California Division of Juvenile Justice

The California Division of Juvenile Justice known as the California Youth Authority, is a division of the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation that provides education and treatment services for California's most serious youth offenders. These youths are committed by the juvenile and criminal courts to DJJ's eleven correctional facilities, four conservation camps and two residential drug treatment programs; the DJJ provides services to juvenile offenders, ranging in age from twelve to 25, in facilities and on parole, works with law enforcement, the courts, district attorneys, public defenders, probation offices and other public and private agencies involved with the problems of youth. The DJJ is undergoing reorganization as required by a court agreement and the California State Legislature after widespread criticisms of conditions at its youth prisons; the agency's headquarters are in California. The DJJ's stated mission is: "To provide opportunities for growth and change by identifying and responding to the unique needs of our youth.

We do this through effective treatment and interventions in order to encourage positive lifestyles, reduce recidivism, strengthen families and protect our communities." The DJJ is required to provide a high school education for every ward who does not have a diploma. However, students are sometimes kept from class because of safety and security situations or teacher vacancies. Validated gang associates are sometimes kept from classroom or vocational training for institutional safety and security reasons relative to gang tensions or conflict. Academic teachers and vocational instructors are credentialed through the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing; the education area of the institution is referred to as the "Education Corridor" or "Trade Line", reflecting the vocational training focus of the institution. The Trade Line is monitored by security professionals known as "Youth Correctional Officers". Students are escorted to the Trade Line from their living areas by "Youth Correctional Counselors".

The educational system in the DJJ is part of the California Department of Education, each site is required to maintain accreditation through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. On non-school days, maximum security inmates are locked in their cells for 23 hours a day. A spokesman for Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's prisons department said lengthy lockdowns at DJJ facilities were no longer used as punishment, but were sometimes necessary to maintain order. One of the justifications for such treatment is gang affiliation and the threat of corresponding violence. Many of the Youthful Offenders at some DJJ facilities arrive on or are placed on psychotropic medications, a matter that has triggered protests and litigation; the threat of violence is a constant distraction at DJJ facilities. In 2004, a six-month investigation by the San Jose Mercury News uncovered deep systemic flaws, concluding that violence was predominant, gangs ruled, fear was pervasive; the Mercury News reported that, at any given time, dozens of young men are held in isolation cells for fighting or other offenses at the state's two maximum security facilities, that wards sometimes threw human waste, blood or semen through the slots in their cell doors.

Experts who have studied the prisons have declared them the most violent in the nation, there have been six suicides in California's juvenile jails between 2000 and 2005. In January 2005, Chief Deputy Inspector General Brett Morgan issued a report calling for the elimination of 23-hour-a-day incarceration policies for wards placed in administrative segregation and criticized the DJJ for failing to end the practice; the inspector general's report outlines Maldonado's history and offers a portrait of Chaderjian as a violent lockup where gang leaders seem to have more clout than the Youth Correctional Officers. Beginning in 2000, CYA was featured in news headlines across the state. Local and national media reported rampant violence, staff-on-ward beatings, canine attacks, multiple suicides, extended 23-hour lockdowns, children attending classes while confined in cages; that year, a Sacramento federal judge rejected a class action suit on behalf of all CYA inmates, declaring they had failed to back up claims forming the basis of their bid for sweeping revisions of CYA policies and procedures.

The judge did allow three defined groups of wards to sue in three specific categories of contention on constitutional grounds. Wards forcibly medicated with a psychotropic drug without a hearing were enabled to challenge CYA's forced drugging policy. Wards committed for sexual offenses were allowed to challenge sex offender treatment programs in which they were placed. Wards placed in isolation for their own safety without a hearing were allowed to proceed with litigation. In a separate lawsuit, the Prison Law Office complained that "Rehabilitation cannot succeed when the classroom is a cage and wards live in constant fear of physical and sexual violence from CYA staff and other wards." In January 2002, a federal conditions lawsuit was filed against CYA by a coalition including the Prison Law Office. The suit was refiled In January 2003, as Farrell v. Harper (later renamed Farrell v. Hickman; the parties agreed to jointly select national experts to determine the nature and extent of the CYA's problems.

By 2004, Governor Schwarzenegger had settled that lawsuit and pledged to make significant changes, but his administration has missed several court-imposed deadlines to implement reforms, including policies regarding suicide prevention, according to Specter. A special master was appointed to oversee reform implementation. In 2001, another lawsuit against CYA prompted a San Francisc

Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy

Cognitive emotional behavioral therapy is an extended version of cognitive behavioral therapy aimed at helping individuals to evaluate the basis of their emotional distress and thus reduce the need for associated dysfunctional coping behaviors. This psychotherapeutic intervention draws on a range of models and techniques including dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness meditation and commitment therapy, experiential exercises. CEBT has been used with individuals suffering from eating disorders, as it offers an alternative when standard CBT is unsuccessful in relieving symptoms. Research indicates that CEBT may help reduce emotional eating and anxiety and improve self-esteem. CEBT was developed in 2006 by British psychologist Emma Gray, its key components include psychological education. Although was developed to help individuals suffering from eating disorders, its effectiveness in helping people to better understand and manage their emotions has meant that it is being used by psychologists as a'pretreatment' to prepare patients for the process of therapy for a range of problems including anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, which can be challenging.

Corstorphine, E. Cognitive-emotional-behavioural therapy for the eating disorders: Working with beliefs about emotions. European Eating Disorders Research, 14, 448-461. Corstorphine. Modifying cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of eating disorders – using schema modes to work with emotions. In J. Buckroyd Psychological responses to treatment in eating disorders and obesity. Wiley