click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Añasco, Puerto Rico

Añasco, named after one of its settlers, Don Luis de Añasco, is a municipality of Puerto Rico located on the west coast of the island bordering the Mona Passage to the west, north of Mayagüez, Las Marias. It is part of the Aguadilla-Isabela-San Sebastián Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town was founded on October 18, 1733 and named after Don Luis de Añasco, a colonist from the Extremadura region of Spain who came to Puerto Rico with Juan Ponce de León. Añasco was founded by the initiative of rich landowner Don José de Santiago, who wanted to establish the villa in properties owned by Don Luis de Añasco; the property was located on the margins of the río Guaorabo. Añasco town was preceded by the first settlement of San German. In November 1511, Juan Ponce de León handed over governorship to Juan Cerón, a lieutenant of the viceroy Diego Colon. Cerón ordered Miguel de Toro, a lieutenant of Juan Ponce de León, to create a "Christian Village" in western Borinquen, calling it San German; this was the second attempt of foundation given in 1511 at the mouth of the Guaorabo River, near the area known today as Añasco, Puerto Rico.

This first settlement was attacked in 1528, 1538, again in 1554. A fort to protect this town began in 1540, but its construction was suspended in 1546 when the people decided to move inland being tired of attacks. Attacks by Carib Indians forced the population to move south inland to the present site of the present town of San German. In the 18th century, Añasco was the fourth most populous municipality in Puerto Rico, after San Germán, San Juan, others; the Añasco River is claimed to be the site of the popular legend of the drowning of the Spaniard Diego Salcedo in 1511 at the hands of the Taínos, proving the Spanish soldiers were not gods and igniting a revolt. It is believed that the revolt was suppressed by Spanish soldiers. Many of the first settlers to the area came from the Canary Islands and the south of Spain; the 1918 San Fermín earthquake destroyed Añasco's parish church, the town hall and other structures eliminating most of the historic downtown structures. Añasco is located in the Coastal Plains of the west, bordered by the Río Grande de Añasco.

It is bordered in the north by Rincón, Moca. The Mona Passage lies to the west of the town; the Añasco terrain is plain, but features a series of hills and mountains like Canta Gallo and Pichón. It is crossed by several rivers like Icaco River, Caguabo River, La Balsa, others. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered numerous landslides in Añasco. In some areas of Añasco there were more than 25 landslides per square mile due to the significant amount of rainfall. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Añasco is subdivided into barrios; the municipal buildings, central square and large Catholic church are located in a small barrio referred to as "el pueblo", near the center of the municipality. Like most of the people of Puerto Rico, the Añasco population originated with the Taino Indians and by immigrants from Spain that settled the central highland, most prominently the Andalusian and Canarian Spanish migration who formed the bulk of the jibaro or white peasant stock of the island; the Andalusian and Canarian Spaniards influenced much of the Puerto Rican culture which explains the Southern Spanish dialect, the Spanish colonial architecture.

This area of the Island has an array of cultures that include the Basque, French and Italian is predominant due to the introduction of coffee in this region of the Island. The United States took control of Puerto Rico from Spain in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War under the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898 and conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, finding that the population of Añasco was 13,311. There are 18 beaches in Añasco. Tres Hermanos Beach is a well-known Añasco beach which remained closed for more than two years after Hurricane Maria destroyed it in September 2017, it was set to reopen in 2020 after many renovations which continued into February 2020. Some other beaches and places of interest of Añasco include: Añasco Beach Autodrome El Salto de la Encantada Hacienda La Eugenia Río Grande de Añasco San Antonio Abad Parish Villa Pesquera Añasco has several celebrations and festivals every year; the most notable are: Saint Anthony Patron Saint Festivities - January Mayuco Festival - January Festival de Bellas Artes - January Theater Festival - May Festival de Merengue - June Santa Rosa de Lima Festival - August Chipe Festival - September Cooperativa Marathon - October Añasco has a AA baseball team called the Fundadores de Añasco.

