Guards or Guards units were elite military units of Imperial Russia prior to 1917-18. The designation of Guards was subsequently adopted as a distinction for various units and formations of the Soviet Union and the modern Russian Federation; the tradition goes back to a chieftain's druzhina of medieval Kievan Rus' and the Marksman Troops, the Muscovite harquebusiers formed by Ivan the Terrible by 1550. The exact meaning of the term "Guards" varied over time. In the Russian Empire, Imperial Russian Guard units, derived from German Leibgarde, were intended to ensure the security of the sovereign that of Peter the Great in the 1690s; these were based on the Prussian Royal Life Guards. During the 19th century the Imperial Russian Guard regiments were not composed of Russian troops, but included Lithuanian and Ukrainian units. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Imperial Guards consisted of 13 infantry, 4 rifles and 14 cavalry regiments, artillery and transport, making up a separate entity within the army of three divisions.
During the Brusilov Offensive the 1st and 2nd Guards' numbers were supplemented with line army corp and from September 1916 were known as the'Special Army'. In February–March 1917 the defection of reserve battalions of the Imperial Guard based in St. Petersburg was a major factor in the overthrow of the Tsarist government; the service units of the Guard at the front disintegrated along with the remainder of the Imperial Army, until it was formally replaced by the new Red Army on 28 January 1918. The Red Guards were armed groups of workers formed during the Russian Revolution of 1917, although the designation and concept dates back to Moscow during the Revolution of 1905. In 1917 the volunteers of the Red Guard and their elected leaders formed the main strike force of the Bolsheviks; these workers' militias were created in March 1917 in by Factory and Plant Committees and by Bolshevik party cells, with the initial purpose of defending the industrial enterprises and districts where they were recruited.
In October 1917 the Red Guards of Petrograd played a leading role in the capture of the Winter Palace and the overthrow of the Provisional Government. When the Soviet Red Army was formed in 1918, the Red Guards became the Army Reserve and the basis for the formation of regular military detachments; the White Guard or White Army, comprised both the political and military forces of the Russian White Movement, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the Russian Civil War from 1918 to 1921. The Guards units were again awarded to units and formations that distinguished themselves during the Second World War by the order of People's Commissar for Defence of USSR No.303 on the 18 September 1941, were considered to have elite status. However, the Guards badge was not introduced until 21 May 1943. Zhukov states "the first period of the war gave birth to the Soviet Guards. For mass heroism and success in the battles of 1941-1942 the Guards title was awarded to 789 groups, separate units, fighting ships of the Soviet Armed Forces."There were total 11 Guard Armies and 6 Guard Tank Armies: 1st Guards Army 2nd Guards Army 3rd Guards Army 4th Guards Army 5th Guards Army 6th Guards Army 7th Guards Army 8th Guards Army 9th Guards Army 10th Guards Army 11th Guards Army 1st Guards Tank Army 2nd Guards Tank Army 3rd Guards Tank Army 4th Guards Tank Army 5th Guards Tank Army 6th Guards Tank Army The Guards distinction was retained as designations of units and formations in the armed forces of the former Soviet Union: Russia and Ukraine.
List of guards units of Ukraine
Kremenchuk or Kremenchug, an important industrial city in central Ukraine, stands on the banks of the Dnieper River. Kremenchuk is the administrative center of the Kremenchuk Raion in Poltava Oblast. Kremenchuk is administratively incorporated as a city of oblast significance administered by its own city council and does not belong to the raion. Population: 223,805 Along with its city-satellites Svitlovodsk and Horishni Plavni, it creates an important urban agglomeration and transportation hub. Although not as big as some other oblast centers and cities of regional significance, Kremenchuk carries importance of a large industrial center in Ukraine and Eastern Europe as the base of the KrAZ truck plant, Kremenchuk Oil Refinery of Ukrtatnafta, the Kryukiv Railway Car Building Works, nearly located Kremenchuk HES. Over the dam of the hydro-electric power plant stretches one of river crossing over Dnieper. Established on the left bank, Kremenchuk incorporated a city of Kryukiv on the right bank.
The Kryukiv Railway Car Building Works is one of the oldest railway repair and rail-car building factories in Eastern Europe, dates back to 1869. Kremenchuk was founded in 1571; the name Kremenchuk is explained as deriving from the word "kremen" - flint because the city is located on a giant chert plate. An alternative explanation says that "Kremenchuk" is the Turkish for "small fortress". In 1625, at Lake Kurukove in Kremenchuk, the Treaty of Kurukove was signed between the Cossacks and the Poles. Since the establishment of Cossack Hetmanate, the city was part of the Chyhyryn Polk. Following the Russo-Polish War and Treaty of Andrusovo, the city was secured by Tsardom of Russia and became part of the Myrhorod Polk within the left-bank Cossack Hetmanate; the city played a key role of the Russian colonization policy of Ukraine and their strive for the shores of Black Seas as regional administrative center of the early Novorossiya Governorate and Yekaterinoslav Vice-regency. With creation of Novorossiya Governorate, in Kremenchuk was created Dnieper Pikers Regiment and coincidentally few years in the neighboring regions of Poland started out so called Koliyivshchyna.
