7th United States Congress
The Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1803, during the first two years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority, except during the Special session of the Senate, when there was a Federalist majority in the Senate. March 4, 1801: Presidential inauguration of Thomas Jefferson May 10, 1801: The pascha of Tripoli declared war on United States by having the flagpole on the consulate chopped down March 16, 1802: West Point established February 24, 1803: First time an Act of Congress was declared unconstitutional: U. S. Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison April 29, 1802: Judiciary Act of 1802, ch. 31, 2 Stat. 156 April 30, 1802: Enabling Act of 1802, ch.
40, 2 Stat. 173 Ohio was admitted as a state, having been a portion of the Northwest Territory. The exact date is unclear and in dispute; the official date when Ohio became a state was not set until 1953, when the 83rd U. S. Congress passed legislation retrospectively designating the date of the first meeting of the Ohio state legislature, March 1, 1803, as that date. However, on April 30, 1802, the 7th U. S. Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, admission of Ohio into the Union." On February 19, 1803, the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio." The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress states that Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802, counts its seats as vacant from that date. The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated.
Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. Although the Federalists had more Senators during the brief March 1801 special session, by the time the first regular session met in December 1801, the Democratic-Republicans had gained majority control. President: Aaron Burr President pro tempore: Abraham Baldwin, first elected December 7, 1801 Stephen R. Bradley, first elected December 14, 1802 Speaker: Nathaniel Macon, elected December 7, 1801 This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, belowSenators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1802; the names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. There was 1 death, 8 resignations, 2 seats added for a new state. Replacements: 8 Democratic-Republicans: no net change Federalists: no net change deaths: 1 resignations: 9 forfeiture: 1 vacancy: 1 Total seats with changes: 11 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Whole Claims Commerce and Manufactures Elections Revisal and Unfinished Business Rules Standards of Official Conduct Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: William Thornton Librarian of Congress: John J. Beckley Chaplain: Thomas J. Claggett Edward Gantt, elected December 9, 1801 Secretary: Samuel A. Otis Doorkeeper: James Mathers Chaplain: William Parkinson Clerk: John Beckley Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton United States elections, 1800 United States presidential election, 1800 United States Senate elections, 1800 and 1801 United States House of Representatives elections, 1800 United States elections, 1802 United States Senate elections, 1802 and 1803 United States House of Representatives elections, 1802 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
1790 United States Census
The United States Census of 1790 was the first census of the whole United States. It recorded the population of the United States as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws. In the first census, the population of the United States was enumerated to be 3,929,214. Congress assigned responsibility for the 1790 census to the marshals of United States judicial districts under an act which, with minor modifications and extensions, governed census taking until the 1840 census. "The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president." Both Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and President George Washington expressed skepticism over the results, believing that the true population had been undercounted.
If there was indeed an undercount, possible explanations for it include dispersed population, poor transportation links, limitations of contemporary technology, individual refusal to participate. Although the Census was proved statistically factual, based on data collected, the records for several states were lost sometime between 1790 and 1830. One third of the original census data have been lost or destroyed since their original documentation; these include some 1790 data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont. No microdata from the 1790 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves.
Under the direction of the current Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, marshals collected data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory. The census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. At 17.8 percent, the 1790 Census's proportion of slaves to the free population was the highest recorded by any census. Media related to 1790 United States Census at Wikimedia Commons Historic US Census data 1790 Census of Population and Housing official reports Population of 24 Urban Places: 1790
Theodore Sedgwick was an American attorney and jurist, who served in elected state government and as a Delegate to the Continental Congress, a U. S. Representative, a United States Senator from Massachusetts, he served as the fourth Speaker of the United States House of Representatives. He was appointed to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in 1802 and served there the rest of his life. Born in West Hartford, Sedgwick was the son of Benjaman Sedgwick, his paternal immigrant ancestor Major General Robert Sedgwick arrived in 1636 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, as part of the Great Migration. Sedgwick attended Yale College, where he studied law, he went on to study law under the attorney Mark Hopkins of Great Barrington. Hopkins was the grandfather of the Mark Hopkins who became president of Williams College. Sedgwick commenced practice in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Among the prospective attorneys who learned the law in his office was Stephen Jacob, who served on the Vermont Supreme Court.