It is known for being the hometown of some amateur boxing prospects like Samuel Figueroa. Mariana Bracetti - was a leader of the Puerto Rico independence movement in the 1860s, she is attributed with having knitted the flag, intended to be used as the national emblem of Puerto Rico in its attempt to overthrow the Spanish government on the island, to establish the island as a sovereign republic. Ivy Queen - Singer Aristides Gonzalez - boxer, Olympic bronze medalist in 1984 Sugar cane had been cultivated in Añasco as early as the 16th century; the earliest known sugar mill operator around the Añasco area was Tomás de Castellón in 1523. Añasco has been a place for fruits and coffee cultivation. In 2001, law 1-2001 was passed to identify communities with high levels of poverty in Puerto Rico. In 2017, Gov

Deutsche Rechtspartei

The German Right Party was a far-right political party that emerged in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany after the Second World War. Known as the Deutsche Konservative Partei - Deutsche Rechtspartei, the national conservative party was formed in June 1946 by a merger of three smaller groups - the Deutsche Konservative Partei, the Deutsche Aufbaupartei of the Völkisch politician Reinhold Wulle and the Deutsche Bauern- und Landvolk Partei, its manifesto was in large parts authored by Hans Zehrer. Intended as a continuation of the German National People's Party, it soon attracted a number of former Nazis and its programme changed towards a more neo-Nazi stance, while many centrist members left to join the German Party. In the 1949 federal elections to the first Bundestag, the party won five seats, among the deputies was Fritz Rössler, who soon became notorious for his radical positions. Despite this success, the DRP was weakened that same year when the Socialist Reich Party was formed and a number of members who supported Otto Ernst Remer and Gerhard Krüger left to join the more neo-Nazi party.

Indeed, the group lost two of its deputies - Rössler and Fritz Dorls - to this more extreme party upon its foundation. They did however gain one deputy when the Wirtschaftliche Aufbau-Vereinigung, a group of disparate figures who supported the demagogic Munich lawyer Alfred Loritz, disintegrated in the early 1950s. Within the Bundestag, the DRP began to work with a number of minor groups on the far-right, such as the National Democrats. Between 1950 and 1951, the remaining DRP MPs who supported Fritz Rössler sought to merge with these groups in order to form a larger grouping, which resulted in the creation of the Deutsche Reichspartei. Rössler had to vacate his party offices for his contacts with SRP chairmen, he joined the Socialist Reich Party in September 1950. Although defunct, a report on the party was produced by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the context of the SRP ban in 1952; the report claimed that the party had tried to organize members of earlier right wing groups, although no action was taken as the party had ceased to exist.

A few members who had not joined the Deutsche Reichspartei continued as "National Rightists" and aligned themselves with the Free Democratic Party in 1954. Conservatism in Germany

Sutapa Basu

Sutapa Basu is an Indian author, most known for her works Dangle and Genghis Khan. Basu was born in West Bengal, she graduated from Convent of Mary at Ambala. She completed graduation with Honours in English Literature from Visvabharati University and post graduation from HN Bahuguna University, Uttarakhand, she holds a teaching degree from Maharaja Sayaji Rao University, Vadodara. Sutapa has worked with Encyclopædia Britannica and Readomania, she lives in Delhi with an ex-Army Colonel. Basu is the author of Padmavati, she was the editor of Chronicles of Urban Nomads and Knotted, Rudraksha - When Gods Came Calling and a contributor to Defiant Dreams and When They Spoke. Sutapa Basu won the first position for writing a short story in the genre of mythological-fiction in response to the prompt given by author Amish Tripathi in the 2017 TOI Write India Season 1. Basu was nominated for the Pune International Literary Fest's Anipam Kher Award for Best Debut English Novel in 2017. Basu's story, "Classroom Wiles" that talks about an English Teacher's first day at school, was one of the stories in a play directed by Sujata Soni Bali called "Once Upon a Time."