Here in 1786 started his military career the Russian general Alexander Suvorov when he was appointed a commander the local garrison. Following the loss in the Crimean War, in Russia started intensively to be installed a network of railroads and in 1869 in Kryukiv were built small railcar repair shops, while in 1872 the city of Kryukiv was connected with Kremenchuk by a railroad bridge over Dnieper. In 1870 in Kremenchuk was built a factory in production and maintenance of agrarian equipment and iron cast products. In 1899 in Kremenchuk was introduced a network of tramway transportation that existed until the complete establishment of Soviet regime in Ukraine in 1921. During the Russian February Revolution of 1917 the power in city was controlled by a council of workers' deputies, dominated by the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the head of the city council became a future Ukrainian Communist leader Yuriy Lapchynskyi. During the Ukrainian–Soviet War, on 26 January 1918 the Russian Bolshevik troops secured the city, however in February of the same year they had to withdraw due to the treaty of Brest-Litovsk and advance of German and Ukrainian armies.
Following the World War I hostilities between the Bolshevik Russia and Ukraine renewed and on 1 February 1919 the Russian Red Army once again secured the city. However, in May of the same year Kremechuk was engulfed in the insurgency of Otaman Grigoriev who earlier sided with Bolsheviks and drove the international force of Triple Entante from Odessa. From July to December 1919 the city was occupied by the Russian "White Guard" troops of Anton Denikin. Following their withdrawal, the Denikin's troops blew up the railroad bridge. In 1920–1922, the city was an administrative center of existed Kremenchuk Governorate during a peasant insurgency near Chyhyryn. During 1930s the Kremenchuk's industry was transformed, its Kryukiv railcar repair shops became a railcar manufacturing factory, while its factory in production of agrarian equipment changed to manufacturing road equipment. During World War II, Kremenchuk suffered under Nazi occupation, it was occupied from September 15, 1941 to September 29, 1943.
More than 90% of the city's buildings were leveled over the course of the war. 29 September, the day when the city was liberated from the Nazis in 1943, is celebrated in Kremenchuk as the City Day. Despite a remarkable post-war recovery and a healthier economy, Kremenchuk lacks much of the architectural charm and distinctly Ukrainian character of its sister city, the oblast capital of Poltava. During the Cold War, Kremenchuk became the headquarters for the 43rd Rocket Division of the 43rd Army of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces; the division was equipped with R-12 Dvina intercontinental ballistic missiles. In 1975 the city of Kryukiv was merged with Kremenchuk, while Kremenchuk was divided in two raions in city. In 2014 during the mass demolition of monuments to Vladimir Lenin in Ukraine, in the city were removed two monuments of the Russian Communist leader in the city center and near the Kryukiv Railcar Factory. Oleh Babayev, the mayor of Kremenchuk was assassinated on July 26, 2014. Oleh Babayev opposed separatism and promoted national unity, prior to becomi
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea; the Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U. S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject; as agreed with the Allies at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union entered World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
The invasion began on 9 August 1945 three months after the German surrender on May 8. Although the commencement of the invasion fell between the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 6 August, only hours before the Nagasaki bombing on 9 August, the timing of the invasion had been planned well in advance and was determined by the timing of the agreements at Tehran and Yalta, the long-term buildup of Soviet forces in the Far East since Tehran, the date of the German surrender some three months earlier. At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on 8 August 1945, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov informed Japanese ambassador Naotake Satō that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan, that from 9 August the Soviet government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on 9 August 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion on three fronts to the east and north of Manchuria: the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation. Though the battle extended beyond the borders traditionally known as Manchuria—that is, the traditional lands of the Manchus—the coordinated and integrated invasions of Japan's northern territories has been called the Battle of Manchuria.
It has been referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Far East Command, under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, had a plan to conquer Manchuria, simple but huge in scale, calling for a massive pincer movement over all of Manchuria; this was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east. The only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts; the Transbaikal Front, under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, included: 17th Army 36th Army 39th Army 53rd Army 6th Guards Tank Army Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev 12th Air Army. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert and over the Greater Khingan mountains; these forces had as their objectives firstly to secure Mukden to meet troops of the 1st Far Eastern Front at the Changchun area in south central Manchuria, in doing so finish the double envelopment.
