Ballingdon is a suburb of the town of Sudbury in Suffolk, England. Once a separate village in the County of Essex, today it is part of Sudbury civil parish, it is the only part of the town to the south of the River Stour. The village developed on the important ancient highway from Braintree and Halstead in Essex to Sudbury and Bury St Edmunds, it grew adjacent to a bridge over the River Stour. It dates back to at least the 13th century, it remains the only crossing of the river for several miles in each direction. Ballingdon and Brundon were added to the borough of Sudbury in 1888 as part of the Local Government Act. Around that time it had a population of 831. In 1972 the owners of Ballingdon Hall, responding to a housing development on adjacent land, had it moved half a mile up Ballingdon Hill on the back of a large transporter. There is a large photograph of this move in the March 2016 issue of the English Heritage Members' Magazine. Ballingdon came to be home to many businesses, evidence of which can be seen in the architecture of the buildings, with large shop windows and other tell-tale signs.
This was because before Ballingdon became part of Suffolk it was cheaper to open a business on the Essex side of the river, as no levy had to be paid to Sudbury town council. By 2011 only 8 businesses remained open outside just 3 of them retail outlets. Ballingdon was home to two brickworks, long since vanished, but location maps of them can be found online; the Allen family operation, was the most advanced, barges made their way up an constructed cut from the River Stour, which passed the brickworks and continued under Middleton Road. The clay was sourced locally and brick makers were expected to meet a target of 1,000 bricks per day; the hand making of bricks has long since been over-shadowed by machines, but can still be seen at Bulmer Brick and Tile, who offer tours to schools and adults. Today Ballingdon Street contains numerous listed buildings. King's Marsh Stadium, home of A. F. C. Sudbury, is located in the area. In September 2018, Ballingdon held its first fete in living memory, raising money for the Eden Rose Coppice.
Several photos of Ballingdon past Sudbury Museum Trust Ballingdon in the Domesday Book
Brundon is a hamlet in the Babergh district, in the English county of Suffolk. It is located on the River Stour near the town of Sudbury. For transport there is the A131 road nearby. Brundon was recorded in the Domesday Book as Branduna. Brundon Hall is a grade II* listed 18th century building which stands near the former Brundon water mill. Ballingdon
Sudbury is a small market town in the English county of Suffolk. It is located on the River Stour near the Essex border, is 60 miles north-east of London. At the 2011 census, the parish has a population of 13,063, rising to 21,971 including the adjoining parish of Great Cornard, it is the largest town of Babergh district council, the local government district, is represented in the UK Parliament as part of the South Suffolk constituency. Evidence of Sudbury as a settlement originates from the end of the 8th century during the Anglo-Saxon era, its market was established in the early 11th century, its textile industries prospered during the Late Middle Ages. The town became notable for its art in the 18th century, being the birthplace of Thomas Gainsborough, whose landscapes offered inspiration to John Constable, another Suffolk painter of the surrounding Stour Valley area; the 19th century saw the arrival of the railway with the opening of a station on the historic Stour Valley Railway, Sudbury railway station forms the current terminus of the Gainsborough Line.
During World War II, US Army Airforce bombers operated from RAF Sudbury. Today, Sudbury retains its status as a market town with a twice-weekly market in the town centre in front of St Peter's Church, now a local community point for events such as concerts and exhibitions. In sport, the town has a semi-professional football club, A. F. C. Sudbury, which competes at the seventh level of the football pyramid. Sudbury's history dates back into the age of the Saxons; the town's earliest mention is in 799 AD, when Bishop of Dunwich, died in the town. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the town as Suthberie, presumed to distinguish it from Norwich or Bury St Edmunds, to the north, ca. 995 is recorded as Suthbyrig. The town is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086, as a market town where the local people came to barter their goods; the market was established in 1009. During this period the town was surrounded by a defensive ditch and a diverted section of the River Stour; the Church of All Saints was established in the 12th century before being bought by Adam the Monk, who passed the church and its lands to the Abbey of St Albans.
