A rocket is a missile, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed from propellant carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets forward by expelling their exhaust in the opposite direction at high speed, can therefore work in the vacuum of space. In fact, rockets work more efficiently in space than in an atmosphere. Multistage rockets are capable of attaining escape velocity from Earth and therefore can achieve unlimited maximum altitude. Compared with airbreathing engines, rockets are lightweight and powerful and capable of generating large accelerations. To control their flight, rockets rely on momentum, auxiliary reaction engines, gimballed thrust, momentum wheels, deflection of the exhaust stream, propellant flow, spin, or gravity. Rockets for military and recreational uses date back to at least 13th-century China. Significant scientific and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology for the Space Age, including setting foot on the Earth's moon.
Rockets are now used for fireworks, ejection seats, launch vehicles for artificial satellites, human spaceflight, space exploration. Chemical rockets are the most common type of high power rocket creating a high speed exhaust by the combustion of fuel with an oxidizer; the stored propellant can be a simple pressurized gas or a single liquid fuel that disassociates in the presence of a catalyst, two liquids that spontaneously react on contact, two liquids that must be ignited to react, a solid combination of fuel with oxidizer, or solid fuel with liquid oxidizer. Chemical rockets store a large amount of energy in an released form, can be dangerous. However, careful design, testing and use minimizes risks; the first gunpowder-powered rockets evolved in medieval China under the Song dynasty by the 13th century. The Mongols adopted Chinese rocket technology and the invention spread via the Mongol invasions to the Middle East and to Europe in the mid-13th century. Rockets are recorded in use by the Song navy in a military exercise dated to 1245.
Internal-combustion rocket propulsion is mentioned in a reference to 1264, recording that the "ground-rat", a type of firework, had frightened the Empress-Mother Gongsheng at a feast held in her honor by her son the Emperor Lizong. Subsequently, rockets are included in the military treatise Huolongjing known as the Fire Drake Manual, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid-14th century; this text mentions the first known multistage rocket, the'fire-dragon issuing from the water', thought to have been used by the Chinese navy. Medieval and early modern rockets were used militarily as incendiary weapons in sieges. Between 1270 and 1280, Hasan al-Rammah wrote al-furusiyyah wa al-manasib al-harbiyya, which included 107 gunpowder recipes, 22 of them for rockets. In Europe, Konrad Kyeser described rockets in his military treatise Bellifortis around 1405; the name "rocket" comes from the Italian rocchetta, meaning "bobbin" or "little spindle", given due to the similarity in shape to the bobbin or spool used to hold the thread to be fed to a spinning wheel.
Leonhard Fronsperger and Conrad Haas adopted the Italian term into German in the mid-16th century. Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima, an important early modern work on rocket artillery, by Kazimierz Siemienowicz, was first printed in Amsterdam in 1650; the Mysorean rockets were the first successful iron-cased rockets, developed in the late 18th century in the Kingdom of Mysore by Tipu Sultan. The Congreve rocket was a British weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804; this rocket was based directly on the Mysorean rockets, used compressed powder and was fielded in the Napoleonic Wars. It was Congreve rockets that Francis Scott Key was referring to when he wrote of the "rockets' red glare" while held captive on a British ship, laying siege to Fort McHenry in 1814. Together, the Mysorean and British innovations increased the effective range of military rockets from 100 to 2,000 yards; the first mathematical treatment of the dynamics of rocket propulsion is due to William Moore.
In 1815 Alexander Dmitrievich Zasyadko constructed rocket-launching platforms, which allowed rockets to be fired in salvos, gun-laying devices. William Hale in 1844 increased the accuracy of rocket artillery. Edward Mounier Boxer further improved the Congreve rocket in 1865. William Leitch first proposed the concept of using rockets to enable human spaceflight in 1861. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky also conceived this idea, extensively developed a body of theory that has provided the foundation for subsequent spaceflight development. Robert Goddard in 1920 published proposed improvements to rocket technology in A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. In 1923, Hermann Oberth published Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen Modern rockets originated in 1926 when Goddard attached a supersonic nozzle to the combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant rocket; these nozzles turn the hot gas from the combustion chamber into a cooler, hypersonic directed jet of gas, more than doubling the thrust and raising the engine efficiency from 2% to 64%.