Proton-M

The Proton-M, GRAU index 8K82M or 8K82KM, is an expendable Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton. It is built by Khrunichev, launched from sites 81 and 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services, use Site 200/39; the first Proton-M launch occurred on 7 April 2001. Proton flew its last scheduled commercial mission on 9 October 2019, delivering Eutelsat 5 West B and Mission Extension Vehicle-1 to geostationary orbit; as of October 2019, a number of Roscosmos and other Russian government missions remain on Proton launch manifest. The Proton-M launch vehicle consists of three stages; the first stage is unique in that it consists of a central cylindrical oxidizer tank with the same diameter as the other two stages with six fuel tanks attached to its circumference, each carrying an engine. The engines in this stage can swivel tangentially up to 7° from the neutral position, providing full thrust vector control.

The rationale for this design is logistics: the diameter of the oxidizer tanks and the two following stages is the maximum that can be delivered by railroad to Baikonur. However, within Baikonur the assembled stack is transported again by rail, as it has enough clearance; the second stage uses a conventional cylindrical design. It is powered by one RD-0211 engine; the RD-0211 is a modified version of the RD-0210 used to pressurize the propellant tanks. The second stage is joined to the first stage through a net instead of a closed inter-stage, to allow the exhaust to escape because the second stage begins firing seconds before separation. Thrust vector control is provided by engine gimballing; the third stage is of a conventional cylindrical design. It contains the avionics system, it uses one RD-0213, a fixed version of the RD-0210, one RD-0214, a four nozzle vernier engine used for thrust vector control. The nozzles of the RD-0214 can turn up to 45°; the Proton-M features modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, utilise more propellant.

A closed-loop guidance system is used on the first stage, which allows more complete consumption of propellant. This increases the rocket's performance compared to previous variants, reduces the amount of toxic chemicals remaining in the stage when it impacts downrange, it can place up to 21 tonnes into low Earth orbit. With an upper stage, it can place a 3 tonne payload into geosynchronous orbit, or a 5.5 tonne payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Efforts were made to reduce dependency on foreign component suppliers. Most Proton-M launches have used a Briz-M upper stage to propel the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Launches have been made with Blok-DM upper stages: six launches were made with the Blok DM-2 upper stage carrying GLONASS spacecraft, while two further GLONASS launches have used the Blok DM-03; the DM-03 will be used for a total of five launches. As of 2013, no Proton-M launches have been made without an upper stage. However, this configuration is manifested to launch the Multipurpose Laboratory Module and European Robotic Arm of the International Space Station scheduled to be launched together in December 2018.

Commercial launches conducted by ILS use two kinds of fairings: PLF-BR-13305 short faring. PLF-BR-15255 long faring. Both fairings have a diameter of 4.35 m. On 7 July 2007, International Launch Services launched the first Proton-M Enhanced rocket, which carried the DirecTV-10 satellite into orbit; this was the 326th launch of a Proton, the 16th Proton-M/Briz-M launch, the 41st Proton launch to be conducted by ILS. It features more efficient first stage engines, updated avionics, lighter fuel tanks and more powerful vernier engines on the Briz-M upper stage, mass reduction throughout the rocket, including thinner fuel tank walls on the first stage, use of composite materials on all other stages; the second launch of this variant occurred on 18 August 2008, was used to place Inmarsat 4 F3 into orbit. The baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant. Frank McKenna, CEO of ILS, has indicated that in 2010 the Phase III Proton design would become the standard ILS configuration, with the ability to lift 6.15 tonnes to GTO.

On 19 October 2011 Viasat-1 weighing 6,740 kg was lifted into GTO by the Proton-M/Briz-M Phase III. Proton Light and Proton Medium were two proposed variants with a lower payload capacity at a reduced price. Proposed end of 2016, Proton Light was cancelled in 2017 and Proton Medium was put on "indefinite hold" in 2018; the variants were designed to reduce the cost for launching medium and small commercial communications satellites into Geostationary Transfer Orbit. The variants were planned with a 2+1 stage architecture based on 3 stage Proton+Briz M, but dispensing with the 2nd stage and featuring minor lengthening of the other two stages; the Proton Light 1st stage was planned with 4 main engines and external tanks to the 6 used by Proton Medium and Proton-M. The cost was expected to be competitive with Ariane and SpaceX; the planned maiden flights were 2019 for Proton Light. They were expected to use Baikonur launch complex 81/24 and would have required a new transporter-ere

