Citigroup Centre, London
The Citigroup Centre is a building complex in London. It houses Citigroups EMEA headquarters and is located in Canary Wharf in the citys Docklands, the centre provides 170,000 square metres of floor space across two merged buildings -33 Canada Square and 25 Canada Square, and houses the bulk of Citis UK employee base. Together, both form the Citigroup Centre complex. 25 Canada Square, or Citigroup Centre 2, stands at 200 metres and, the building was bought by RBS in 2004 along with 5 Canada Square for $1.12 billion. Subsequently, on 2 July 2007, CGC2 was individually sold to a joint venture between Quinlan Private and PropInvest for £1 billion, Citigroup pay £46.5 million a year in rent for the tower, generating a yield of 4. 6% to the owners. The east facing side of 25 Canada Square up to level 40 is configured for use by tenants. 33 Canada Square, or Citigroup Centre 1, is the smaller of the two buildings in the complex, designed by Norman Foster and completed in 1999, two years before its neighbour.
At 105 metres tall, the building is made up of eighteen floors, the building is owned by Citigroup, and was built before the completion of the Jubilee line extension in late 1999. The Centre is close to DLR stations Canary Wharf and Heron Quays, which provide connections with the City, London City Airport and surrounding areas
The documentary released by CCTV, directed by Zhou Bing. The Bund or Waitan is a waterfront area in central Shanghai, the area centers on a section of Zhongshan Road within the former Shanghai International Settlement, which runs along the western bank of the Huangpu River in the eastern part of Huangpu District. The area along the faces the modern skyscrapers of Lujiazui in the Pudong District. The Bund usually refers to the buildings and wharves on this section of the road and it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Shanghai. Building heights are restricted in the area, the word bund means an embankment or an embanked quay. The word comes from the Persian word band, through Hindustani, meaning an embankment, mumbais Apollo Bunder and city names like Bandar Abbas and Banda Aceh share the same etymology. In these Chinese port cities, the English term came to mean, especially, in English, Bund is pronounced to rhyme with fund. There are numerous sites in India and Japan that are called bunds, The Bund, without qualification to location, usually refers to this stretch of embanked riverfront in Shanghai.
The Bund lies north of the old, walled city of Shanghai and it was initially a British settlement, the British and American settlements were combined in the International Settlement. Magnificent commercial buildings in the Beaux Arts style sprung up in the years around the turn of the 20th century as the Bund developed into a financial center of east Asia. Directly to the south, and just northeast of the old walled city, by the 1940s, the Bund housed the headquarters of many, if not most, of the major financial institutions operating in China, including the big four national banks in the Republic of China era. However, with the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, many of the institutions were moved out gradually in the 1950s. The statues of figures and foreign worthies which had dotted the riverside were removed. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the thawing of economic policy in the Peoples Republic of China, government institutions were moved out in favour of financial institutions, while hotels resumed trading as such.
The Bunds revitalization began in 1986 with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren and has changed the streetscape of the Bund. In the 1990s, Zhongshan Road, the road on which the Bund is centred, was widened to ten lanes, as a result, most of the parkland which had existed along the road disappeared. Also in this period, the ferry connecting the Bund and Pudong. A number of pleasure cruises still operate from some nearby wharves, in its expanded form, the term Bund was used to refer to areas south of the Yanan Road, and a stretch of riverfront north of the Suzhou River
Canary Wharf tube station
Canary Wharf is a London Underground station on the Jubilee line, between Canada Water and North Greenwich. The station, serving Canary Wharf, is in Travelcard Zone 2 and was opened by Ken Livingstone setting an escalator in motion on 17 September 1999 as part of the Jubilee Line Extension and it is maintained by Tube Lines. Before the arrival of the Jubilee line, Londons Docklands had suffered from relatively poor public transport, although the Docklands Light Railway station at Canary Wharf had been operating since 1987, by 1990 it was obvious that the DLRs capacity would soon be reached. The Jubilee lines routing through Canary Wharf was intended to relieve some of this pressure, the tube station was intended from the start to be the showpiece of the Jubilee Line Extension, and the contract for its design was awarded in 1990 to the renowned architect Sir Norman Foster. The size of the interior has led to it being compared to a cathedral, the main reason for the stations enormous dimensions was the great number of passengers predicted, as many as 50,000 daily.