Use of liquid propellants instead of gunpowder improved the effectiveness of rocket artillery in World War II, opened up the p
Henri Ziegler CVO, CBE was one of the founders of Airbus and its first president. A Polytechnic engineer and graduate of "Sup'Aéro" as well as a French air force officer and test pilot, he was a founding father of Airbus Industrie and became its first CEO, he was the driving force behind the development of the Airbus A300B, the original aircraft that started Airbus on its road to global success by obtaining French government backing for the programme in 1969. Following his appointment as assistant director of the Centre d'Essais en Vol in 1938, he fought for the French Resistance during the Second World War. In 1944 he was made commander of the Free French air forces in London, going on to become chief of staff of the French Forces of the Interior under General Koenig, he was awarded the Croix de guerre 1939-1945 with three palms, the Médaille de la Résistance with rosette and appointed officer on the US Legion of Merit. While acting as a special representative of the French government in Britain and the United States, Henri Ziegler was managing director of Air France from 1946 to 1954.
In subsequent years he was the founder of Air Alpes, a member of several cabinet ministries, president of Avions Breguet. From 1971 to 1973, he was managing director of the French Aerospace industries trade organisation, retiring from Airbus in 1975. In 1973, Ziegler received the Tony Jannus Award, along with Geoffrey Knight, for distinguished contributions to commercial aviation. Ziegler was the father of the former Airbus Director of Engineering. During his career, Ziegler was the recipient of several honours, including Grand Officer of the Légion d'honneur, honorary Commander of the Order of the British Empire and honorary Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. "There would be no Airbus without Henri Ziegler," Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert declared on 11 April 2006 at the dedication of the new Airbus delivery centre in Toulouse named in his honour. Airbus webpage
The Europa rocket was an early expendable launch system of the European Launcher Development Organisation, the precursor to the European Space Agency. It was developed with the aim to delivering space access technology, more to facilitate the deployment of European-wide telecommunication and meteorological satellites into orbit; the Blue Streak missile predated the Europa programme, having been developed by Britain for military purposes, however it was cancelled in 1960. Efforts to repurpose the Blue Streak, such as the studied Black Prince expendable launch system cumulated in the multinational Europa programme. Workshare on the programme was shared between the various members of the ELDO based upon their financial contributions; the Europa launcher itself consisted of the Blue Streak and Astris rocket stages. The programme proceeded to perform multiple test launches, however these resulted in partial failures. In addition, Britain decided to pull out of the ELDO organisation, thus Europa, to instead focus on the rival British Black Arrow launcher instead.
This led to the replacement of the Blue Streak by the French-built Diamant section. However, confidence in the programme had diminished due to the poor reliability figures, this led to its termination. While Europa was cancelled, the ambition for such a launcher was still present and supported by the majority of ELDO members and, following its reformation into the ESA in 1974, the agency proceeded to develop the Ariane family of launchers, would which prove to be a commercial success with hundreds of launches performed. During the early 1950s, the British government had identified the need to develop its own series of ballistic missiles due to advances being made in this field by the Soviet Union and the United States. A British programme to develop such a missile, named Blue Streak, was promptly initiated. Accordingly, during 1955, the Black Knight research rocket programme was commenced for this purpose. Following several launches, the Black Knight became to be regarded as a successful programme, having produced a low cost and reliable rocket, thus there was impetus present to proceed with further development of the platform.
On 13 April 1960, the Defence Minister Harold Watkinson announced the cancellation of Blue Streak as a military programme, went on to state that: "the Government will now consider with the firms and other interests concerned, as a matter of urgency, whether the Blue Streak programme could be adapted for the development of a launcher for space satellites." While development of the Blue Streak missile continued with the view of using it as a capable satellite launcher, the rate of work was slowed. Aerospace author C. N Hill wrote that this declaration had been made: "Mainly, I suspect, to minimise the political damage that ensued from the decision". In 1957, a proposed design, known as Black Prince, was put forward by Desmond King-Hele and Doreen Gilmour of the Royal Aircraft Establishment during 1957; as envisioned by this proposal, a expendable launch system could be developed using a mix of preexisting and in-development assets. In 1960, the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farnborough was given the job of considering how the Blue Streak missile could be adapted as a satellite launching vehicle, in conjunction with other rocket stages.
Accordingly, the 1957 concept design for a combined Blue Streak-Black Knight launcher was put forward once again, this time received a favourable appraisal. However, it was recognised that the programme's cost would be a major issue, one estimate of the total development costs would have been equal of half of the Britain's university budget. Along with the high costs involved, it was becoming clear that, due to British military satellites being delivered by American launchers and the domestic science community being perceived as lacking the funding to conduct multiple major research satellite programmes at once, that domestic demand for such a launcher was not guaranteed. Accordingly, it was decided that it would be preferable for other nations to be involved in the programme in order to share the burden of the costs and to be predisposed to making use of the launcher. Diplomatic approaches were made to various nations, however it became obvious that the members of the Commonwealth of Nations alone were not prepared to provide the necessary backing for such a programme.