Ainaži

Ainaži is a harbour town in the Vidzeme region of Latvia. The town is located near the Estonian border on the site of an ancient Liv fishing village. Before 1917, it was known by its German name Haynasch. "Ainaži " may be derived from the Estonian word heinastee meaning "hay-road". Other possibilities include the Livonian words aaina meaning "hay", or ainagi meaning "lonely". In the Middle Ages, the town was in German as Haynasch. Ainaži existed for centuries as a Livonian fishing village; the town itself was first mentioned in 1564, through the ages, changed hands among various barons and estates. Ainaži entered a great period of growth in the 1870s, when its history of shipbuilding and seafaring began. In the 19th century and Courland were covered with vast forests of pine trees. Ainaži's strategic position on the sea and proximity to lumber made it a perfect place for ship building. In 1864 Krišjānis Valdemārs sponsored the first nautical school in Livonia, training young Estonian and Latvian farmers to become ship captains for free.

The school stood for 50 years until it was destroyed in World War I. With the opening of the school and shipbuilding industry, Ainaži grew for the rest of the 19th century. From 1857 to 1913, over 50 seaworthy vessels were built in the town, in 1902 a working port and railway station opened. By World War I, Ainaži was the fourth largest port in all of Latvia and chief in Vidzeme, overtaking neighboring Salacgrīva; the town had its own windmills, fish-processing plant, brick kiln. In World War I Ainaži was damaged; the port was ruined and the entire shipping fleet destroyed. In February 1919, the Estonian army subsequently occupied it. After the war, Ainaži became part of Latvia after its inhabitants voted for Latvia in a referendum, but Estonia's troops remained stationed there until 1920 and Estonia kept the northern section of the town, the Ikla village. In the years of independent Republic of Latvia Ainaži was revitalized; the Ainaži fleet, sunken in the war, had barricaded the harbor and had to be removed.

The harbor was deepened, the port was rebuilt in 1923 with new breakers. In 1930 the Ainaži lighthouse was built. In World War II, Ainaži was destroyed again; the second naval academy burned down, the port was bombed, the warehouses were plundered. Though the port was rebuilt in Soviet times, Ainaži was overshadowed by nearby Pärnu, lost its fish-processing factory to Salacgrīva. After Latvia's independence was restored in 1991, a wind turbine was built in Ainaži as well as a customs house on the Estonian border. Today the building of the nautical school hosts a museum, the Ainažu jūrskolas muzejs, dedicated to the history of the school and the tradition of shipbuilding along the Vidzeme coast; the most important industries are forestry and trade. In addition, its location at the Latvia-Estonia border on the A1 road, part of Via Baltica international highway favors transit/transport industries; the population of Ainaži and the surrounding area in 2005 was 1794 people, the smallest official town of Vidzeme.

Latvians made up 92% of the inhabitants, Russians 3%, Estonians 2%, others 4%. From 2004 the population had decreased by 5.08%. Häädemeeste Parish, Estonia Cēsis, Latvia Miežiškiai, Lithuania Ainaži Latvijas Pilsetas. Riga, Latvia: Preses Nams, 1999. 34-37

U. L. Gooch

Ulysses Lee "Rip" Gooch is a former pilot, aviation entrepreneur, Kansas politician. Gooch was a member of the Kansas Commission on Civil Rights, 1971–74. Gooch was one of the first inductees to the Black Aviation Hall of Fame. Gooch was born in Ripley, the son of rural Tennessee sharecroppers and the grandson of emancipated slaves, Gooch was orphaned at age four and fended for himself growing up in the 1920s and 1930s under the shadow of Jim Crow. Working in fields while watching airplanes fly overhead, he dreamed of escaping to a better life. While in high school, in 1943, during World War II, Gooch joined the Army, was shipped to the Philippines as a sergeant supervising a construction operation, he graduated from his hometown's Lauderdale High School while in the military. Gooch subsequently began taking flight lessons on the GI Bill, earning his private pilot's license in 1947, continued with advanced flight training at a private flying service. About this time, he married Augusta Fields.

