The Fiat Panda is a city car manufactured and marketed by Fiat, now in its third generation. The first generation Fiat Panda was introduced in 1980, was produced until 1986, receiving a facelift for 1986-2003; the second generation, launched in 2003, was the European Car of the Year in 2004. The third generation debuted at Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2011 and is assembled in Italy at Pomigliano d'Arco. In 37 years Fiat has sold over 7.5 million Pandas globally, with about 4.5 million being the first series' sales. Introduced in 1980, the Panda was designed as an inexpensive, easy to use and maintain, no-frills utility vehicle, positioned in Fiat's range between the 126 and 127; the first Panda was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign. In an interview with Turinese newspaper La Stampa published in February 1980, Giugiaro likened the Panda to a pair of jeans, because of its practicality and simplicity: «La Panda è come un paio di jeans, che sono poi un vestire semplice, senza fronzoli.
Ho cercato di portare in questa auto lo spìrito delle costruzioni militari, in particolare degli elicotteri, ossia di mezzi leggeri, nati per assolvere nel modo migliore a certi scopi». The Panda is like a pair of that simple, practical, no frills piece of clothing. I tried to bring into this car the spirit of military machinery helicopters, that means light, built-for-purpose vehicles; the car was introduced to the press in December 1979. However, it was not launched onto the right-hand drive UK market until May 1981. Mechanically the first Pandas borrowed from the Fiat parts bin. Engines and transmissions came from the Fiat 127 and, in certain territories, the air-cooled 652 cc two-cylinder powerplant from the Fiat 126; the plan for a mechanically simple car was evident in the rear suspension, which used a solid axle suspended on leaf springs. Versions of the car added various mechanical improvements but this spirit of robust simplicity was adhered to throughout the life of the model. Many design features reflect the Panda's utilitarian practicality.
Examples include a seven-position adjustable rear seat which could be folded flat to make an improvised bed, or folded into a V shape to support awkward loads, or and removed altogether to increase the overall load space. The first Pandas featured removable, washable seat covers, door trims and dashboard cover, all the glass panels were flat making them cheap to produce, easy to replace and interchangeable between left and right door. Much like its earlier French counterparts the Panda could be specified with a two piece roll forward canvas roof. At launch two models were available: the Panda 30, powered by a longitudinally-mounted air cooled 652 cc straight-two-cylinder engine derived from the 126, or the Panda 45, with a transversely-mounted water cooled 903 cc four-cylinder from the 127; as a consequence of the different drivetrain layout the 45 had the radiator grille to the right side, the 30 to the left. In September 1982 Fiat added another engine to the line-up: the Panda 34 used an 843 cc water-cooled unit, derived from that in the 850.
It was reserved for export to France, Belgium and the Netherlands. Fiat launched the Panda 45 Super at the Paris Motor Show in 1982, with previous specification models continuing as the "Comfort" trim; the Super offered numerous improvements, most significant being the availability of a five-speed gearbox as well as improved trim. There were minor styling changes to the Super including the introduction of Fiat's new black plastic "corporate" grille with five diagonal silver bars; the earlier grille design continued on the Comfort models until the next major revision of the line-up. A 30 Super was added to the range in February 1983, offering the Super trim combined with the smaller engine; the Panda 4x4 was launched in June 1983, it was powered by a 965 cc engine with 48 bhp derived from that in the Autobianchi A112. Known as the Panda 4x4, this model was the first small, transverse-engined production car to have a 4WD system; the system itself was manually selectable, with an ultra-low first gear.
Under normal conditions starting was from second, with the fifth gear having the same ratio as fourth in the normal Panda. Austrian company Steyr-Puch supplied the entire drivetrain to the plant at Termini Imerese where it was fitted to the reinforced bodyshell. Minor revisions in November 1984 saw the range renamed "L", "CL", "S". Specifications and detailing were modified across the range including the adoption of the Fiat corporate grille across all versions. Mechanically, the cars remained unchanged. In January 1986, the Panda received a substantial overhaul and a series of significant mechanical improvements. Most of these changes resulted in the majority of parts being changed and redesigned, making many of the pre-facelift and post-facelift Panda parts incompatible between models; the facelift version received a new internal model code, 141A. The 652 cc air-cooled two-cylinder engine was replaced by a 769 cc water-cooled four-cylinder unit, the 903/965cc by a 999 cc unit. Both new engines were from Fiat's new FIRE family of four-cylinder water-cooled powerplants with a single overhead camshaft.