St Bartholemew's Priory and the Chapel of Holy Sepulchre were established in the 12th century. A community of Dominicans arrived in the mid-13th century and extended the size of their priory, one of three Dominican priories in the county of Suffolk. A leper hospital was founded on the outskirts of the town in 1272. Sudbury was one of the first towns in which Edward III settled the Flemings, allowing the weaving and silk industries to prosper for centuries during the Late Middle Ages; as the main town in the area, Sudbury prospered too, many great houses and churches were built, giving the town a major historical legacy. The Woolsack in the House of Lords was stuffed with wool from the Sudbury area, a sign of both the importance of the wool industry and of the wealth of the donors. One citizen of Sudbury, Archbishop Simon Sudbury showed that not the Tower of London guarantees safety. On 14 June 1381 guards allowed a party of rebellious peasants to enter. Sudbury, inventor of the poll tax, was beheaded.
His body was afterwards buried in Canterbury Cathedral, but his skull is kept in St. Gregory's with St. Peter's Church, one of the three medieval churches in Sudbury. Simon's concerns for his native town are reflected in the founding of St Leonard's Hospital in 1372, a place of respite, towards Long Melford, for lepers. For the College of St Gregory, which he founded in 1375 to support eight priests, he used his father's former house and an adjoining plot. From the 16th to 18th century the weaving industry was less profitable and Sudbury experienced periods of varying prosperity. By means of the borough court, the mayor and corporation directed the affairs of the town, they built a house of correction for'rogues and sturdy beggars' and tried to finance the reconstruction of Ballingdon Bridge, which disappeared during a storm on 4 September 1594. Among theatrical companies they paid to visit Sudbury were the King's Men. Minor infringements, such as not attending church, were punished by fines, for worse offenders there was a stocks or a whipping.
During the Civil War a 12-strong band of watchmen was created to prevent the town's enemies, presumed to be Royalists, burning it down. Sudbury and the surrounding area, like much of East Anglia, was a hotbed of Puritan sentiment during much of the 17th century. Sudbury was among the town's called "notorious wasps' nests of dissent." During the 1630s, many families departed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony as part of the wave of emigration that occurred during the Great Migration. In 1705 the River Stour Navigation Act was passed in Parliament, work was undertaken to make the river navigable all the way from Manningtree. By the 18th century the fees charged to become a freeman, with voting rights, were exorbitant and the borough of Sudbury, along with 177 other English towns, was reformed by a Municipal Reform Act. During the 18th century Sudbury became famous for its local artists. John Constable painted in the area the River Stour. Painter Thomas Gainsborough was born in Sudbury in 1727, was educated at Sudbury Grammar School.
His birthplace, now named Gainsborough's House, is open to the public. It houses some of his family possessions. A statue of Gainsborough was unveiled in the town centre outside St Peter's Church on Market Hill in 1913; the 1832 Reform Act saw the villages of Bal
The FA Cup known as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest national football competition in the world, it is named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2019 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent women's tournament is held, the FA Women's Cup; the competition is open to any eligible club down to Level 10 of the English football league system – all 92 professional clubs in the Premier League and the English Football League, several hundred "non-league" teams in Steps 1 to 6 of the National League System. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12; the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the final. Entrants are not seeded, although a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds – the minimum number of games needed to win, depending on which round a team enters the competition, ranges from six to fourteen.
The first six rounds are the Qualifying Competition, from which 32 teams progress to the first round of the Competition Proper, meeting the first of the 48 professional teams from Leagues One and Two. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper. In the modern era, only one non-league team has reached the quarter-finals, teams below Level 2 have never reached the final; as a result, significant focus is given to those "minnows" who progress furthest if they achieve an unlikely "giant-killing" victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have been five actual cups. Winners qualify for the Europa League and a place in the FA Community Shield match. Chelsea are the current holders. Arsenal are the most successful club with 13 titles. Arsène Wenger is the most successful manager in the history of the competition, having won seven finals as manager of Arsenal. In 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then.
On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the FA Secretary C. W. Alcock proposed to the FA committee that "it is desirable that a Challenge Cup should be established in connection with the Association for which all clubs belonging to the Association should be invited to compete"; the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, on 16 March 1872. Wanderers retained the trophy the following year; the modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, when qualifying rounds were introduced. Following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, did not resume until 1919–20; the 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium. Due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Due to the wartime breaks, the competition did not celebrate its centenary year until 1980–81.
Having featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the 2001–2006 finals being played at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff; the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria. All clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the next six levels are eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup, FA Trophy or FA Vase competitions in the previous season. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and 2006–07, may not therefore play in the FA Cup in their first season. All clubs entering the competition must have a suitable stadium, it is rare for top clubs to miss the competition, although it can happen in exceptional circumstances.