He moved to Sheffield. During the American Revolutionary War, he served in the Continental Army as a major, took part in the expedition to Canada and the Battle of White Plains in 1776; as a young lawyer and Tapping Reeve pleaded the case of Brom and Bett vs. Ashley, an early "freedom suit", in county court for the slaves Elizabeth Freeman and Brom. Bett was a black slave who had fled from her master, Colonel John Ashley of Sheffield, because of cruel treatment by his wife. Brom joined her in suing for freedom from the Ashleys; the attorneys challenged their enslavement under the new state constitution of 1780, which held that "all men are born free and equal." The jury ruled that Bett and Brom were free. The decision was upheld on appeal by the state Supreme Court. Bett marked her freedom by taking the name of Elizabeth Freeman, she chose to work for wages at the Sedgwick household, where she helped rear their several children, she worked there for much of the rest of her life, buying a separate house for her and her daughter after the Sedgwick children were grown.
After Freeman's death, the Sedgwicks buried her at Stockbridge Cemetery in the Sedgwick Pie, the family plot. The family marked Freeman's grave with an inscribed monument, it is beside that of their fourth child, writer Catharine Maria. A Federalist, Sedgwick began his political career in 1780 as a delegate to the Continental Congress, he was elected as representative to the state house, as state senator. He was a charter member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1780. In 1789 Sedgwick was elected as Representative to Congress from Massachusetts' first congressional district, over time represented Massachusetts' second district, serving until 1796; that year he was elected to the United States Senate, served until 1799. In 1799 he was re-elected as a Representative, this time from the fourth district, was elected the fifth Speaker of the House, serving until March 1801. In 1802, Sedgwick was appointed a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, he held this position until his death.
Around 1767, Sedgwick married Elizabeth "Eliza" Mason, the daughter of a deacon from Franklin, Connecticut. In 1771, Sedgwick contracted smallpox which he passed on to his wife, pregnant with the couple's first child, she died of the disease on April 1771 while eight months pregnant. Sedgwick married a second time on April 1774 to Pamela Dwight of the New England Dwight family, she was the daughter of Brigadier General Joseph Dwight of Great Barrington and his second wife, the widow Abigail Williams Sargent. Abigail was the daughter of Colonel Ephraim Williams, half-sister of Ephraim Williams, Jr. the founder of Williams College. The Sedgwicks had ten children, three of which died within a year of birth, reflecting the high infant mortality rate of the time, they were: Elizabeth Mason Sedgwick A child died at birth on March 27, 1777. Frances Pamela Sedgwick Theodore Sedgwick II married, their son Theodore Sedgwick was a author. Catherine Sedgwick Henry Dwight Sedgwick Henry Dwight Sedgwick, his grandson was a lawyer and an author Henry Dwight Sedgwick III.
Robert Sedgwick was a lawyer who married Elizabeth Dana Ellery, granddaughter of William Ellery, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Catharine Maria Sedgwick became. Charles Sedgwick, became clerk of the Massachusetts Supreme Court, his grandson was anatomist Charles Sedgwick Minot. During the marriage, Sedgwick left his wife and children at their home in Stockbridge, Massachusetts while he focused on building his political career, his frequent absences, coupled with the death of three children and the strain of caring for numerous children, caused Pamela's physical and mental health to decline. After Pamela's mother died in February 1791, she developed depression and began exhibiting signs of hypomania, she was institutionalized for a time in December 1795, but her physical and mental health continued to decline in the years following her release. She committed suicide by consuming poison on September 20, 1807. After Pamela's death, Sedgwick married his third wife Penelop
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.
The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams signed into law on May 7, 1800, to form an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1800, to December 11, 1816, when the remaining southern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Indiana. The territory contained 259,824 square miles of land, but its size was decreased when it was subdivided to create the Michigan Territory and the Illinois Territory; the Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. William Henry Harrison, the territory's first governor, oversaw treaty negotiations with the native inhabitants that ceded tribal lands to the U. S. government, opening large parts of the territory to further settlement. In 1809 the U. S. Congress established a bicameral legislative body for the territory that included a popularly-elected House of Representatives and a Legislative Council.