The rear suspension was upgraded, the rigid axle with leaf springs being replaced by a more modern dependent suspension system known as the "Omega axle", consisting of a non-straight rigid axle with
Full-size car— known as large car is a vehicle size class which originated in the United States and is used for cars larger than mid-size cars. It is the largest size class for cars; the equivalent European categories are E-segment and executive car. After World War II, the majority of full-size cars have used the sedan and station wagon body styles, however in recent years most full-size cars have been sedans; the highest-selling full-size car nameplate is the Chevrolet Impala, sold as a full-size car from 1958 to 1986 and from 1994 to 1996. The United States Environmental Protection Agency Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year includes definitions for classes of automobiles. Based on the combined passenger and cargo volume, large cars are defined as having an interior volume index of more than 120 cu ft for sedan models, or 160 cu ft for station wagons. From the introduction of the Ford Flathead V8 in the 1930s until the 1980s, most North American full-size cars were powered by V8 engines.
However, V6 engines and straight-six engines have been available on American full-size cars, have become common since the downsizing of full-sized cars in the 1980s. The lineage of mass-produced full-size American cars begins with the 1908 Ford Model T. In 1923, General Motors introduced the Chevrolet Superior, becoming the first vehicle to adopt a common chassis for several brands. In comparison to the cars of the 21st century, these vehicles are small in width. From the 1920s to the 1950s, most manufacturers produced model lines in a single size, growing in size with each model redesign. While length and wheelbase varied between model lines, width was a constant dimension, as the American federal government required the addition of clearance lights on a width past 80 inches. In 1960, following the introduction of compact cars, the "full-size car" designation came into wider use. In the 1960s, the term was applied to the traditional car lines of lower-price brands, including Chevrolet and Plymouth.
As a relative term, full-size cars were marketed by the same brands offering compact cars, with entry-level cars for buyers seeking the roominess of a luxury car at a lower cost. Into the 1970s, the same vehicles could transport up to six occupants comfortably, at the expense of high fuel consumption; the sales of full-size vehicles in the United States declined after the early 1970s fuel crisis. By that time, full-size cars had grown to wheelbases of 121–127 inches and overall lengths of around 225 in. In response to the 1978 implementation of CAFE, American manufacturers implemented downsizing to improve fuel economy, with full-size vehicles as the first model lines to see major change. While General Motors and Ford would reduce the exterior footprint of their full-size lines to that of their intermediates, AMC withdrew its Ambassador and Matador full-size lines. To save production costs, Chrysler repackaged its intermediates as full-size vehicles, exiting the segment in 1981. During the 1980s, to further comply with more stringent CAFE standards, manufacturers further reduced the exterior footprint of several model lines out of the full-size segment into the mid-size class.
For 1982, Chrysler exited the full-size segment with the mid-size Dodge Diplomat and Plymouth Gran Fury serving as its largest sedan lines. Following the 1985 model year, General Motors replaced most of its full-size model lines with front-wheel drive mid-size sedans. Developed to replace the Ford LTD Crown Victoria, the 1986 Ford Taurus was produced alongside it as the Ford mid-size model line. After abandoning the full-size segment for compact cars and minivans, Chrysler gained reentry into the full-size segment in 1988 with the Eagle Premier. Developed by AMC before its acquisition by Chrysler, the Premier was a version of the front-wheel drive Renault 25 adapted for North America. From the 1980s to the 1990s, the market share of full-size cars began to decline. From 1960 to 1994, the market share of full-size cars declined from 65 percent to 8.3 percent. From 1990 to 1992, both GM and Ford redesigned its full-size car lines for the first time since the late 1970s. For 1992, Chrysler developed its first front-wheel drive full-size car line, replacing the Eagle Premier/Dodge Monaco with the Chrysler LH cars.