Manchester United did not defend their title in 1999–2000, as they were in the inaugural Club World Championship. The club stated that entering both tournaments would overload their fixture schedule and make it more difficult to defend their Champions League and Premier League titles; the club claimed. The move benefited United as they received a two-week break and won the 1999–2000 league title by an 18-point margin, although they did not progress past the group stage of the Club World Championship; the withdrawal from the FA Cup, drew considerable criticism as this weakened the tournament's prestige and Sir Alex Ferguson admitted his regret regarding their handling of the situation. Welsh sides that play in English leagues are eligible, although since the creation of the League of Wales there are only six clubs remaining: Cardiff City, Swansea City, Newport County, Merthyr Town and Colwyn Bay. In the early years other teams from Wales, Ireland a
Harlow Town F.C.
Harlow Town Football Club are an English football club based in Harlow, Essex. The club are members of the Premier Division of the Isthmian League, play at The Harlow Arena; the club is best known for its exploits in the 1979–80 FA Cup, in which it reached the fourth round, eliminating two Football League sides Southend United and Leicester City before losing to Watford at Vicarage Road. The club's first match was played on 18 October 1879 against Saffron Walden. In 1898 the club merged with Netteswell and Burnt Mill and were renamed Harlow and Burnt Mill F. C. and rejoined the East Herts League. The merger was reversed in 1902. In 1954 the club joined the Premier Division of the London League. In 1960 they won the League Cup, moved to the newly-built Sportcentre on Hammarskjold Road. In 1961 they switched to the Delphian League. In 1963 it merged into the Athenian League and the club were placed in Division Two. After finishing third in 1963–64, they were promoted to Division One. Due to Harlow's facilities at the Sportcentre, the club attracted well-known teams to the area during this period.
In July 1966 Harlow Town arranged a friendly match against Uruguay, who were staying nearby in preparation for that summer's FIFA World Cup. Uruguay defeated Harlow 6–1. In 1968, S. L. Benfica reached the European Cup final against Manchester United at Wembley Stadium, prepared for the final at the Sportcentre. In 1971–72 the club won Division One, were promoted to the Premier Division of the Athenian League. In 1973 the club switched to Division Two of the Isthmian League, renamed Division One in 1977. In 1978 -- 79 they were promoted to the Premier Division; the 1979–80 season saw the club make its best-ever run in the FA Cup. They entered at the preliminary round, beating Lowestoft Town, Bury Town, Harwich & Parkeston and Margate to reach the first round proper for the first time, where they defeated Leytonstone/Ilford 2–1. In the second round they drew 1–1 away at Football League side Southend United before winning the replay at the Sportcentre 1–0 in front of 5,000 spectators; the club were drawn away to Second Division leaders Leicester City.
After a 1–1 draw at Filbert Street, Harlow famously won the replay at the Sportcentre 1–0, watched by a club-record attendance of 9,723. In the fourth round Harlow were drawn away to Watford, losing 4–3. In the 1981–82 season the club were relegated, but returned to the Premier Division after a single season in Division One. However, two consecutive relegations in 1984–85 and 1985–86 saw the club drop into Division Two North. In 1988 -- 89 they returned to Division One; the club's plans to leave the Sportcentre for a new stadium on Roydon Road collapsed during the 1991–92 season, the Isthmian League closed the Sportcentre after it no longer met league requirements. The team fulfilled the remainder of their home games at local venues including Sawbridgeworth, Bishop's Stortford and Aveley; the club dropped out of football for the 1992–93 season. Upon being voted back into the Isthmian League for the 1993–94 season after upgrading the Sportcentre, the club were forced to drop into Division Three.
In 1997–98 they were promoted to Division Two, the following season were promoted to Division One. In 2004 the club were transferred to Division One East of the Southern League, but returned to the Isthmian League in 2006. In October 2006, the club moved to its new ground at Barrow's Farm. After finishing as runners-up in Division One North in 2006–07 they won the promotion play-offs and were promoted to the Premier Division after defeating A. F. C. Sudbury in the final. However, they were relegated back to Division One North at the end of the 2008–09 season. In January 2010, new owners took control of the club, with former manager Tommy Cunningham returning to the club alongside business partner John Barnett; the 2010–11 season saw Kevin Warren become the Hawks manager, but a run of defeats led to Danny Chapman replacing him at the helm. Chapman turned the tide and took the club to the Division One North play-offs after finishing fourth, but failed to reach the final after being defeated by Wingate & Finchley.