In addition, the territorial government began planning for a basic transportation network and education system, but efforts to attain statehood for the territory were delayed due to war. At the outbreak of Tecumseh's War, when the territory was on the front line of battle, Harrison led a military force in the opening hostilities at the Battle of Tippecanoe and in the subsequent invasion of Canada during the War of 1812. After Harrison resigned as the territorial governor, Thomas Posey was appointed to the vacant governorship, but the opposition party, led by Congressman Jonathan Jennings, dominated territorial affairs in its final years and began pressing for statehood. In June 1816 a constitutional convention was held at Corydon, where a state constitution was adopted on June 29, 1816. General elections were held in August to fill offices for the new state government, the new officeholders were sworn into office in November, the territory was dissolved. On December 11, 1816, President James Madison signed the congressional act that formally admitted Indiana to the Union as the nineteenth state.
When the Indiana Territory was formed in 1800 its original boundaries included the western portion the Northwest Territory. This encompassed an area northwest of a line beginning at the Ohio River, on the bank opposite to the mouth of the Kentucky River, extending northeast to Fort Recovery, in present-day western Ohio, north to the border between the United States and Canada along a line 84 degrees 45 minnutes West longitude; the territory included most of the present-day state of Indiana, all of present-day states of Illinois and Wisconsin, fragments of present-day Minnesota that were east of the Mississippi River, nearly all of the Upper Peninsula the western half of the Lower Peninsula of present-day Michigan, a narrow strip of land in present-day Ohio, northwest of Fort Recovery. This latter parcel became part of Ohio when it attained statehood in 1803; the Indiana Territory's southeast boundary was shifted in 1803, when Ohio became a state, to the mouth of the Great Miami River from its former location opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River.
In addition, the eastern part of present-day Michigan was added to the Indiana Territory. The territory's geographical area was further reduced in 1805 with the creation of the Michigan Territory to the north, in 1809, when the Illinois Territory was established to the west; the Indiana Territory's government passed through a non-representative phase from 1800 to 1804. Under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance, during the non-representative phase of territorial government the U. S. Congress, after 1789, the president with congressional approval, appointed a governor and three judges to govern each new territory. Local inhabitants did not elect these territorial officials. During the second, or semi-legislative phase of government, the territory's adult males who owned at least fifty acres of land elected representatives to the lower house of the territorial legislature. In addition, the Congress, the president with congressional approval, appointed five adult males who owned at least five hundred acres of land to the upper house of the territorial legislature from a list of ten candidates that the lower house submitted for consideration.
In the semi-legislative phase of government, the upper and lower houses could legislate for the territory, but the territorial governor retained absolute veto power. When the territory reached a population of 60,000 free inhabitants, it entered the final phase that included its successful petition to Congress for statehood. In 1803, when the Indiana Territory was formed from the remaining Northwest Territory after Ohio attained statehood, the requirement for proceeding to the second or semi-legislative phase of territorial government was modified. Instead of requiring the territory's population to reach 5,000 free adult males, the second phase could be initiated when the majority of territory's free landholders informed the territorial governor that they wanted to do so. In 1810 the requirement for voters to be landholders was replaced with a law granting voting rights to all free adult males who paid county or territorial taxes and had resided in the territory for at least a year; because of William Henry Harrison's leadership in securing passage of the Land Act of 1800 and his help in forming the Indiana Terri
United States Electoral College
The United States Electoral College is a body of electors established by the United States Constitution, constituted every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United States. The Electoral College consists of 538 electors, an absolute majority of 270 electoral votes is required to win an election. Pursuant to Article II, Section 1, Clause 2, the legislature of each state determines the manner by which its electors are chosen; each state's number of electors is equal to the combined total of the state's membership in the Senate and House of Representatives. Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to a number of electors no greater than that of the least populous state. Following the national presidential election day in the first week of November, each state counts its popular votes pursuant to that state's laws to designate presidential electors. Most all states allot all their electoral votes to the winning candidate in that state, no matter how marginal the candidate's win.