The same year, the Buick Roadmaster was introduced, becoming the first rear-wheel drive GM model line adopted outside of Chevrolet and Cadillac since 1985. In 1995, the Toyota Avalon was introduced, becoming the first Japanese non-luxury full-size car with six seats to be sold in the North America; the 1989 Lexus LS400 luxury sedan was the first Japanese full-size car sold in North America. Following the 1996 model year, GM ended production of rear-wheel drive sedans, with full-size vehicles becoming exclusive to Cadillac. From 1997 to 2016, the longest vehicle produced by an American manufacturer was a Lincoln. By 2000, with the sole exception of the Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, Lincoln Town Car, full-size cars had abandoned rear-wheel drive and body-on-frame construction. Instead of model lineage, the EPA "large car" definition of over 120 interior cubic feet came into wide use
The Toyota Aygo is a city car sold by Toyota in Europe since 2005. It is built alongside the related Citroën C1 and Peugeot 107/108 at the Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech joint venture in Kolín, Czech Republic; the Aygo was first displayed at the 2005 Salon de l'Automobile de Genève. The name "Aygo" comes from "i-go", symbolising mobility; the decision to produce the cars was made on July 12, 2001, when the presidents of Toyota and PSA Peugeot Citroën, Fujio Cho and Jean-Martin Folz decided to produce a small car to share development costs. This project was called B-Zero; the Peugeot 107 and Citroën C1 are rebadged versions of the same car. The Aygo's starting on the road price was €8,500; the main difference between the Aygo and its siblings is in the interior equipment, badges and the recognizable rear end of the car. The planned production is 300,000 cars annually – 100,000 cars per brand. Sales began in July 2005, the car was available as a three or five door hatchback. There were two engines available, a 1.0 L three cylinder engine rated at 68 bhp, a 1.4 L HDi diesel I4 engine rated at 54 bhp.
The Aygo was used on BBC's Top Gear in a giant match of football. The Top Gear presenters deemed the Aygo and its Peugeot and Citroën counterparts to be competent town cars. A modified Aygo was used on Fifth Gear to perform a twelve metre high loop the loop on a specially-designed track to determine if a stunt that can be done using Hot Wheels toys can be replicated in real life; the stunt was driven by stuntman Steve Truglia in May 2009. In January 2010, the Aygo was part of a worldwide recall by Toyota for a faulty sticking accelerator pedal, it was found that under some circumstances, the pedal could stick in a depressed position, or return to the off position. The recall affected the Aygo, Peugeot 107 and Citroën C1 models built between February 2005 and August 2009. Information from Toyota suggested, that only Aygos with automatic gearboxes were affected, that those with manual gearboxes were not; the Aygo received its first facelift, replacing the front bumper shape from the original, changing the rear lights to a transparent appearance, from their original red tinted cluster.
The Aygo received its second facelift, this time incorporating a much more angular bumper, space for the inclusion of daytime running lights. Breakdown statistics reported by the German Automobile Club in May 2010 placed the Aygo at the top of the sub small car class, in respect of the low breakdown rates achieved for cars aged between one and four years. In 2008, Toyota created a driveable one off concept car based on the Toyota Aygo. Named the Aygo Crazy, it was unveiled to the public at the July 2008 British International Motor Show in London, before appearing at other motor shows that year based in the United Kingdom. Aygo Crazy has a mid mounted 1.8 litre VVTi engine from the Toyota MR2 and Celica, mated to an MR2 five speed gearbox and fitted with a Toyota Motorsport turbocharger conversion. The manufacturer claims the engine produces 240 N ⋅ m torque at 3,400 rpm. Weighing just 1,050 kg, this gives it a 0–100 km/h sprint time of 5.75 seconds and a theoretical top speed of 204 km/h, though the latter has not been tested.
Unlike the standard Aygo, it has no driver aids, power steering or anti lock brakes but its rear wheel drive layout helps traction under heavy acceleration. Exterior modifications include wider arches to accommodate the one inch of extra track, 17 inch alloy wheels with Goodyear tyres and a carbon fibre rear spoiler designed for the 322 km/h American Champ Car series. Suspension is from the MR2, with adjustable Tein shock absorbers and MacPherson struts front and rear. To cope with the extra power, Toyota upgraded the standard 247 mm front brake discs to a 328 mm Brembo conversion, with 280 mm ventilated rear discs replacing the 200 mm drums found on the Aygo. An uprated Helix clutch is used; the interior features a partial roll cage for extra chassis driver protection. Two specially designed sports seats, trimmed in red and black, a suede rimmed Sparco steering wheel complete the race-inspired look. Toyota claims. Since 2008, the Chinese car manufacturer BYD Auto has produced the BYD F0. Toyota revealed a redesigned Aygo at the March 2014 Geneva Motor Show with the slogan'go fun yourself'.
