World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Stavka was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. In Imperial Russia Stavka refers to the administrative staff, to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union. In Western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, incorrect since it is not an acronym. Stavka may refer to its members, as well as to the headquarter location; the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war. Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, with Mikhail Alekseyev as his chief of staff. In the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief; the Stavka was divided into several departments: Department of General-Quartermaster Department of General on Duty Department of military transportations Naval department Diplomatic chancery The Stavka was first established in Baranovichi.
In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev. 19 July 1914 – 18 August 1915: Lieutenant-General Nikolai Yanushkevich 18 September 1915—01.04.1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 November 1916 – 17 February 1917: General of Cavalry Vasily Gurko 11 March 1917—05.04.1917: General of Infantry Vladislav Klembovsky 5 April 1917 – 31 May 1917: Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin 2 June 1917 – 30 August 1917: Lieutenant-General Alexander Lukomsky 30 August 1917 – 9 September 1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 October 1917—03.11.1917: Lieutenant-General Nikolay Dukhonin 3 November 1917—07.11.1917: Major General Mikhail Dieterichs 7 November 1917—02.1918: Major General Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich The Stavka of the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II, or the headquarters of the "Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR", was established on 23 June 1941 by a top-secret decree signed by Joseph Stalin in his capacities both as the head of government and as the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
According to this decree Stavka was composed of the defence minister Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, the head of General Staff Georgy Zhukov, Vyacheslav Molotov, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, Marshal Semyon Budyonny and the People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov. The same decree organized at Stavka "the institution of permanent counsellors of Stavka": Marshal Kulik, Marshal Shaposhnikov, Kirill Meretskov, head of the Air force Zhigarev, Nikolay Vatutin, head of Air Defence Voronov, Kaganovich, Lavrenty Beria, Zhdanov, Mekhlis. Soon afterwards, the deputy defence minister of the army, was arrested following false charges made by Beria and Merkulov. Meretskov was subsequently released from jail on the same day, at the end of the first week of September 1941, called for by Stalin. Stavka's Main Command was reorganized into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941; this action occurred after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, replaced Timoshenko as head of Stavka.
On 8 August 1941 it was again reorganized into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted. A 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
Borovichi is the second largest town in Novgorod Oblast, located on the Msta River in the northern spurs of the Valdai Hills, 194 kilometers east of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 53,690; the Msta River was an important waterway since at least the 10th century, since it connected Novgorod with the basins of the Volga and the Northern Dvina Rivers. The settlement was first mentioned in 1495, it was granted town status in 1770 by Catherine the Great. The main occupation of the town's inhabitants was piloting ships through the rapids of the Msta River that used to be a part of an important waterway connecting Central Russia with the Baltic Sea. However, by the mid-19th century, after opening of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway, the significance of the Msta River as a transport route has decreased. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate.
In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1773, Borovichsky Uyezd was established. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and Borovichsky Uyezd was transferred to Novgorod Governorate. Sources of fire clay were discovered near the town in the 19th century, the first fire brick manufacturing plant opened in the region in 1855. In 1878, a railway branch connected the town to Uglovka station of the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway, which allowed to establish several large fire brick plants in 1880. Now about half of the town's population is employed in the fire brick industry. In 1905, the first arch bridge in Russia was built in Borovichi across the Msta. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, Borovichsky District was established, with the administrative center in Borovichi; the district was a part of Borovichi Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. The town of Borovichi belonged to the district, but from 1930 it was elevated in status to that of a town of oblast significance.
On July 5, 1944, Borovichsky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast and remained there since. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Borovichi serves as the administrative center of Borovichsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Borovichi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Borovichi is incorporated within Borovichsky Municipal District as Borovichi Urban Settlement. In Borovichi, there are enterprises of construction material production, timber industry, food industry. There is production of woodworking machines and of engines. Borovichi is connected by a railroad with Uglovka and thus with the railway between Moscow and Saint Petersburg. There are road connections to Tikhvin and Pestovo. Borovichi is a local bus transportation hub; the town of Borovichi contains one cultural heritage monument of federal significance—the arch bridge across the Msta—and additionally ninety-nine objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.
