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95th Grey Cup

The 95th Grey Cup was held in Toronto at the Rogers Centre on November 25, 2007. The Grey Cup, first awarded in 1909, is the championship game of the Canadian Football League, it was played between the Saskatchewan Roughriders and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, with the Roughriders winning 23–19. It was the first Grey Cup meeting between the two teams, was the first time any Labour Day Classic matchup has been played in the Grey Cup; the 95th Grey Cup was the 46th Grey Cup hosted by Toronto since the championship's inception in 1909 and the first it has hosted since 1992. SkyDome/Rogers Centre hosted the 77th Grey Cup in 1989 and the 80th Grey Cup in 1992; the game was announced as a sellout on November 19, 2007. Ticket prices ranged from $94 to $560; the game was viewed by 3.337 million viewers on CBC television, up from 3.202 million the previous year. This was the last Grey Cup and CFL game broadcast by CBC, as TSN became the exclusive TV home for the CFL the following season; the Grey Cup festivities began with a four-day festival that had over 50 events at several venues in downtown Toronto including the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, the CN Tower.

The festival area was bounded by Spadina Avenue east to Bay Street and from Nathan Phillips Square south to Lake Ontario. On the weekend of the Grey Cup, there was a "Celebration of Football" with games hosted at the Rogers Centre at amateur, high school, university level, including the 43rd Vanier Cup, the CIS football championship; the Vanier Cup game was held on November 23, 2007 at Rogers Centre with the Manitoba Bisons versus the Saint Mary's Huskies. This marked the first time. Confirmed festival events include: Annual team parties Grey Cup Chopper raffle Street festivals on Front Street and Bremner Street BMX Bike Park presented by the Argonauts' Stop The Violence foundation Grey Cup House built by CFL players and fans for Habitat for Humanity CFL Player Awards at Roy Thomson Hall Includes a tribute to John Candy hosted by Dan Aykroyd Grey Cup Gala at Liberty Grand hosted by Brent Butt CN Tower party hosted by Trish Stratus Grey Cup Party Series hosted by Trailer Park Boys Ricky and Bubbles Musical acts Lenny Kravitz Great Big Sea Barenaked Ladies Spirit of the West The Lowest of the Low Hinder Sloan Kim Mitchell The Trews Official website Official MySpace Video highlights of the 95th Grey Cup on YouTube 2007 Grey Cup presentation on YouTube Scoring Summary

Blum Blum Shub

Blum Blum Shub is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1986 by Lenore Blum, Manuel Blum and Michael Shub, derived from Michael O. Rabin's one-way function. Blum Blum Shub takes the form x n + 1 = x n 2 mod M,where M = pq is the product of two large primes p and q. At each step of the algorithm, some output is derived from xn+1; the seed x0 should be an integer, co-prime to M and not 1 or 0. The two primes, p and q, should both be congruent to 3, should be safe primes with a small gcd. An interesting characteristic of the Blum Blum Shub generator is the possibility to calculate any xi value directly: x i = mod M,where λ is the Carmichael function.. There is a proof reducing its security to the computational difficulty of factoring; when the primes are chosen appropriately, O lower-order bits of each xn are output in the limit as M grows large, distinguishing the output bits from random should be at least as difficult as solving the Quadratic residuosity problem modulo M. Let p = 11, q = 23 and s = 3.

We can expect to get a large cycle length for those small numbers, because g c d = 2. The generator starts to evaluate x 0 by using x − 1 = s and creates the sequence x 0, x 1, x 2, … x 5 = 9, 81, 236, 36, 31, 202; the following table shows the output for the different bit selection methods used to determine the output. The following Common Lisp implementation provides a simple demonstration of the generator, in particular regarding the three bit selection methods, it is important to note that the requirements imposed upon the parameters p, q and s are not checked. GeneralBlum, Lenore. "Comparison of Two Pseudo-Random Number Generators". Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO'82. Plenum: 61–78. Geisler, Martin. "About Random Bits". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.90.3779. Available as PDF and gzipped Postscript GMPBBS, a C-language implementation by Mark Rossmiller BlumBlumShub, a Java-language implementation by Mark Rossmiller An implementation in Java Randomness tests

Forum for the Future (Bahrain 2005)

The Forum for the Future in Bahrain on 11–12 November 2005 brought together, by suggestion of the prime minister of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, the leaders of states of the Middle East, industrialised countries of the Group of Eight and other partners to promote political and social reform in the region. Delegates at the conference included US Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice, British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, French Foreign Minister Philippe Douste-Blazy and Arab League Secretary General, Amr Moussa; the Forum members discussed an agenda to promote the values of human dignity, economic opportunity, social justice. The Forum served as a venue for the region's businesses and civil society groups to express their goals and ideas for reform to their governments. Speaking on 5 November, US State Department spokesman Sean McCormack previewed Ms Rice's agenda "In Bahrain, she will attend the Forum for the Future, part of our ongoing efforts to empower people in the region as they seek to reform and improve their lives and better their futures.

A big part of the Forum for the Future is to serve as a mechanism to create a stable lasting mechanism where civil society groups from across the region can come together". As the host the Kingdom of Bahrain co-chaired the Forum with the current President of the G8, the United Kingdom; the Forum focused on how information technology can promote political development and economic growth in the region. The G8 Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative was launched at the Sea Island Summit hosted by the United States in 2004; the Bahrain meeting was the second Forum for the Future after the first was convened in Rabat, Morocco on December 11, 2004. Bahrain, as Forum host, invited the following participants: BMENA region: Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Sudan. G-8: Canada, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom and United States of America. Partners: Spain and Denmark Organisations: African Development Bank, Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab Monetary Fund, Asian Investment Bank, European Commission, European Council, European Investment Bank, Gulf Cooperation Council, International Finance Corporation, International Monetary Fund, Islamic Development Bank, Maghreb Arab Union, World Bank.

Bahrain Politics of Bahrain Women's political rights in Bahrain Bahrain Centre for Human Rights Forum for the Future site of Bahrain's Ministry of Foreign Affairs Parallel Conference of the Forum for the Future US State Department Forum for the Future Fact Sheet Gulf News: Civil societies threaten to boycott forum on reforms in Manama, 10 November 2005 Rice to attend Forum for the Future in Manama, Gulf News, 4 November 2005 Bahrain urged to build on success, Gulf Daily News, 8 November 2005 NGO's insist reform in Arabs' own interest, Daily Star, 8 November 2005