The design was attributed to Japanese youth culture, inspired by Japanese manga robot Astro Boy and an egg in a box and has aims to make the Aygo more accessible to younger drivers, allow for a greater level of customisability. It began rolling off the production line on 27 May 2014. Models include: Aygo x – base model, with electric front windows, wing mirrors and daytime running lights Aygo x-play – in addition to'x' – manual AC, Bluetooth connectivity and steering wheel controls Aygo x-pression – in addition to'x-play' – 15 inch silver alloys, part leather seats,'x-touch' seven-inch multimedia system, DAB+ radio, front fog lights and rear view reversing camera Aygo x-cite – – in addition to'x-pression' – 15 inch gloss black alloys and optional'x-nav' Aygo x-clusiv – – in addition to'x-pression' – 15 inch machined alloys, climate control AC, optional'x-nav' and smart entry and start Aygo x-pure – – in addition to'x-pression' - comes in Pure White colour with silver trim'X' and back bumper, white machined alloys and privacy glass in the back.
The D-segment is the third largest of the European segments for passenger cars, is described as "large cars". It is equivalent to the Euro NCAP "large family car" size class, the present-day definition of the mid-size car category used in North America. Compact executive cars are part of the D-segment size category. Most D-segment cars are wagons. Pricing and specification of D-segment cars can vary from basic low-cost transport to more luxurious and expensive models. Sales of D-segment cars represent 8% of the market; the five highest selling D-segment cars in Europe are the Volkswagen Passat, Mercedes-Benz C-Class, Audi A4/S4/RS4, BMW 3-series and Škoda Superb. Note: this list includes cars from these decades which carried a different nameplate or numeric designation to the modern day equivalent, in some cases there is no modern day direct equivalent Austin/Morris 1800 Fiat 124 Fiat 125 Ford Cortina Hillman Hunter Peugeot 404 Peugeot 504 Renault 16 Renault 12 Alfa Romeo Alfetta Audi 80 Fiat 131/Mirafiori Honda Accord Lancia Beta Leyland Princess Opel Ascona Peugeot 305 Renault 18 Toyota Carina Vauxhall Cavalier Volkswagen K70 Volkswagen Passat Volvo 200 Series Alfa Romeo 75 Austin Montego Citroen BX Fiat Croma Fiat Tempra Ford Sierra Hyundai Stellar Mercedes-Benz 190E Nissan Stanza Opel Vectra/Vauxhall Cavalier Peugeot 405 Renault 21 Volvo 440/460 Alfa Romeo 155 Alfa Romeo 156 Citroen Xantia Fiat Marea Hyundai Lantra Kia Clarus Lancia Lybra Nissan Primera Opel/Vauxhall Vectra Peugeot 406 Renault Laguna Rover 600 Series Toyota Avensis Alfa Romeo 159 Citroen C5 Hyundai Elantra Peugeot 407 Seat Exeo Car classifications Mid-size car
The Volkswagen Up is a city car, part of the Volkswagen Group New Small Family series of models, unveiled at the 2011 International Motor Show Germany. Production of the Up started in December 2011 at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant in Bratislava, Slovakia; the production Up follows a series of concept cars. The exterior was designed by the Brazilian designer Marco Pavone; this design was chosen and enhanced by Volkswagen Group Chief Designer Walter de'Silva, Head Designer of the Volkswagen Passenger Cars marque, Klaus Bischoff. Shown at the Frankfurt launch were several further Up concepts, including a 98 hp GT version, a natural gas-powered Eco-up! and a four-door Cross model. Where the Up concept used a rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, the 2011 production model has a front-engine, front-wheel drive layout, using the NSF platform, with a 3-cylinder 1.0 litre petrol engine. A battery electric version, called E-up, was launched in autumn 2013; the Up won the 2012 World Car of the Year. The SEAT Mii and Škoda Citigo are rebadged versions of the Up, with different front and rear fascias, are manufactured in the same factory.