As early as 1961, Peter Thorneycroft, the Minister of Aviation, had been giving some thought on the topic of a joint European project, the main intention of this ambition being to not waste the advanced development of the Blue Streak, to not leave space exploration to the Americans and Russians. Britain made diplomatic approaches to various European nations, the most significant of these being to France. Overtures between the British Government and the French Government on potential cooperation on missile research, on the potential use of the Blue Streak as early as 1957. Britain and France came to a mutual agreement to serve as the join lead nations on the envisioned programme, while rec
Lockheed L-1011 TriStar
The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar referred to as the L-1011 or TriStar, is an American medium-to-long-range, wide-body trijet airliner by Lockheed Corporation. It was the third wide-body airliner to enter commercial operations, after the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10; the airliner has a seating capacity of up to 400 passengers and a range of over 4,000 nautical miles. Its trijet configuration has three Rolls-Royce RB211 engines with one engine under each wing, along with a third engine center-mounted with an S-duct air inlet embedded in the tail and the upper fuselage; the aircraft has an autoland capability, an automated descent control system, available lower deck galley and lounge facilities. The L-1011 TriStar was produced in two fuselage lengths; the original L-1011-1 first flew in November 1970, entered service with Eastern Air Lines in 1972. The shortened, longer range L-1011-500 first flew in 1978, entered service with British Airways a year later; the original-length TriStar was produced as the high gross weight L-1011-100, up-rated engine L-1011-200, further upgraded L-1011-250.
Post-production conversions for the L-1011-1 with increased takeoff weights included the L-1011-50 and L-1011-150. The L-1011 TriStar's sales were hampered by two years of delays due to developmental and financial problems at Rolls-Royce, the sole manufacturer of the aircraft's engines. Between 1968 and 1984, Lockheed manufactured a total of 250 TriStars, assembled at the Lockheed plant located at the Palmdale Regional Airport in southern California north of Los Angeles. After production ended, Lockheed withdrew from the commercial aircraft business due to its below-target sales. In the 1960s, American Airlines approached Lockheed and competitor Douglas with the need for an airliner smaller than the 747 capable of carrying a large passenger load to distant locales such as London and Latin America from company hubs at Dallas-Ft Worth and New York. Lockheed had not produced civilian airliners since 1961 with the L-188 Electra. In the 1950s the Electra was designed for turboprop propulsion, which Lockheed had used on the C-130 Hercules military transport.
After the Electra overcame vibration problems that caused a number of crashes early in its career, the market for large airliners would soon shift over to jet airliners such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8. Lockheed won contracts for jet military transports with the C-141 StarLifter, pioneered large jet transports with the large C-5 Galaxy with its high-bypass turbofan engines. Boeing lost the military contract, but its private-venture 747 captured what would become a much larger civilian airliner market for wide-body airliners. Having experienced difficulties with some of their military programs, Lockheed was eager to re-enter the civilian market with a smaller wide-body jet, their response was the L-1011 TriStar. Douglas Aircraft answered American Airlines with the DC-10, which had a similar three engine configuration and dimensions. Despite their similarities, the L-1011 and DC-10's engineering approach differed greatly. McDonnell, who had taken over Douglas Aircraft, directed DC-10 development on a "very firm budget, cost overruns were unacceptable – at the expense of safety", the conservative approach meant reusing Douglas DC-8 technology.
By contrast, Lockheed would "take the most advanced technology of the day and when that technology was lacking, Lockheed created it" for the L-1011 in order to give it lower noise emissions, improved reliability, higher efficiency over first generation jet airliners. The TriStar name was selected in a Lockheed employee naming contest for the airliner; the advanced technology that went into the TriStar resulted in a high purchase price. It has been said that "airlines could get a 747 for more, or a DC-10 for a good deal less"; the TriStar's design featured a twin-aisle interior with a maximum of 400 passengers and a three-engine layout. The TriStar was conceived as a "jumbo twin", but a three-engine design was chosen to give the aircraft enough thrust to take off from existing runways. In addition, before the establishment of Extended Operations standards by the FAA in the 1980s, commercial jets with only two engines were not allowed to fly more than 30 minutes away from an airport, making trans-oceanic flights impossible.