These predictions have been outgrown, with as many as 69,759 on weekdays recorded in 2006, in a 2013 poll conducted by YouGov, it was voted as the Most Loved tube station in London. Above ground there is sign of the vast interior, two curved glass canopies at the east and west ends of the station cover the entrances. The Jubilee Park, a park is situated between the two canopies, above the station concourse. As with the other stations on the Jubilee Line extension. Canary Wharf station has one of the busiest stations on the network. Although it shares its name with the Docklands Light Railway station at Canary Wharf, all three stations are connected underground via shopping malls. Out-of-station interchange within twenty minutes between any two of the stations entails no additional charge, Canary Wharf can be used to reverse trains from both the east and the west. The station is located on the Jubilee line between Canada Water and North Greenwich in Travelcard Zone 2, trains run every 10 minutes on the entire line.
London Buses routes 135,277 and the D prefix route D7 night route N550, in addition, bus route 277 provides a 24-hour bus service. Canary Wharf station and the Jubilee line Extension itself were partly funded by the owners of the Canary Wharf complex, only five years after the construction of the extension, capacity issues started becoming apparent and upgrades were required. The first step was the lengthening of the trains from 6 to 7 cars and this was done at the end of 2005. The second step was to replace the conventional Jubilee line signalling with the Thales S40 moving-block system and this was eventually introduced into service during 2011 after many delays and teething problems and allows a more intensive timetable to operate with 30 trains per hour running in the peaks. On 9 January 2013, the station appeared on a £1.28 British postage stamp as part of a set commemorating the 150th anniversary of the first London underground train journey, the stamps captions read Jubilee Line at Canary Wharf and 1999
London City Airport
London City Airport is an international airport in London. It is located in the Royal Docks in the London Borough of Newham, approximately 6 NM east of the City of London and these are the twin centres of Londons financial industry, which is a major user of the airport. London City Airport has a single 1, 500-metre long runway, only multi-engine, fixed-wing aircraft with special aircraft and aircrew certification to fly 5. 5° approaches are allowed to conduct operations at London City Airport. The largest aircraft which can be used at the airport is the Airbus A318, London City served over 4.3 million passengers in 2015, an 18% increase compared with 2014. This was the largest percentage growth among London airports, and a total for London City. It was the fifth-busiest airport in passengers and aircraft movements serving the London area—after Heathrow, Gatwick and Luton—and the 13th-busiest in the UK. The airport was first proposed in 1981 by Reg Ward, who was Chief Executive of the newly formed London Docklands Development Corporation that was responsible for the regeneration of the area.
He in turn discussed the proposal with Sir Philip Beck and the idea of an airport for Docklands was born, by November of that year Mowlem and Bill Bryce of Brymon Airways had submitted an outline proposal to the LDDC for a Docklands STOLport city centre gateway. A 63-day planning inquiry started on 6 June 1983, by the middle of the following year, Nicholas Ridley the Secretary of State for Transport had indicated that he was disposed to agree the application, but asked for further details. The Greater London Council brought an action in the High Court of Justice to reopen the inquiry, after the High Court dismissed the action in March 1985, outline planning permission was granted in May of that year, followed by the grant of detailed planning permission in early 1986. The first aircraft landed on 31 May 1987, with the first commercial services operating from 26 October 1987, queen Elizabeth II officially opened London City Airport in November of the same year. In 1988, the first full year of operation, the airport handled 133,000 passengers, the earliest scheduled flights were operated to and from Plymouth, Paris and Rotterdam.