In February 2014 Volkswagen introduced a modified version of the Up for Latin America. The Brazilian-built Up differs from its European counterpart in length, thanks to revisions to the floorpan's rear section to accommodate a larger fuel tank, a full-sized spare wheel and increased cargo space. All versions have revised tailgates with a painted metal section instead of the dark glass trim used in Europe; the 5-door Brazilian Up uses a different rear door design with sectioned glass and wind-down windows. The South American model retains the European version's safety levels with a five-star crash rating and ample use of high-strength steel elements. In July 2015, Volkswagen introduced a new powertrain for the Up sold in Brazil, using a 1.0 L, direct fuel injection three-cylinder turbocharged engine. At the Geneva Motor Show in 2016, the model sold in Europe received a facelift and the new TSI engine, that went on sale in the summer the same year. At International Motor Show Germany IAA 2011 Volkswagen unveiled the final version of the Up based on the Volkswagen New Small Family modular architecture.
The three-door bodywork is inspired by the 2007 concept UP, the engine range is 1.0 L three-cylinder gasoline 60 hp and 75 hp. Both the three and five doors called eco-Up; the Up is a front-wheel drive with transverse engine mated to a five-speed manual gearbox and is 3.54 metres long has a wheelbase of 2.42 m. The cabin is configured to five seats; the UP is available to order in the United Kingdom since October 2011 for five models – marketed as Take up!, Move up!, High up!, up! black and up! white. British television show Top Gear presenters mock the unusual name by calling the model "Up-exclamation-mark", it was introduced on the German market on 3 December 2011. Deliveries to other European markets began in April 2012. SEAT Mii limited production started in October 2011 for the European market, with sales having started at the end of 2011; the final version was launched in May 2012. The Škoda Citigo was launched in the Czech Republic in October 2011; the Citigo will be sold in other countries of Europe from summer 2012, as well as in Asia including Russia if it will be produced in Kaluga.
Volkswagen up! was being sold in Australia until 2015 due to slow sales. Chances for Škoda Citigo have been evaporated in Australia; the Škoda Citigo was being sold in New Zealand for a short time. Volkswagen up! is not intended for sale in North America as well as in CIS countries, Middle East, China, South Korea and South-East Asia. Japanese sales began 1 October 2012; the Up launched in South Africa on 1 March 2015. Two models were offered at launch, both are the 1L 55 kW 3 door variant; the two local options were marketed as Take up!, the Move up!. In 2014, at the Geneva Motor Show, Seat presented the 2014 Seat Mii by Mango model designed just for ladies, made in collaboration with the Spanish fashion company Mango. Volkswagen has announced the Up range will be extended to include a production version of the GT Up concept, which will launch in 2013; this will feature a turbocharged version of the 1.0-litre three-cylinder engine producing 110 hp and will look similar to the concept version. An electric hybrid Up — which will be badged Blue-e-motion — will follow.
Along with the other two rebadged models, Up is the first car in its class to offer an automated braking system, called City Emergency Braking. The system is automatically activated at speeds below 30 km/h, when a laser sensor identifies a danger of collision and activates the brakes. In the SEAT model, the system is called City Safety Assist and in the Škoda model it is called City Safe Drive. In mid-December 2016, Volkswagen allowed journalists to test the prototype of the up! GTI; the car came with 116 horsepower variant of the Up's 1 litre three cylinder engine. In order to add the extra 26 horsepower, engineers had to fit a high-pressured turbo and increased compression ratio of 10:5:1; the car could get to 60 mph in 8.8 seconds. Its the only up! to be available with a 6-speed manual. The up! GTI went on sale in 2018. In April 2019, the up! GTI was discontinued in the United Kingdom. In Jul
The Mini Hatch known as Mini Cooper, Mini One, or the Mini, is a three-door or five door hatchback first introduced in late 2000, with a second generation launched in 2006 and a third generation model launched in 2014. A convertible version was introduced in 2004, with the second generation following in 2008; the Mini Hatch was the first model launched by BMW under the Mini marque after the original Mini was discontinued in 2000. The new model built by BMW is technically unrelated to the former; the Mini is produced in Cowley, England, at Plant Oxford, since July 2014, at VDL Nedcar in Born, Netherlands. The mini convertible is, since 2015; the first new generation Mini Hatch was introduced in late 2000, being the first model launched under the Mini marque after the original Mini was discontinued in the same year. In some European markets, the Mini One was powered by a 1.4-litre inline-four version of the Tritec engine, but all other petrol powered Minis used the 1.6-litre version. From 2004 through 2008, the soft-top convertible R52 was made.