Amassing over one thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, the 6th Guards Tank Army was to serve as an armored spearhead, leading the Front's advance and capturing objectives 350 km inside Manchuria by the fifth day of the invasion. The 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar; the 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, included: 1st Red Banner Army 5th Army 25th Army 35th Army 10th Mechanized Corps 9th Air Army. The 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement; this attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army and the 10th Mechanized Corps striking towards Mudanjiang. Once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin, its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and Jilin thus closing the double envelopment movement. As a secondary objective, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to prevent Japanese forces from escaping to Korea, invade the Korean Peninsula up to the 38th parallel, establishing in the process what became North Korea.
This secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli and Mishan; the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included: 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed
A self-propelled gun is a form of self-propelled artillery, in modern use is used to refer to artillery pieces such as howitzers. Self-propelled guns are mounted on tracked chassis; as such the gun can be maneuvered under its own power as opposed to a towed gun that relies upon a vehicle or other means to be moved on the battlefield. Self-propelled guns are combat support weapons. Self-propelled guns can give direct fire when needed, it may be armoured. Self-propelled guns are more armoured and may not have turrets and their purpose is distinct from that of tanks; the greatest tactical advantage in the case of artillery guns is the greater degree of mobility they have compared to towed artillery. Not only is it important in offering military forces greater flexibility, but it is critical in avoiding attack from the enemy by allowing the guns to change position after firing one or more salvos and before their position can be located. A secondary advantage in the case of – lightly – armoured guns is the increased protection offered to the gun crews.
The first attempts to give artillery a greater degree of manoeuvrability was in World War I. Although mechanical tractors had been used to tow some artillery, most were still towed by horses; the Gun Carrier Mark I was an artillery piece, transported by and could be fired from a tracked chassis. Between the wars, in the development of their armoured warfare tactics, the British put the Birch gun into limited use, it carried an 18 pounder gun on a chassis derived from their medium tank and as such was able to keep up and cross the same ground as the tanks it was intended to support. As well as use as a field gun, the gun could be elevated sufficiently for use against aircraft. Self-propelled guns and howitzers are used in the same way as their towed variety for long-range bombardment. Self-propelled artillery can however include other types of weapons not considered a self-propelled gun, one example of which would be rocket artillery. Assault guns are large-caliber artillery pieces, meant to support infantry by direct fire with high explosive ammunition.
See List of self-propelled howitzers
Benešov known as Benešov u Prahy is a town in the Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic, about 40 kilometres southeast of Prague, the biggest town and former capital of the Benešov District. The Konopiště castle and the Czech national mountain Blaník are near the town; as of 2018 the population was 16,522. Benešov began to be settled in the 11th century; the first settlers are believed to have arrived on Karlov Hill in 1050 during the Přemyslid dynasty. A message from the 17th century points to an existing church in 1070; the first written mention of Benešov spelt Benissaw in Latin, dates only from 1226, when it was owned by the Lord of Benis, as the surname was spelt. A small monastery was founded here in 1246 by Tobias of Benissaw, the Prague provost and an uncle of the late Bishop of Prague, Tobias of Bechyne. By 1300 they left and the property was sold to the Lord of Sternberg, whose crest is still the city's coat of arms. In 1420 the mostly German populated city was conquered and burned by the Hussites.
In the late Middle Ages Benissaw was the centre of several political negotiations, such as the 1451 and 1473 meetings of the Bohemian Diet here. In the 15th and 16th centuries the town experienced an economic boom thanks to its location on the trade route from Prague to Linz. A contemporary first edition map in Latin by A. Ortelius dated 1570 spells the city as Benissaw. After the end of the 16th Century there were several changes in ownership. During the Thirty Years' War, the population had suffered because of passing Polish and Swedish troops. To promote the reintroduction of Catholicism and improving the education a 1703 Priory college with a high school was founded in 1703; the Saint Anna Church of the Priory College was built over 1705 to 1715 according to plans submitted by the Italian architect Giovanni Battista Alliprandi. After 1803 the town developed as a center of national rebirth for Slavic Bohemians. In 1871 the town was connected to Prague by rail and by 1895 it was an important regional hub.
The town's station is Benešov u Prahy. By World War I Benesov was an important garrison town of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. There were the Second Battalion of the II. Bataillon des Böhmischen Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 102 and the II. Bataillon des k.k. Landwehr-Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 28. Because of fears of possible political unrest in 1916 by Czech nationalists, the 2nd Regiment of the Tiroler Kaiserjäger with a reserve unit part from Bolzano was stationed here to 1918. Early during World War II the town was evacuated temporarily as the SS-Truppenübungsplatz Böhmen of the Waffen SS was stationed here. A significant measure of industrialization began after 1945 with the establishment of a machinery factory and the food industry; the town in led by 7-member city council consisting of councillors representing the Czech Social Democratic Party and the ANO 2011. These parties control 11 out of 27 seats in a town parliament, are supported by the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia and the TOP 09.