The main visible difference between the TriStar and its similar trijet competitor, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10, is the central tail engine configuration: the DC-10's engine is mounted above the fuselage for simplicity of design and more economical construction, while the TriStar's engine is mounted to the rear fuselage and fed through an S-duct for reduced drag and improved stability. Lockheed engineers were able to maintain straight-through engine performance by limiting the curve of the S-duct to less than a quarter of the radius of the engine intake diameter; the S-duct design reduced the total empty aircraft weight. The research undertaken during the design of the L-1011 indicated that losses of using an S-duct were more than compensated for by the above savings. A further major difference between the L-1011 and the DC-10 was Lockheed's selection of the Rolls-Royce RB211 as the only engine for the L-1011; as designed, the RB211 turbofan was an advanced three-spool design with a carbon fiber fan, which would have better efficiency and power-to-weight ratio than any competing engine like the General Electric CF6 that powered the DC-10.
In theory, the triple spool would produce the same or more power as existing double spool engines while having a smaller cross section that would reduce d
Lionel Jospin is a French politician. He served as prime minister of France from 1997 to 2002. Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for president of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. In 1995 he was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac. In 2002 he was eliminated in the first round after finishing behind both Chirac and the far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen, he announced his retirement from politics. Lionel Jospin was born to a Protestant family in a suburb of Paris, he is the son of Robert Jospin. He attended the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly before studying at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he was active in the UNEF students' union, protesting against the war in Algeria. He completed his military service as an officer in charge of armoured training in Trier. After his graduation from the ENA in 1965, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as secretary of Foreign Affairs, he became in charge of economic cooperation there, worked with Ernest-Antoine Seillière, future leader of the MEDEF employers' union.
Representative of a generation of left-wingers who criticized the old SFIO Socialist Party, he joined a Trotskyist group, the Internationalist Communist Organization in the 1960s, before entering the renewed Socialist Party in 1971. Joining François Mitterrand's circle, he became the second highest-ranking member of the party in 1979 its First Secretary when Mitterrand was elected president of France in 1981; when President Mitterrand decided, in 1982–83, to change his economic policy to give priority to the struggle against inflation and for a hard currency, Jospin justified his choice. After Laurent Fabius was chosen as prime minister in 1984, a rivalry between these two political heirs of Mitterrand broke out when they competed for the leadership of the 1986 legislative campaign. In 1988, after Mitterrand's reelection, Jospin left the PS leadership, though Mitterrand considered naming him prime minister, he was nominated for minister of education. Under Jospin's tenure as education minister, teacher training was consolidated, the lycees and universities were reformed, teachers’ salaries improved, technical and vocational education were reformed, which the socialists saw as a means of improving economic performance, tackling youth unemployment, attaining social justice.
Jospin's rivalry with Fabius intensified and caused an internal crisis, notably during the Rennes Congress. The party's mitterrandist faction split because Jospin's followers allied with the other factions to prevent Fabius's election as First Secretary; this damaged Jospin's relationship with Mitterrand and, after the Socialist Party's failure in the March 1992 local elections, Jospin was not included in the new government formed by Pierre Bérégovoy. As a member of the National Assembly, Jospin served first as a representative of Paris, of Haute-Garonne département, he lost his seat in the National Assembly in the Socialists' landslide defeat in the 1993 legislative election and announced his political retirement. In 1993, Jospin was appointed ministre plénipotentiaire, 2nd class, a position he held until his appointment as prime minister in 1997, but he was not appointed to any embassy. In 1995 Jospin claimed a necessity to "take stock" of the mitterrandist inheritance so as to restore the credibility of the Socialist Party.
He was selected as the Socialist candidate for president against the PS leader Henri Emmanuelli. In the run-up to the election, Jospin made various policy proposals, such as a programme for the environment, an extension of social services, a housebuilding programme, the rebuilding of run-down parts of cities, a 37-hour workweek. Following the Socialists' landslide defeats of 1992–94, Jospin was considered to have little chance of victory, but he did well, leading in the first round and losing only narrowly to Jacques Chirac in the final runoff election. His performance was seen to mark a revival of the Socialists as a strong force in French politics and he returned to being the party's First Secretary. Jospin built a new coalition with the other left-wing parties: the French Communist Party, the Greens, the Left Radical Party and the dissident Citizen and Republican Movement. Two years Chirac decided to call an early election for the National Assembly, hoping for a personal endorsement; the move backfired: the "Plural Left" won a parliamentary majority and Jospin became prime minister.