In 1989 the airport submitted an application to extend the runway. In 1990 the airport handled 230,000 passengers, but the figures fell drastically after the Gulf War and did not recover until 1993, by this time the extended runway had been approved and opened. By 1995 passenger numbers reached half a million, and Mowlem sold the airport to Irish businessman Dermot Desmond, five years passenger numbers had climbed to 1,580,000, and over 30,000 flights were operated. In 2002 a jet centre catering to aviation was opened. In 2003 a new ground holding point was established at the end of the runway. By 2006, more than 2.3 million passengers used London City Airport, in October 2006 the airport was purchased from Dermot Desmond by a consortium comprising insurer AIG Financial Products Corp. and Global Infrastructure Partners
Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational investment banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City. The company was formed by the merger of banking giant Citicorp, Citigroup ranks 3rd on the list of largest banks in the United States by assets and is one of the Big Four banks in the United States, alongside JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, and Wells Fargo. In addition to U. S. money managers, its largest shareholders include Abu Dhabi, Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal, the company is one of 24 primary dealers in United States Treasury securities. Citigroup has over 200 million customer accounts and does business in more than 160 countries, Citigroup has 219,000 employees, although it had 357,000 employees at its height before the financial crisis of 2007-2008. Citigroup suffered huge losses during the crisis of 2007-2008 and was rescued in November 2008 in a massive stimulus package by the U. S. government. Citigroup was formed on October 9,1998, following the $140 billion merger of Citicorp and Travelers Group to create the worlds largest financial services organization.
As such, the history dates back to the founding of. City Bank of New York was chartered by New York State on June 16,1812, serving a group of New York merchants, the bank opened for business on September 14 of that year, and Samuel Osgood was elected as the first President of the company. The companys name was changed to The National City Bank of New York in 1865 after it joined the new U. S. national banking system, and it became the largest American bank by 1895. The bank changed its name to The First National City Bank of New York in 1955, the bank introduced its First National City Charge Service credit card—popularly known as the Everything card and to become MasterCard—in 1967. In 1976, under the leadership of CEO Walter B, First National City Bank was renamed as Citibank, N. A. Shortly afterward, the bank launched the Citicard, which pioneered the use of 24-hour ATMs, john S. Reed was elected CEO in 1984, and Citi became a founding member of the CHAPS clearing house in London. Travelers Group, at the time of merger, was a group of financial concerns that had been brought together under CEO Sandy Weill.
Its roots came from Commercial Credit, a subsidiary of Control Data Corporation that was taken private by Weill in November 1986 after taking charge of the company earlier that year. Two years later, Weill mastered the buyout of Primerica—a conglomerate that had bought life insurer A L Williams as well as stock broker Smith Barney. The new company took the Primerica name, and employed a cross-selling strategy such that each of the entities within the parent company aimed to sell each others services and its non-financial businesses were spun off. With the acquisition, the group became Travelers Inc, Property & casualty and life & annuities underwriting capabilities were added to the business. Meanwhile, the distinctive Travelers red umbrella logo, which was acquired in the deal, was applied to all the businesses within the newly named organization
Canary Wharf DLR station
Canary Wharf is a Docklands Light Railway station in Canary Wharf on the Isle of Dogs in Greater London, England. The station was built into the base of One Canada Square itself, the station itself has six platforms serving three rail tracks and is sheltered by a distinctive elliptical glass roof. The station is located on the DLR between Heron Quays station and West India Quay station, which are in fact the three closest railway stations on the line in the world. The station is shown on the Tube map as being within walking distance of Canary Wharf tube station, Canary Wharf station had been part of the original DLR plans, but when the system opened in August 1987 the station was not ready. It was originally planned that the station would be similar to the station at Heron Quays. It soon became apparent that the Canary Wharf development would produce demand well above the capacity of a simple station, on 17 July 1987 a contract was awarded to GEC-Mowlem Railway Group to rebuild the station into the considerably more elaborate and spacious design that exists today.
It was opened in November 1991, Canary Wharf is served by two lines of the DLR — Bank to Lewisham and Stratford to Lewisham. There are services between Tower Gateway and Lewisham or Crossharbour. London Buses routes 135,277 and the D prefix routes D3, D7 and D8 and night route N550 serve the station, Canary Wharf railway station Canary Wharf tube station Canary Wharf station on Docklands Light Railways website
HSBC Building, the Bund
The HSBC Building is a six-floor neo-classical building in the Bund area of Shanghai, China. It served as the headquarters of the Shanghai branch of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation from 1923 to 1955, the building is situated at number 12, the Bund. Designed by the British architecture firm Palmer & Turner Architects and Surveyors, the HSBC Building has been called the most luxurious building from the Suez Canal to the Bering Strait. The building has an area of 23,415 m², and was, at the time, the largest bank building in the Far East. The building exterior adopted a strict neo-classicist design, with a vertical and horizontal division. In the centre is a dome, the base decorated with a structure in imitation of Greek temples. Below that are six Ionic columns penetrating from the second to the fourth storey, the main structure is five storeys, the central section seven storeys, with one and a half storey for the basement. The main structure has a lattice with brick filling. The interior was decorated, using materials such as marble.