State electors meet in their respective state. The results are certified by the states and D. C. to Congress, where they are tabulated nationally in the first week of January before a joint meeting of the Senate and House of Representatives. If a majority of votes are not cast for a candidate, the House resolves itself into a presidential election session with one presidential vote assigned to each of the fifty state delegations, excluding the District of Columbia; the elected president and vice president are inaugurated on January 20. While the electoral vote has given the same result as the popular vote in most elections, this has not been the case in a few elections, including the 2000 and 2016 elections; the Electoral College system is a matter of ongoing debate, with some defending it and others calling for its abolition. Supporters of the Electoral College argue that it is fundamental to American federalism, that it requires candidates to appeal to voters outside large cities, increases the political influence of small states, discourages the excessive growth of political parties and preserves the two-party system, makes the electoral outcome appear more legitimate than that of a nationwide popular vote.
Opponents of the Electoral College argue that it can result in a person becoming president though an opponent got more votes. Most polls since 1967 have shown that a majority of Americans favor the president and vice president being elected by the nationwide popular vote; the Constitutional Convention in 1787 used the Virginia Plan as the basis for discussions, as the Virginia proposal was the first. The Virginia Plan called for the Congress to elect the president. Delegates from a majority of states agreed to this mode of election. After being debated, delegates came to oppose nomination by congress for the reason that it could violate the separation of powers. James Wilson made motion for electors for the purpose of choosing the president. In the convention, a committee formed to work out various details including the mode of election of the president, including final recommendations for the electors, a group of people apportioned among the states in the same numbers as their representatives in Congress, but chosen by each state "in such manner as its Legislature may direct."
Committee member Gouverneur Morris explained the reasons for the change. However, once the Electoral College had been decided on, several delegates recognized its ability to protect the election process from cabal, corruption and faction; some delegates, including James Wilson and James Madison, preferred popular election of the executive. Madison acknowledged that while a popular vote would be ideal, it would be difficult to get consensus on the proposal given the prevalence of slavery in the South: There was one difficulty however of a serious nature attending an immediate choice by the people; the right of suffrage was much more diffusive in the Northern than the Southern States. The substitution of electors obviated this difficulty and seemed on the whole to be liable to the fewest objections; the Convention approved the Committee's Electoral College proposal, with minor modifications, on September 6, 1787. Delegates from states with smaller populations or limited land area such as Connecticut, New Jersey, Maryland favored the Electoral College with some consideration for states.
At the compromise providing for a runoff among the top five candidates, the small states supposed that the House of Representatives with each state delegation casting one vote would decide most elections. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison explained his views on the selection of the president and the Constitution. In Federalist No. 39, Madison argued the Constitution was designed to be a mixture of state-based an
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, as such the highest-ranking judge of the federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die; the chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the Court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the Court's opinion; when deciding a case, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice. Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate. While nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is administered by the Chief Justice.
Additionally, the chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The Chief Justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office; the Chief Justice is an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice; the first was John Jay. The current chief justice is John Roberts. John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, William Rehnquist served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice; the United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of Chief Justice, but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside."
Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court as "judges"; the Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1866, at the urging of Salmon P. Chase, Congress restyled the chief justice's title to the current Chief Justice of the United States; the first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888. The associate justices' title was not altered in 1866, remains as created; the chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the President and confirmed to office by the U. S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior"; this language means that the appointments are for life, that, once in office, justices' tenure ends only when they die, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process.
Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position. The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional law scholar Todd Pettys has proposed that presidential appointment of chief justices should be done away with, replaced by a process that permits the Justices to select their own chief justice. Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was not confirmed; as an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the Court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice.
When associate justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796, but declined the office, he too remained on the Court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the Court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, he left office and the Court. In 1933, former associate justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall. Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice has several unique duties to fulfill. Article I, section 3 of the U. S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice shall preside over impeachment trials of the President of the United States in the U.
S. Senate. Two Chief Justices, Salmon P. Chase and William Rehnquist, have presided over the trial in the Senate that follows an impeachment of the president – Chase in 1868 over the proceedings against President Andrew Johnson and Rehnquist in