The town is home to the Borovichi Regional Museum. The famous rapids of the Msta River popular among tourists are located just upstream from Borovichi. Bandy Club Borovichi is the only professional sports team in Novgorod Oblast. In 2010, it was playing in the High Division of the Russian Bandy Super League, but in 2011 due to financial difficulties it was relegated to the First Division, their home arena has the capacity of 5,000. Alexey Kuznetsov, Soviet official Sergei Gennadyevich Yegorov, Russian association football player Borovichi is twinned with: Binghamton, New York, United States Haapsalu, Estonia Pereira, Colombia Suolahti, Finland Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г..
Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №373-ОЗ от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Боровичского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городского и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов
Volokolamsk is a town and the administrative center of Volokolamsky District in Moscow Oblast, located on the Gorodenka River, not far from its confluence with the Lama River, 129 kilometers northwest of Moscow. Population: 23,433 , it was first mentioned in the Voskresensk Chronicle under the year 1135. It was built by Novgorodian merchants on a 5-kilometer portage on a waterway from Novgorod to Moscow and Ryazan, hence the name "Volokolamsk". In 1178, the town was burned by Vsevolod the Big Nest, his son Yaroslav II restored it to Novgorod in 1231. After the Mongol invasion of Rus', the town was divided into two parts: one assigned to Novgorod and another one to the Grand Dukes of Vladimir; the Principality of Tver failed to take it in 1273. Ivan Kalita presented his part of the town to the boyar Rodion Nestorovich, who presently wrested the other part from Novgorod. In 1345, Simeon the Proud gave Volokolamsk to his father-in-law, one of Smolensk princes. While in possession of Smolensk, the town withstood a siege by Algirdas during the Lithuanian–Muscovite War.
Vladimir the Bold defeated Tokhtamysh near Volokolamsk in 1383. Soon thereafter, it reverted to Novgorod; the town remained the southernmost enclave of the Novgorod Republic until 1398, when Vasily I definitively incorporated it into the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Ten years it was granted for two years to Švitrigaila, who had just defected to Moscow. Having lost its Hanseatic trade and connections with Novgorod, the town declined and was not mentioned by any sources for the next half a century, it was in 1462, when Volokolamsk was given by Ivan III to his younger brother, that the town became the seat of a full-scale appanage principality. Its first prince erected the single-domed limestone Resurrection Cathedral. Another prince was Andrey Volotsky. In 1613, Volokolamsk braved a siege by Sigismund III Vasa, an event which led to the town's fortifications being represented on its coat of arms. By that time, Volokolamsk had been associated with the Joseph-Volokolamsk Monastery, situated 17 kilometers to the northeast.
The Soviet authority in Volokolamsk was established in late October 1917. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945, a number of violent clashes between the German and Soviet troops and partisans took place near Volokolamsk; the town was under German occupation from October 27 to December 20, 1941, when it was liberated by the 331st Rifle Division. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Volokolamsk serves as the administrative center of Volokolamsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with seven rural localities, incorporated within Volokolamsky District as the Town of Volokolamsk. As a municipal division, the Town of Volokolamsk is incorporated within Volokolamsky Municipal District as Volokolamsk Urban Settlement. Volokolamsk is twinned with: Alexander Bek's 1944 novel, Volokolamsk Highway, is a lightly-fictionalized account of the defensive fighting by elements of the 316th Rifle Division along the road from Volokolamsk to Moscow in October, 1941. In Volokalamsk, there is a controversial landfill.
Many protests have happened about it. The Russian authorities have yet done nothing. Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г.. Московская областная Дума. Закон №1/2005-ОЗ от 11 января 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Волоколамского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №127/2010-ОЗ от 29 октября 2010 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Волоколамского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №20, 4 февраля 2005 г..
Bauyrzhan Momyshuly spelled Baurjan Momish-Uli Kazakh: Бауыржан Момышұлы, Russified: Бауыржан Момышулы. Momyshuly was born in Orak Balga, a now abandoned Aul in the modern Zhualy District in southern Kazakhstan, to a family of nomadic herders from the Dulat tribe, he lived with his relatives until the age of thirteen, but spent his teenage years in Soviet boarding schools. After completing his secondary education in 1929, he worked as a teacher, a secretary of a district committee and as an assistant-prosecutor, he was employed as a department chief in the Kazakh ASSR's Central Agency for Economic Planning. In November 1932, Momyshuly was conscripted for a two-year service in the Red Army, posted as a cadet in the 14th Mountain Infantry Regiment. After his discharge, he studied a course in economics in the Leningrad Institute of Finance and worked in the Kazakh branch of the Commercial-Industrial Soviet State Bank. On 25 March 1936, Momyshuly was again called for military service, becoming a platoon commander in the Central Asian Military District's 315th Regiment.