The whole building was fitted with heating and air-conditioning, the main trading hall has four columns hewn from whole blocks of marble, which was at the time unique in Asia. Behind the main building is a building which houses bank offices, safes. On 4 March 1865, HSBC opened its Shanghai branch on the floor of the Central Hotel on the corner of the Bund with Nanjing Road. By 1874, HSBCs business had grown so much that the premises was becoming cramped. The bank purchased the Foreign Club, a building at number 12. In 1912, the bank made further acquisitions at number 10 and number 11, the Bund, construction began on 5 May 1921, with the dome capped off on 23 June 1923. According to contemporary reports, at the time of construction the bank hired feng shui masters to select the time. In accordance with Chinese tradition, coins from around the world were buried in the foundations, specially minted coins were placed in dark recesses of the building to ward off spirits. The construction took 25 months, and the building occupied 1.3 hectares
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
The HSBC lions have become distinctive landmarks in their own right in Hong Kong and Shanghai respectively, with a further pair to be found in London. The first set of sculptures were commissioned for the rebuilt HSBC Building on the Bund in Shanghai. They became known as Stephen and Stitt, an in-joke, Stephen was named for A G Stephen, formerly Manager Shanghai, and in 1923 the Chief Manager of HSBC, and G H Stitt, the Manager Shanghai. Stephen is depicted roaring, Stitt quiescent, and again said that this represented the characters of these two famous bankers. When HSBC decided to build its third Headquarters at 1 Queens Road Central in Hong Kong, opened in 1935, it commissioned two bronze lions from Shanghai-based British sculptor WW Wagstaff. This commission was inspired by the earlier lions commissioned for the Shanghai office, and the Hong Kong lions were modelled on, but are not identical to, hunch-backed, Wagstaff was nicknamed Lao Doo Pei, meaning Old Hunchback. His son, was called Sau Doo Pei – Young Hunchback, Wagstaff had two sons – Don, killed in Naval service in the war, and Alex, killed while interned in Shanghai by the Japanese.
Chou Yin Hsiang himself came to Hong Kong in 1935, and by 1977 was the proprietor of Jeh Hsing Metal Works –, like the Shanghai lions, the Hong Kong lions became objects of veneration, and focii of the Banks perceived excellent feng shui. Young couples still bring their toddlers to stroke the paws and noses of the hoping for luck. When the 1935 building closed its doors for the last time on 26 June 1981, demolition, by China Swiss Engineers, started on 6 July 1981. The lions were moved on 4 June 1982 to Statue Square. Luckily the war ended before this could happen, and the lions were recognised by an American sailor in a dockyard in Osaka in 1945 and they were returned a few months and restored to their original positions in October 1946. The Hong Kong lions are called Stephen and Stitt, after the re-organisation of the HSBC business into the present-day HSBC Group, the Groups headquarters were placed in London. The new headquarters building, located at 8 Canada Square, in the Canary Wharf development of the Isle of Dogs in London, a pair of lions were again commissioned for the new headquarters.
This pair was a replica of the Hong Kong lions. The casting was completed at Bronze Age Foundry in nearby Limehouse, Kennedy was asked not to reproduce the war wounds of the Hong Kong lions in the copies, they had to earn their own battle scars. The following is a list of bronze copies and re-casts of the HSBC lions, In China, Shanghai – sculpted by Henry Poole RA, cast by J W Stinger & Sons. The originals are held by the Shanghai History Museum and are separately on display at the Museums display room under the Oriental Pearl Tower, Hong Kong – modelled on Shanghai originals, sculpted by W W Wagstaff, cast by Shanghai Arts and Crafts