While studying veterinary medicine at Tennessee State University, Gooch continued his flight training becoming a commercial pilot and flight instructor. He became a part-time stunt flyer with the legendary airshow empresario Bill Sweet. However, despite earning his wings, Gooch couldn't find full-time aviation work because he was black. In 1951, Gooch moved to Wichita, Kansas—a major aviation industrial center known as the "Air Capital City"—where he began to work for Boeing Airplane Company. After battling racism at Boeing while working as a Boeing inspector in the 1950s, he decided to start his own flight business—one of the first black-owned modern FBOs in the U. S. which provided a stepping stone for a number of other black pilots. In the late 1950s, at Wichita's Rawdon Airport, Gooch became owner/operator of its FBO, Aero Services, Inc. Aero Services provided charter flying, aircraft rental and storage. Aero Services became the Mooney Aircraft regional distributorship for Kansas and parts of Missouri.

Gooch, with partner Dan La Master, extensively modernized Rawdon Field during 1962-1966. Gooch's enterprise, by 1972, had grown to operate an extensive government-contract air taxi operation, using a fleet of twin-engined Beech 18 transports and other aircraft, moving classified information between U. S. military bases in 17 states. Another section of the business overhauled military helicopter parts. Following his 17 years of operating Aero Services, Inc. Gooch continued for 20 years as a freelance charter pilot, flight instructor and FAA-designated pilot examiner. For four years, he was a consultant to leading business-aircraft manufacturer Raytheon Aircraft. In 1993, Gooch was the recipient of the annual Kansas Governor's Aviation Honor Award; the citation noted his involvement "on the Kansas Department of Transportation's Aviation Advisory Committee a member of the Aviation Museum Task Force, Wichita Airport Authority, Negro Airmen International, Tuskegee Airmen and Black Army Aviators." It further cited his role in providing flight training opportunity to young people: He has given youth African-American youth, an opportunity to explore aviation up-close and personal.

He operates a scholarship fund in memory of Kerry Gooch. For two weeks every summer, he takes selected youth off the streets and gives them the opportunity to travel to Tuskegee, Alabama. There they participate in an aviation program that includes a solo performance at the controls of a Cessna aircraft. In 2001, Gooch was inducted into the National Black Aviation Hall of Fame. A Kansas Senate Resolution, honoring him in 2013, notes that: Senator Gooch was instrumental in the formation of the International Black Aerospace Council, an umbrella organization of five major black aviation organizations, he has served on the Aviation Advisory Committee of the Kansas Department of Transportation, the Air Museum Task Force and the Wichita Airport Authority, he is a member of the Kansas Aviation Museum Board. U. L.'Rip' Gooch is a pilot with 20,000 flight hours, is a retired Federal Aviation Administration designated pilot examiner. Gooch served on the Kansas Commission on Civil Rights from 1971 to 1974, as an appointee of Governor Robert Docking.

His tenure coincided with the increased enforcement activism of the KCCR. One of the few African Americans elected to the Wichita City Council, he served from 1989 to 1992, including two one-year terms as Vice Mayor. Gooch was elected to the Kansas Senate in 1992 as a Democrat, serving from 1993 until 2004, representing the 29th Kansas Senate District—an inner-city area in central-northeast Wichita; the 2013 Kansas Senate Resolution honoring him reported that: His committee assignments have included service as ranking minority member of the Federal and State Affairs and Transportation Committees plus membership on the Elections and Local Government, Administrative Rules and Regulations, Local Government, Economic Development and Governmental Organization Committees. He served on the Joint Committee on Rules and Regulations and the Joint Committee on Economic Development. In 2003—citing frustrations with the lack o