He remained in the military for the next two decades. In March 1937, the regiment was transferred to the Far Eastern Front in Siberia. While not subject to repression during the Great Purge, the remark "unreliable, with extreme nationalist views" was inscribed in his personal dossier in 1937, his biographer, Mekemtas Myrzakhmetov, believed this happened because Momyshuly was known to read the poetry of Magzhan Zhumabayev and works of other authors associated with the Alash Orda. In 1939, Momyshuly was assigned to command the 105th Infantry Division's artillery. From February 1940, he headed the 202nd Independent Anti-Tank Battalion, based in Zhytomyr. In January the following year, Lieutenant Momyshuly returned to Kazakhstan, serving in Alma-Ata's military commissariat; when Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June, he was appointed a battalion commander – Kombat – in the 1073rd Regiment of the newly formed 316th Rifle Division, headed by the military commissar of the Kyrgyz SSR, Major General Ivan Panfilov.
In September 1941, the division was sent to the front in Malaya Vishera, at the vicinity of Leningrad. During October, as the Wehrmacht advanced on Moscow, the 316th – now part of General Konstantin Rokossovsky's 16th Army – was transferred to the theater and tasked with defending the highway passing through the city of Volokolamsk and the surrounding area. Momyshuly's battalion was assigned an eight-kilometer-long sector along the Ruza River. From the 16 to 18 November, he and his unit were cut off from the rest of the division in the village of Matryonino, yet managed to hold off the German forces and broke out back to their lines. For its performances, the 316th was awarded the status of a Guards formation on 23 November, named the Panfilov 8th Guards Rifle Division in honor of its fallen commander, killed in action on 18 November. In late November, Momyshuly was promoted to the rank of captain. Momyshuly participated in the Soviet counter-offensive and was wounded on 5 December, though he declined to be evacuated to receive treatment.
In March 1942, war correspondent Alexander Bek arrived in the 8th Guards Division. During the spring of that year, Bek convinced Momyshuly, reluctant at first, to cooperate with him in writing a novel about the fighting in Volokolamsk, which would be published in 1944 under the title Volokolamsk Highway. Momyshuly disapproved of Bek's book, which he claimed to be an unrealistic depiction of events, criticized the author relentlessly for the remainder of his life. In April 1942, his commanding officer approved his promotion to the rank of major. In August 1942, his superiors had submitted a positive report on his conduct, he was recommended to be awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union; the proposal was rejected. The poet Mikhail Isinaliev, a friend of Momyshuly, wrote that a former political officer from the 8th Guards told him that this was due to his Kazakh patriotism, regarded as dangerous nationalism by the unit's commissars. Momyshuly joined the Communist Party during the same year. In October, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel.
After eight months, he became a colonel. During 1943, due to the effects of his old injury, he was forced to rest in a hospital for a prolonged period. After being released from the hospital in March 1944, he underwent an advanced officers' course in the Voroshilov Academy. On 21 January 1945, Colonel Baurzhan Momyshuly was appointed as the commander of the 9th Guards Rifle Division, a unit of the 2nd Rifle Corps in the 1st Baltic Front's 6th Army; the 9th participated in the East Prussian Offensive. After the war ended, Momyshuly was awarded the Order of Lenin. In 1946, Momyshuly entered the Voroshilov Academy again. On 16 June 1948, the Kazakh SSR's Council of Ministers appointed him as chief of the republic's Voluntary Society for Cooperation with the Armed Forces, while he still served in the military. In late 1948, he became deputy commander of the 49th Independent Infantry Brigade in the East Siberian Military District. From 1950, he served as a senior lecturer in the Red Army's Military Academy of Logistics and Transport.
