymph, a dog, a dragon. On the same site are the buried remains of a Gallo-Roman temple. Small statues of the dea Sequana "Seine goddess" and other ex voti found at the same place are now exhibited in the Dijon archaeological museum; the Seine can artificially be divided into five parts: the Petite Seine "Small Seine" from the sources to Montereau-Fault-Yonne the Haute Seine "Upper Seine" from Montereau-Fault-Yonne to Paris the Traversée de Paris "the Paris waterway" the Basse Seine "Lower Seine" from Paris to Rouen the Seine maritime "Maritime Seine" from Rouen to the English channel. The Seine is dredged and ocean-going vessels can dock at Rouen, 120 kilometres from the sea. Commercial craft can use the river from 516 kilometres to its mouth. At Paris, there are 37 bridges; the river is only 24 metres above sea level 446 kilometres from its mouth, making it slow flowing and thus navigable. The Seine Maritime, 123 kilometres from the English Channel at Le Havre to Rouen, is the only portion of the Seine used by ocean-going craft.
The tidal section of the Seine Maritime is followed by a canalized section with four large multiple locks until the mouth of the Oise at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. Smaller locks at Bougival and at Suresnes lift the vessels to the level of the river in Paris, where the junction with the Canal Saint-Martin is located; the distance from the mouth of the Oise is 72 km. The Haute Seine, from Paris to Montereau-Fault-Yonne, has 8 locks. At Charenton-le-Pont is the mouth of the Marne. Upstream from Paris seven locks ensure navigation to Saint Mammès, where the Loing mouth is situated. Through an eighth lock the river Yonne is reached at Montereau-Fault-Yonne. From the mouth of the Yonne, larger ships can continue upstream to Nogent-sur-Seine. From there on, the river is navigable only by small craft to Marcilly-sur-Seine. At Marcilly-sur-Seine the ancient Canal de la Haute-Seine used to allow vessels to continue all the way to Troyes; this canal has been abandoned since 1957. The average depth of the Seine today at Paris is about 9.5 metres.
Until locks were installed to raise the level in the 1800s, the river was much shallower within the city most of the time, consisted of a small channel of continuous flow bordered by sandy banks. Today the depth is controlled and the entire width of the river between the built-up banks on either side is filled with water; the average flow of the river is low, only a few cubic metres per second, but much higher flows are possible during periods of heavy runoff. Special reservoirs upstream help to maintain a constant level for the river through the city, but during periods of extreme runoff significant increases in river level may occur. A severe period of high water in January 1910 resulted in extensive flooding throughout the city; the Seine again rose to threatening levels in 1924, 1955, 1982, 1999–2000, June 2016, January 2018. After a first-level flood alert in 2003, about 100,000 works of art were moved out of Paris, the largest relocation of art since World War II. Much of the art in Paris is kept in underground storage rooms.
A 2002 report by the French government stated the worst-case Seine flood scenario would cost 10 billion euros and cut telephone service for a million Parisians, leaving 200,000 without electricity and 100,000 without gas. In January 2018 the Seine again flooded. An official warning was issued on January 24 that heavy rainfall was to cause the river to flood. By January 27, the river was rising; the Deputy Mayor of Paris, Colombe Brossel, warned that the heavy rain was caused by climate change, that "We have to understand that climatic change is not a word, it's a reality." The basin area is 78,910 square kilometres, 2 percent of, forest and 78 percent cultivated land. In addition to Paris, three other cities with a population over 100,000 are in the Seine watershed: Le Havre at the estuary, Rouen in the Seine valley and Reims at the northern limit—with an annual urban growth rate of 0.2 percent. The population density is 201 per square kilometer. Periodically
Arènes de Lutèce
The Arènes de Lutèce is among the most important ancient Roman remains from the era in Paris, together with the Thermes de Cluny. Constructed in the 1st century AD, this theatre could once seat 15,000 people and was used as an amphitheatre to show gladiatorial combats; the terraced seating surrounded more than half of the arena's circumference, more typical of an ancient Greek theatre rather than a Roman one, semi-circular. The orchestra was surrounded by the wall of a podium 2.5 m high, surmounted by a parapet. The stage was 41m long. A series of nine niches were most used for statues. Five small rooms were situated beneath the lower terraces, some of which appear to have been animal cages that opened directly into the arena. Slaves, the poor, women were relegated to the higher tiers — while the lower seating areas were reserved for Roman male citizens. For comfort, a linen awning sheltered spectators from the hot sun. From its vantage point, the theatre afforded views of the Bièvre and Seine rivers.
When Lutèce was sacked during the barbarian invasions of 275 AD, some of the structure's stone work was used to reinforce the city's defences around the Île de la Cité. However, Chilperic I gave performances there. Subsequently, the theatre became a cemetery, was filled in following the construction of wall of Philippe Auguste. Centuries even though the surrounding neighbourhood had retained the name les Arènes, the exact location was lost, it was discovered by Théodore Vaquer during the building of the Rue Monge between 1860–1869, when the Compagnie Générale des Omnibus sought to build a tramway depot on the site. Spearheaded by the author Victor Hugo and a few other intellectuals, a preservation committee called la Société des Amis des Arènes undertook to save the archaeological treasure. After the demolition of the Couvent des Filles de Jésus-Christ in 1883, one-third of the arena was uncovered; the Municipal Council dedicated funds to restoring the arena and establishing it as a public square, opened in 1896.
After the tramway lines and depot were dismantled in 1916 and line 10 of the Paris Métro was constructed, the doctor and anthropologist Jean-Louis Capitan continued with additional excavation and restoration of the arena toward the end of World War I. The neighbouring Square Capitan, built on the site of the old Saint-Victor reservoir, is dedicated to his memory. However, a portion of the original arena — opposite the stage — was lost to buildings which line rue Monge. Standing in the centre of the arena one can still observe significant remnants of the stage and its nine niches, as well as the grilled cages in the wall; the stepped terraces are not original, but historians believe that 41 arched openings punctuated the façade. The Arènes de Lutèce at discoverfrance.net the Arènes on Google Maps