The latest Benešov municipal election in 2014 was won by the coalition of the Vote for the City – Independents with 24.4% and gain of 7 seats in the town parliament. Followed by the ČSSD with 18.8% and 6 seats, the ANO with 15.6% and 5 seats. The Civic Democratic Party and Independents, TOP 09 and KSČM entered the town parliament. A city council coalition between the VPM–NEZ, ODS, STAN and TOP 09 was formed after the election, however, in January 2016, it was dissolved by the parliament by 16 votes, succeed by the current coalition. Artuš Scheine and painter Josef Suk Media related to Benešov at Wikimedia Commons Official website
19th Guards Mechanized Brigade (Belarus)
The 19th Guards Mechanized Brigade is a formation of the Armed Forces of Belarus based in Zaslonovo, a few kilometers east of Lepiel. The brigade traces its history back to the 1942 formation of the 2nd Guards Mechanized Corps of the Soviet Army during World War II. Subsequent designations during the Cold War included 2nd Guards Mechanized Division and 19th Guards Tank Division. Following the Cold War, the 19th Guards Tank Division was relocated to Belarus and became part of their armed forces in 1992. Thereafter, the unit was reduced to a personnel and equipment cadre unit and titled the 19th Guards Base for Storage of Weapons and Equipment before being upgraded to a mechanized brigade in 2008. Formed in the Tambov area on 15 October 1942 from elements of the 22nd Guards Rifle Division, the 2nd Guards Mechanized Corps was under the command of Major General Karp Sviridov and subordinated to the Southern Front and the 2nd Guards Army until late 1943, at which time the corps became a front-level asset and fought with the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ukrainian Fronts for the rest of the war.
By the end of the war, the 2nd Guards Mechanized Corps commanded the 4th, 5th, 6th Guards Mechanized Brigades, as well as the 37th Guards Tank Brigade. The corps fought at Stalingrad in 1942-43, at Melitopol in 1943, Odessa and Budapest in 1944, Vienna in 1945; the 2nd Guards Mechanized Corps finished the war as part of the 6th Guards Tank Army in the area of Benešov, Czechoslovakia, on 9 May 1945. The 2nd Guards Mechanized Corps, like all Soviet mechanized corps, was reorganized as a division in mid-late 1945, was renamed the 2nd Guards Mechanized Division; the 2nd Guards Mechanized Division was part of the Southern Group of Forces based at Esztergom, Hungary. The division was part of the Soviet forces that crushed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. On 15 December 1956, the division was reorganized as a tank division and renamed the 19th Guards Tank Division; the 97th Motor Rifle Regiment transferred to the division from the 27th Mechanized Division on the same day. The division's 87th Guards Heavy Tank Regiment dropped the designation "Self-Propelled" on the same day.
The 67th Separate Tank Training Battalion was disbanded in 1960. In 1961 the 99th Separate Missile Battalion was activated; the 74th Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion was formed on 19 February 1962. The 87th Guards Heavy Tank Regiment became a regular tank regiment around this time. In 1968, the 55th Separate Sapper Battalion became an engineer-sapper battalion; the chemical defence company was upgraded to a battalion in 1972. The 1081st Separate Material Supply Battalion formed from the 690th Separate Motor Transport Battalion in 1980; the chemical defence battalion was once again downsized to a company in 1985. On 7 September 1987, the 99th Separate Missile Battalion became part of the 459th Missile Brigade. Among other veterans of the unit, Yuri Budanov served with the division in the late 1980s in Hungary; the 87th Guards Tank Regiment, 99th Separate Guards Reconnaissance Battalion and 74th Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion disbanded in December 1989. They were replaced by the 130th Guards Tank Regiment, 56th Separate Reconnaissance Battalion and 77th Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion from the disbanded 13th Guards Tank Division.
The division became part of the 7th Tank Army. Following the end of the Cold War, the unit was withdrawn to Zaslonovo in Belarus 1992 and became part of the Armed Forces of Belarus. At some point following relocation, the division was reorganized and became a Base for Storage of Weapons and Equipment, a partial-strength mechanized infantry formation. "One of the equipment storage bases is the 19th, the former 19th Guards Tank Division at Zaslonovo in the Lepiel region. On October 1, 2003, the base was strengthened. From other bases of storage of arms and techniques now we are distinguished favorably by new structure. Besides a battalion of protection and service, motor-rifle and tank battalions were added."In 2008 the base for storage of weapons and equipment was again upgraded into a brigade. V. I. Feskov et al; the Soviet Army in the period of the Cold War, Tomsk University Publishing House, 2004. Glantz, Colussus Reborn, University Press of Kansas, 2005. Poirier, Robert G. and Conner, Albert Z.
The Red Army Order of Battle in the Great Patriotic War, Novato: Presidio Press, 1985. Ustinov, D. F. - Geschichte des Zweiten Welt Krieges, 1981 https://web.archive.org/web/20130511201841/http://www8.brinkster.com/vad777/