At the start of the 2014–15 season Harlow Town launched The Harlow Academy, a youth set-up which incorporated 21 youth teams playing at The Harlow Arena. After a contested league campaign, Harlow missed out the league title and automatic promotion by one point, finishing behind Needham Market Another play-off campaign beckoned, but Harlow lost 4–3 to Thurrock in the semi-finals after extra-time; the 2015–16 season saw Harlow Town go on a club record streak of 12 consecutive wins between 19 December 2015 and 13 February 2016, propelling themselves into the play-offs, finishing the season in third place, setting up a third consecutive appearance in the play-offs. The Hawks hosted A. F. C. Hornchurch in the final at the Harlow Arena, where 1,655 spectators saw Harlow claim promotion to the Premier Division with a 3–1 win. In the 2016-17 season Harlow achieved a new club record highest league finish of tenth in the Isthmian Premier Division, their first campaign at this level since 2009; the Brian Tubb organisation-1971 It had threatened to be the usual boring annual meeting of Harlow town FC.
The team had had a poor season, the club was in debt-as usual-and there was not too much hope for the future. The treasurer stood up and began making his annual complaints about lack of funds when all of a sudden there Was an interruption. An unfamiliar figure started spouting about how much he had banked for the club in the last few months and how he had enough to satisfy most of the creditors. Hardly a soul in the room know what on earth he was going on about, but within months, everyone had
Brigg Town F.C.
Brigg Town Football Club CIC is a football club based in Brigg, England. They are members of the Lincolnshire League and play at the Hawthorns. Established in 1864, they are one of the oldest football clubs in the world; the club were established in 1864. In 1881–82 they entered the inaugural Lincolnshire Senior Cup, reaching the final where they lost to Spilsby, they reached the final again the following season. They in 1948 became founder members of the Lincolnshire League, they won the league in 1949–50, 1953–54, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1973–74 and 1975–76 and were runners-up in 1950–51, 1961–62, 1963–64, 1965–66, 1974–75. After their eighth title in 1976, Brigg moved up to the Midland League and were placed in the Premier Division. After finishing third in their first season in the league, they were champions in 1977–78; when the league merged with the Yorkshire League to form the Northern Counties East League in 1982, Brigg were placed in Division One South. They were relegated to Division Two South at the end of the league's first season, but finished as runners-up the following season, earning promotion to Division One Central.
League reorganisation in 1985 saw them placed in Division One, they were promoted to the Premier Division at the end of the 1985–86 season despite only finishing twelfth. In 1995–96 Brigg reached the final of the FA Vase, beating Clitheroe 3–0 at Wembley Stadium to lift the trophy. After finishing as Premier Division runners-up in 1999–2000, Brigg were champions in 2000–01, but were unable to take promotion due to the Hawthorns not being up to the required standard, they were runners-up again for the next two seasons, in 2001–02 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 4–1 at Tranmere Rovers. In 2002–03 they reached the FA Vase final again and won the trophy for a second time with a 2–1 win against AFC Sudbury in a match played at Upton Park. A third-place finish in 2003–04 saw them promoted to Division One of the Northern Premier League; when the league was reorganised in 2007 they were placed in Division One South, where they remained until being relegated back to the Premier Division of the Northern Counties East League at the end of the 2014–15 season.
The 2015–16 season saw them relegated again, this time to Division One of the Northern Counties East League. In 2017–18 they finished second-from-bottom of Division One and were relegated to step 7; the club played at the Old Manor House Convent playing fields on Station Road until 1939. They moved to Brocklesby Ox, where the club's record attendance of 2,000 against Boston United was set in 1953. In 1959 they moved to the Hawthorns. Northern Counties East League Premier Division champions 2000–01 Midland League Champions 1977–78 Lincolnshire League Champions 1949–50, 1953–54, 1968–69, 1969–70, 1970–71, 1971–72, 1973–74 and 1975–76 FA Vase Winners 1995–96, 2002–03 Barton Cup Winners 2016–17 Best FA Cup performance: First round, 2001–02 Best FA Trophy performance: Second qualifying round, 1972–73, 2009–10, 2013–14 Record attendance: 2,000 vs Boston United, 1953 Brigg Town F. C. players Brigg Town F. C. managers Official website
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of