There are numerous styling and badging differences between the models, including the Cooper S having a distinctive scoop cut into the bonnet. The Cooper S has twin exhausts which exit under the centre of the rear valance; the non-S Cooper has a single exhaust. The Mini One D has no visible exhaust pipes at all. In some markets, such as Australia and the US, only the Mini Cooper and Cooper S are offered. Other trim lines of note, sold in varying markets around the world, are the Mini Seven, Mini Park Lane, Mini Check Mate, Mini Monte Carlo; the Mini Hatch was designed by Frank Stephenson, drew inspiration from the original two-door Mini. Development of the car was conducted between 1995 and 2001 by Rover Group in Gaydon, United Kingdom and BMW in Munich, Germany. During this development phase, there was continual contention between the two design groups concerning the positioning of the car. BMW prevailed, in 1999, they assumed control over the entire project following the departure of BMW's CEO, Bernd Pischetsrieder.
When BMW sold off Rover in 2000, it retained the Mini project, moved the planned production site of the car from Rover's Longbridge plant, to BMW's Oxford plant in Cowley, England. The team of designers working on the 2001 Mini had finished the full-sized clay mock-up of the Mini in plenty of time for a presentation to the board of directors. However, the American chief designer, Frank Stephenson, realised that the model did not have an exhaust pipe, his short-term solution was to pick up an empty beer can, punch a hole in it, strip off the paint and push it into the clay at the back of the car, which took just a few minutes. The overall design for the mock-up was so good that the board members told him not to change a thing, resulting in the distinctive exhaust tip seen in production cars; the first generation of the new Mini received a facelift in July 2004 for the upcoming 2005 model year. This was when the new convertible was introduced. Aside from minor design changes and improved equipment, the Rover R65 manual gearbox was replaced with a Getrag five-speed.
The vehicles produced during the 2001 to 2006 model years included four hatchback models: the standard "Mini One", the diesel-engined "Mini One/D", the sportier "Mini Cooper" and the supercharged "Mini Cooper S". In November 2006, BMW released a facelift version of the Mini Hardtop as a 2007 model-year vehicle. From March 2002, the Mini was exported to Japan and sold at Japanese BMW dealerships as well as Yanase locations; the car complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations and the introduction of the Mini coincided with several vehicles in Japan that exhibited a retro look that Japanese car companies were offering. The names Cooper and Cooper S are the names used for the sportier version of the classic Mini, which in turn come from the involvement of John Cooper and the Cooper Car Company; the Cooper heritage is further emphasised with the John Cooper Works range of tuning options. The John Cooper Works company created a higher spec model of the Mini Cooper S, the Mini Cooper S Works.
It has a higher volume exhaust and air filter, uprated brakes and suspension, different 17-inch wheels than the S models. A race-prepared version, with rear-wheel drive, called the Mini Cooper S3, competed in the Belcar championship from 2002; the last Mk I variant to be produced using the supercharged Tritec engine was the Mini Cooper S with John Cooper Works GP Kit, a light-weight, quasi-race-prepped John Cooper Works model. Hand-finished by Bertone in Italy, it was offered as a limited-production run of 2000 cars during the 2006 model year, with 444 of those intended for the UK market, although 459 were sold; the GP has more bolstered Recaro front seats but had no rear seats, which along with reduced sound-deadening, removal of the rear wash-wipe system, optional air-conditioning and radio, other weight-reduction steps, resulted in a weight saving of around 40 kg compared to a Cooper S. Mechanically, it has a less restrictive intercooler, recalibrated engine management, high-volume injector nozzles, a freer-flowing exhaust system.
Extra cooling capabilities let the supercharged engine run longer on cooler temperatures for better track performance, rated at 218 PS (