Jospin is a Member of the Club of Madrid. Jospin served as prime minister during France's third "cohabitation" government under President Chirac from 1997 to 2002. Despite his previous image as a rigid socialist, Jospin sold state-owned enterprises and lowered the VAT, income tax and company tax rates, his government introduced the 35-hour workweek, provided additional health insurance for those on the lowest incomes through the creation of Couverture maladie universelle, promoted the representation of women in politics, expanded the social security system, created the PACS – a civil partnership or union between two people of any genders. During his term, with the help of a favorable economic situation, unemployment fell by 900,000. There were several women but no ethnic minorities in Jospin's government; the "law against social exclusion" extended social security and introduced various measures to combat poverty. These included: The optimization of extra earnings for Revenu minimum d'insertion recipients.
The introduction of CMU. Guaranteeing
Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra was a French company covering a wide range of activities related to automobiles, bicycles and weaponry. In 1994, it now operates under that name. Matra was owned by the Floirat family; the name Matra became famous in the 1960s when it went into car production by buying Automobiles René Bonnet. Matra Automobiles produced successful racing sports cars. By merging with various companies, Matra's CEO, Jean-Luc Lagardère, built a group around Matra diversified in media, state of the art technology, aeronautics and in automobiles and records production and distribution. Matra was privatized in 1988, with Lagardère holding 6% of the stock and by 1992, 25%. In 1992 the Lagardère Group was radically restructured. Lagardère merged Matra and Hachette to form Matra Hachette, of which Lagardère Group held 37.6%. Following a share swap in 1994 Lagardère held 93.3% of Matra Hachette's stock. In 1996 Matra Hachette was formally merged into Lagardère. Matra Hautes Technologies was the defence arm of Matra.
The company was involved in aerospace and telecommunications. In February 1999 MHT merged with Aérospatiale to form Aérospatiale-Matra. On July 10, 2000 Aérospatiale-Matra became part of EADS. Matra Défense Matra Systèmes & Information Matra BAe Dynamics, formed in 1996, Matra BAe Dynamics brought together the missile business of BAe and half of the missile business of Matra Défense.. Matra Marconi Space, was the space division of Matra which merged with the space operations of GEC in 1989 to form Matra Marconi Space. In 2000, it was merged with the space division of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG to form Astrium; this was renamed to EADS Astrium. Matra Nortel Communications R.511 air to air missiles R.530 air to air missiles Super 530 air to air missiles R.550 Magic air to air missiles MICA air to air missiles R.422 surface to air missiles Mistral anti-aircraft missiles Martel anti-radar and anti-shipping missiles in association with Hawker Siddeley ARMAT anti-radar missiles Otomat anti-shipping missiles in association with Oto Melara BLG 66 Belouga cluster bombs Durandal anti-runway bombs Pods for the SNEB unguided rocket The company was created following the acquisition of the brand Automobiles René Bonnet in 1964 by Jean-Luc Lagardere and disappeared in 2003 The Matra name was first used for road cars with the Renault-powered Matra Djet, an update of the Bonnet Jet, the Djet was replaced with the Matra 530, the Murena and the Rancho, an early type of sport utility vehicle.
In 1984 Renault launched the Matra built Espace minivan, the car was a success. After the discontinuation of the Renault Avantime, on February 27, 2003, Matra announced its intention to close its automobile factory in Romorantin-Lanthenay a month later. In September 2003, Pininfarina SpA acquired Matra Automobile's engineering and prototype businesses; the company was subsequently named Matra Automobile Engineering. On January 13, 2009, Pininfarina sold its share in Matra Automobile Engineering to Segula Technologies. Matra Djet Matra 530 Matra Bagheera Matra Murena Matra Rancho Renault Espace Renault Avantime In the mid-1960s Matra enjoyed considerable success in Formula 3 and Formula 2 racing with its MS5 monocoque-based car, winning the French and European championships. Matra competed as a constructor in Formula One from 1967 to 1972 and as an engine supplier between 1975 to 1982, winning the drivers' and constructors' championships in 1969. Matra competed in sports car racing from 1966 to 1974 winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1972, 1973 and 1974 and the World Championship for Makes in 1973 and 1974.