According to Myrzakhmetov, he was the only one of the 500 officers who graduated with him to never receive the rank of a General. In 1955, Colonel Momyshuly retired fr
Bishkek Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek is the administrative centre of the Chuy Region; the province surrounds the city, although the city itself is not part of the province, but rather a province-level unit of Kyrgyzstan. In 1825 Khokand authorities established the fortress of "Pishpek" in order to control local caravan-routes and to collect tribute from Kyrgyz tribes. On 4 September 1860, with the approval of the Kyrgyz, Russian forces led by Colonel Apollon Zimmermann destroyed the fortress. In 1868 a Russian settlement was established on the site of the fortress under its original name, "Pishpek", it lay within the General Governorship of its Semirechye Oblast. In 1925 the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was established in Russian Turkestan, promoting Pishpek to its capital. In 1926 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union renamed the city as Frunze, after the Bolshevik military leader Mikhail Frunze, born there. In 1936, the city of Frunze became the capital of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, during the final stages of the national delimitation in the Soviet Union.
In 1991 the Kyrgyz parliament changed the capital's name to "Bishkek". Bishkek is situated at an altitude of about 800 meters, just off the northern fringe of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too range, an extension of the Tian Shan mountain range; these mountains provide a backdrop to the city. North of the city, a fertile and undulating steppe extends far north into neighboring Kazakhstan; the Chui River drains most of the area. Bishkek is connected to the Turkestan-Siberia Railway by a spur line. Bishkek is a city of wide boulevards and marble-faced public buildings combined with numerous Soviet-style apartment blocks surrounding interior courtyards. There are thousands of smaller built houses outside the city centre. Streets follow a grid pattern, with most flanked on both sides by narrow irrigation channels, watering innumerable trees to provide shade in the hot summers. A caravan rest stop on one of the branches of the Silk Road through the Tian Shan range, the location was fortified in 1825 by the Uzbek khan of Kokhand with a mud fort.
In the last years of Kokhand rule, the Pishpek fortress was led by the Datka. In 1860, the fort was conquered and razed by the military forces of Colonel Zimmermann when Tsarist Russia annexed the area. Colonel Zimmermann rebuilt the town over the destroyed fort and put field Poruchik Titov as head of a new Russian garrison; the site was redeveloped from 1877 onward by the Russian government, which encouraged the settlement of Russian peasants by giving them fertile land to develop. In 1926, the city became the capital of the newly established Kirghiz ASSR and was renamed "Frunze" after Mikhail Frunze, Lenin's close associate, born in Bishkek and played key roles during the revolutions of 1905 and 1917 and during the Russian civil war of the early 1920s; the early 1990s were tumultuous. In June 1990, a state of emergency was declared following severe ethnic riots in southern Kyrgyzstan that threatened to spread to the capital; the city was renamed Bishkek on 5 February 1991 and Kyrgyzstan achieved independence that year during the breakup of the Soviet Union.
Before independence, the majority of Bishkek's population were ethnic Russians. In 2004, Russians made up 20% of the city's population, about 7–8% in 2011. Today, Bishkek is a modern city with many restaurants and cafes, with many second-hand European and Japanese cars and minibuses crowding its streets; however and sidewalks have fallen into disrepair since the 1990s. At the same time, Bishkek still preserves its former Soviet feel with Soviet-period buildings and gardens prevailing over newer structures. Bishkek is the country's financial center, with all of the country's 21 commercial banks headquartered there. During the Soviet era, the city was home to a large number of industrial plants, but most have been shut down since 1991 or now operate on a much reduced scale. One of Bishkek's largest employment centers today is the Dordoy Bazaar open market, where many of the Chinese goods imported to CIS countries are sold. Though the city is young, the surrounding area has some sites of interest dating to prehistorical times.