Matra sponsored Racing Club de France in 1987~1989 Matra produced a home computer, the Matra Alice Matra produced a fiberglass 14 ft sailing dinghy with an innovative double bottom, self-bailing hull called the Capricorne. Though several hundred were sold and a class association existed, it never caught on against the better established International 420. Matra created an automatic light rubber-tyred metro, the Véhicule Automatique Léger Matra attempted, failed, to produce a personal rapid transit system, Aramis Matra makes electric bicycles and electric scooters Matra i-step Runner and Force as well as Matra i-flow in Romorantin. Official website matraclub.com matra-automobile.com History of Renault Espace includes opinions about demise of Matra
1970s energy crisis
The 1970s energy crisis was a period when the major industrial countries of the world the United States, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand, faced substantial petroleum shortages and perceived, as well as elevated prices. The two worst crises of this period were the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis, when the Yom Kippur War and the Iranian Revolution triggered interruptions in Middle Eastern oil exports; the crisis began to unfold as petroleum production in the United States and some other parts of the world peaked in the late 1960s and early 1970s. World oil production per capita began a long-term decline after 1979; the major industrial centers of the world were forced to contend with escalating issues related to petroleum supply. Western countries relied on the resources of unfriendly countries in the Middle East and other parts of the world; the crisis led to stagnant economic growth in many countries. Although there were genuine concerns with supply, part of the run-up in prices resulted from the perception of a crisis.
The combination of stagnant growth and price inflation during this era led to the coinage of the term stagflation. By the 1980s, both the recessions of the 1970s and adjustments in local economies to become more efficient in petroleum usage, controlled demand sufficiently for petroleum prices worldwide to return to more sustainable levels; the period was not uniformly negative for all economies. Petroleum-rich countries in the Middle East benefited from increased prices and the slowing production in other areas of the world; some other countries, such as Norway and Venezuela, benefited as well. In the United States and Alaska, as well as some other oil-producing areas, experienced major economic booms due to soaring oil prices as most of the rest of the nation struggled with the stagnant economy. Many of these economic gains, came to a halt as prices stabilized and dropped in the 1980s. During the 1960s, petroleum production in some of the world's top producers began to peak. Germany reached its production peak in 1966, Venezuela and the United States in 1970, Iran in 1974.
Canada's conventional oil production peaked around this same time. The worldwide production per capita peaked soon afterward. Although production in other parts of the world was increasing, the peaks in these regions began to put substantial upward pressure on world oil prices; as important, control of the oil supply became an important problem as countries like West Germany and the U. S. became dependent on foreign suppliers for this key resource. The 1973 oil crisis is a direct consequence of the US production peak in late 1960 and the beginning of 1971; the "embargo" as described below is the "practical name" given to the crisis. For the main Arab producers, the "embargo" allowed them to show to "the Arab street" that they were doing something for the Palestinians. In real market terms the embargo was a non-event, only from a few countries, towards a few countries, it should be noted that the "Embargo" was never effective from Saudi Arabia towards the US, as reported by James Akins in interview at 24:10 in the documentary "la face cachée du pétrole part 2".
James Akins, who audited US capacity for Nixon after US peak, was US ambassador in Saudi Arabia at that time. Lawrence Rocks and Richard Runyon captured the unfolding of these events at the time in The Energy Crisis book. In October 1973, the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries or the OAPEC proclaimed an oil embargo "in response to the U. S. decision to re-supply the Israeli military" during the Yom Kippur war. OAPEC declared it would limit or stop oil shipments to the United States and other countries if they supported Israel in the conflict. With the US actions seen as initiating the oil embargo, the long-term possibility of embargo-related high oil prices, disrupted supply and recession, created a strong rift within NATO. Arab oil producers had linked the end of the embargo with successful US efforts to create peace in the Middle East, which complicated the situation. To address these developments, the Nixon Administration began parallel negotiations with both Arab oil producers to end the embargo, with Egypt and Israel to arrange an Israeli pull back from the Sinai and the Golan Heights after the fighting stopped.
By January 18, 1974, Secretary of State Henry Kissinger had negotiated an Israeli troop withdrawal from parts of the Sinai. The promise of a negotiated settlement between Israel and Syria was sufficient to convince Arab oil producers to lift the embargo in March 1974. By May, Israel agreed to withdraw from the Golan Heights. Independently, the OPEC members agreed to use their leverage over the world price-setting mechanism for oil to stabilize their real incomes by raising world oil prices; this action followed several years of steep income declines after the recent failure of negotiations with the major Western oil companies earlier in the month. For the most part, industrialized economies relied on crude oil, OPEC was their major supplier; because of the dramatic inflation experienced during this period, a popular economic theory has been that these price increases were to blame, as being suppressive of economic activity. However, the causality stated by this theory is questioned; the targeted countries responded with a wide variety of new, permanent, initiatives