There are sites from the Greco-Buddhist period, the period of Nestorian influence, the era of the Central Asian khanates, the Soviet period. The central part of the city is laid out on a rectangular grid plan; the city's main street is the east–west Chui Avenue, named after the region's main river. In the Soviet era, it was called Lenin Avenue. Along or near it are many of the most important government universities; these include the Academy of Sciences compound. The westernmost section of the avenue is known as Deng Xiaoping Avenue; the main north–south street is Yusup Abdrakhmanov Street, still referred to by its old name, Sovietskaya Street. Its northern and southern sections are called Yelebesov and Baityk Batyr Streets. Several major shopping centers are located along it, in the north it provides access to Dordoy Bazaar. Erkindik Boulevard runs from north to south, from the main railroad station south of Chui Avenue to the museum quarter and sculpture park just north of Chui Avenue, further north toward the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In the past it was called Dzerzhinsky Boulevard, named after a Communist revolutionary, Felix Dzerzhinsky, its northern continuation is still called Dzerzhinsky Street. An imp
Order of the Red Star
The Order of the Red Star was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. It was established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 6 April 1930 but its statute was only defined in decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 5 May 1930; that statute was amended by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May 1936, of 19 June 1943, of 26 February 1946, of 15 October 1947, of 16 December 1947 and by decree No 1803-X of 28 March 1980. The Order of the Red Star was awarded to soldiers of the Soviet Army, Navy and internal security forces, employees of the State Security Committee of the USSR, as well as NCOs and officers of the bodies of internal affairs; the Order of the Red Star is worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other orders of the USSR, placed after the Order of the Patriotic War 2nd class. If worn in the presence of Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence; the Order of the Red Star was used as a long service award from 1944 to 1958 to mark fifteen years of service in the military, state security, or police.
Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 14 September 1957 emphasised the devaluation of certain Soviet high military Orders used as long service awards instead of their intended criteria. This led to the joint 25 January 1958 decree of the Ministers of Defence, of Internal Affairs and of the Chairman of the Committee on State Security of the USSR establishing the Medal "For Impeccable Service" putting an end to the practice; the Order of the Red Star is a red enamelled 47mm to 50mm wide silver five pointed star. In the center of the obverse, an oxydised silver shield bearing the image of an erect soldier wearing an overcoat and carrying a rifle, along the shield's entire circumference, a narrow band bearing the Communist motto in relief, "Workers of the world, unite!", the band below the soldier bore the relief inscription "USSR". Below the shield, the hammer and sickle of oxydised silver; the otherwise plain reverse bore the award serial number. The Order was attached to clothing by a threaded screw attachment.
When the order wasn't worn, a ribbon could be worn in its stead on the ribbon bar on the left side of the chest. The ribbon of the Order of the red Star was a 24mm wide silk moiré dark red with a 5mm wide central silver stripe; the Order of the Red Star was awarded 6 times to 5 people, 5 times to more than 15 people, four times to more than 150 people, three times to more than 1,000 people. Below is a short partial list of such multiple recipients: Colonel Philip Petrovich Onoprienko Colonel Peter Petrovich Panchenko Lieutenant Colonel Vasily Vasilevich Silantyev Colonel Konstantin Ivanovich Malkhasyan Major General Ivan Nikiforovich Stepanenko Colonel Alexey Petrovich Yakimov Lieutenant General Galaktion Alpaidze Colonel General Georgy Baydukov Colonel General Alexander Ivanovich Babaev Colonel Valentin Gavrilov Lieutenant Colonel Naum Shusterman Lieutenant Colonel Anatoly Lebed Army General Alexei Yepishev Army General Gennady Ivanovich Obaturov Captain Asaf Abdrakhmanov Lieutenant General Alexander Vasilyevich Belyakov Rear Admiral Aksel Berg Admiral Nikolai Sergeyev Aviator Olga Yamshchikova Major Marina Chechneva Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Akhromeyev Marshal of the Soviet Union Nikolai Bulganin Major General Georgy Beregovoy Colonel General Igor Rodionov Sergey Ilyushin Semyon Nomokonov Colonel Ivan Kozhedub Colonel Dmitry Loza Marshal of Aviation Alexander Pokryshkin Marshal of the Soviet Union Boris Shaposhnikov Senior Sergeant Yakov Pavlov Admiral Arseniy Golovko Rear Admiral Vladimir Konovalov Admiral Gordey Levchenko Admiral Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev Army General Ivan Yefimovich Petrov Alexandrov Ensemble 89th Rifle Division 9th Infantry Division 80th Airmobile Regiment 8th Army Corps 7th Guards Airborne Division 10th Guards Motor Rifle DivisionIn 2015 the Order of the Red Star award awarded to Ukrainian army units were removed as part of a removal of Soviet awards and decorations from Ukrainian military units.
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