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A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was an aerospace scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was studied physics and aerospace engineering, he spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator at the Defence Research and Development Organisation and Indian Space Research Organisation and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology, he played a pivotal organisational and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Referred to as the "People's President", he returned to his civilian life of education and public service after a single term.

He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage centre of Rameswaram on Pamban Island in the Madras Presidency and now in the State of Tamil Nadu, his father Jainulabdeen was a boat imam of a local mosque. His father owned a ferry that took Hindu pilgrims back and forth between Rameswaram and the now uninhabited Dhanushkodi. Kalam was one sister in his family, his ancestors had been wealthy traders and landowners, with numerous properties and large tracts of land. Their business had involved trading groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, as well as ferrying pilgrims between the mainland and Pamban.

As a result, the family acquired the title of "Mara Kalam Iyakkivar", which over the years became shortened to "Marakier." With the opening of the Pamban Bridge to the mainland in 1914, the businesses failed and the family fortune and properties were lost over time, apart from the ancestral home. By his early childhood, Kalam's family had become poor. In his school years, Kalam had average grades but was described as a bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn, he spent hours on his studies mathematics. After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli affiliated with the University of Madras, from where he graduated in physics in 1954, he moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam was working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within the next three days.

Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who said to him, "I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline". He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, only eight positions were available in the IAF. After graduating from the Madras Institute of Technology in 1960, Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defence Research & Development Service, he started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. Kalam was part of the INCOSPAR committee working under Vikram Sarabhai, the renowned space scientist. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation where he was the project director of India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle which deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. In 1969, Kalam received the government's approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers.

In 1963 to 1964, he visited NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia. Between the 1970s and 1990s, Kalam made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and SLV-III projects, both of which proved to be successful. Kalam was invited by Raja Ramanna to witness the country's first nuclear test Smiling Buddha as the representative of TBRL though he had not participated in its development. In the 1970s, Kalam directed two projects, Project Devil and Project Valiant, which sought to develop ballistic missiles from the technology of the successful SLV programme. Despite the disapproval of the Union Cabinet, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi allotted secret funds for these aerospace projects through her discretionary powers under Kalam's directorship. Kalam played an integral role convincing the Union Cabinet to conceal the true nature of these classified aerospace projects, his research and educational leadership brought him great laurels and prestige in the 1980s, which prompted the government to initiate an adva

Márcio Máximo

Márcio Máximo Barcellos is a Brazilian football manager. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Máximo was a member of Brazil's under-17 and under-20 sides coach staff from 1992 until 1993; the teams included the future stars like Ronaldinho. He had been working as technical director to the Cayman Islands for three-years when he rejected the offer of a ten-year extension and instead joined Scottish club Livingston on 5 June 2003. Máximo became the first Brazilian to manage a British club. However, things did not work out and after nine games he resigned on 14 October. On 29 June 2006, Máximo was appointed head coach of the Tanzania national side Maximo helped Tanzania to qualify for CHAN finals for home players; these finals took place in Ivory Coast from 22 February to 8 March 2009. Tanzania qualified after beating Sudan 5–2 goal aggregate. Máximo extended his contract with the Tanzania Football Federation for another year until July 2010, but at that time he was replaced by Danish coach Jan Børge Poulsen. In December 2011, he was named new manager of Brazilian club Democrata.

He was sacked on 13 February 2012. In June 2012 he was rumored as the successor of Kosta Papić as manager of Young Africans S. C. but that job went to Belgian coach Tom Saintfiet. But in November 2012, chose to remain in Brazil, where he will lead the Francana. On 28 June 2014 it was announced that Maximo had signed a two-year contract with Young Africans, one of the top Tanzanian clubs

Barony of Ballyane

The Barony of Ballyane is a Barony in County Wexford Republic of Ireland. It was "surrendered and regranted" by the Clan Kavanagh in 1543. Diarmait Mac Murchada, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster held the lands of the Barony of Ballyane in 1167, his clan of MacMurrough-Kavanagh began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century in the north of the county, principally under Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. He extended their territories and exercised control over County Wexford and over County Carlow, located in the province of Leinster. In pre-Norman times Leinster was part of the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, whose capital was at Ferns. Gaelic chiefs were encouraged to surrender their lands to the king, have them regranted as freeholds paying a chief rent under a royal charter if they swore loyalty to him; those who surrendered were expected to speak English, wear English-style dress, remain loyal to the Crown, pay a rent and follow English laws and customs, In return they would be protected from attack and could organise local courts and enter the Parliament of Ireland.

Surrender and Regrant was led by King Henry VIII in a bid to extend and secure his control over the island of Ireland. This policy started in the years between and the subsequent creation of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1541-42. Henry's problem was that many of the Irish clans remained autonomous and outside the control of his administration in Dublin. During the Tudor conquest of Ireland and regrant was the legal mechanism by which Irish clans were to be converted from a power structure rooted in clan and kin loyalties, to a late-feudal system under the English legal system; the policy was an attempt to involve the clan chiefs within the English polity, to guarantee their property under English common law, as distinct from the traditional Irish Brehon law system. Cahir Kavanagh made his submission in March 1538, he renounced the jurisdiction of the Pope, agreed to hold their lands from the king, to abandon all claims to tribute or black rent from their neighbours of the Pale. In return for this he received a royal grant of his land and possessions, was created "Baron of Ballyane" and was promised a life peerage and a seat in the House of Lords.

Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Page


Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic. Alkalinity is the strength of a buffer solution composed of their conjugate bases, it is measured by titrating the solution with a monoprotic acid such as HCl until its pH changes abruptly, or it reaches a known endpoint where that happens. Alkalinity is expressed in units of meq/L, which corresponds to the amount of monoprotic acid added as a titrant in millimoles per liter. Although alkalinity is a term invented by oceanographers, it is used by hydrologists to describe temporary hardness. Moreover, measuring alkalinity is important in determining a stream's ability to neutralize acidic pollution from rainfall or wastewater, it is one of the best measures of the sensitivity of the stream to acid inputs. There can be long-term changes in the alkalinity of streams and rivers in response to human disturbances. In 1884, Professor Wilhelm Dittmar of Anderson College, now the University of Strathclyde, analysed 77 pristine seawater samples from around the world brought back by the Challenger expedition.

He found that in seawater the major ions were in a fixed ratio, confirming the hypothesis of Johan Georg Forchhammer, now known as the Principle of Constant Proportions. However, there was one exception. Dittmar found that the concentration of calcium was greater in the deep ocean, named this increase alkalinity. 1884 was the year when Svante Arrhenius submitted his PhD theses in which he advocated the existence of ions in solution, defined acids as hydronium ion donors and bases as hydroxide ions donors. For that work, he received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903, thus Dittmar's alkalinity is the hydronium cations which exist to balance electrically the increase in calcium anions in deep ocean water, although now the meaning alkalinity has expanded. Alkalinity refers to the amount of bases in a solution that can be converted to uncharged species by a strong acid; the cited author, James Drever, provides an equation expressed in terms of molar equivalents, which means the number of moles of each ion type multiplied by the charge of the ion.

For example, 1 mole of HCO31− in solution represents 1 molar equivalent, while 1 mole of CO32− is 2 molar equivalents because twice as many H+ ions would be necessary to balance the charge. The total charge of a solution always equals zero. Quoting from page 52, "Ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl −, SO42−, NO3− can be regarded as "conservative" in the sense that their concentrations are unaffected by changes in the pH, pressure, or temperature." On the left-hand side of the equation is the sum of conservative cations minus the sum of conservative anions. Balancing this on the right side is the sum of the anions that could be neutralized by added H+ ions minus H+ ions present, as indicated by the pH. All numbers are molar equivalents; this right side term is called total alkalinity. It is, quoting Drever, "formally defined as the equivalent sum of the bases that are titratable with strong acid"; the listing of ions shown on the right in Drever was "mHCO3− + 2mCO32− + mB4− + mH34− + mHS− + morganic anions + mOH− - mH+".

Total alkalinity is measured by adding a strong acid until all the anions listed above are converted to uncharged species. The total alkalinity is not affected by temperature, pressure, or pH, though the values of individual constituents are being conversions between HCO3− and CO32−. Drever further notes that in most natural waters, all anions except HCO3− and CO32− have low concentrations, thus carbonate alkalinity, equal to mHCO3− + 2mCO32− is approximately equal to the total alkalinity. Alkalinity or AT measures the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate; the alkalinity is equal to the stoichiometric sum of the bases in solution. In the natural environment carbonate alkalinity tends to make up most of the total alkalinity due to the common occurrence and dissolution of carbonate rocks and presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Other common natural components that can contribute to alkalinity include borate, phosphate, dissolved ammonia, the conjugate bases of some organic acids, sulfate.

Solutions produced in a laboratory may contain a limitless number of bases that contribute to alkalinity. Alkalinity is given in the unit mEq/L. Commercially, as in the swimming pool industry, alkalinity might be given in parts per million of equivalent calcium carbonate. Alkalinity is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with basicity. For example, the addition of CO2 lowers the pH of a solution; this increase reduces the basicity. For total alkalinity testing, N/10 H2SO4 is used by hydrologists along with phenolphthalein indicator. In typical groundwater or seawater, the measured alk AT = T + 2T + T + T + 2T + T + T − sws − Alkalinity can be measured by titrating a sample with a strong acid until all the buffering capacity of the aforem

Limkokwing University of Creative Technology

Limkokwing University of Creative Technology is a private international university that has a presence across Africa and Asia. With its main campus in Malaysia, the university has over 30,000 students from more than 150 countries, studying in campuses in Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Cambodia, Sierra Leone, Eswatini and the United Kingdom, it is considered to be one of the top arts and design schools in Asia, is ranked among Asian universities in the QS Rankings. Limkokwing Institute of Creative Technology was established in 1991 by founder and namesake Tan Sri Dato’ Sri Paduka Dr Limkokwing. In 2002 the institute became the first private college to be recognised as a University College. Dr. Tan Sri Lim Kok Wing is the founder and president of Limkokwing University of Creative Technology, he established Wings Creative Consultants in 1975. Limkokwing University has a presence across three continentswith over 30,000 students coming from more than 150 countries; as of December 2018, the university hasd the following campuses: The Limkokwing Borneo campus is in Kuching, the capital city of Sarawak, Malaysia's largest state on the island of Borneo.

The campus was launched in Kuching on 19 February 2009, marking the second campus for Limkokwing University of Creative Technology in Malaysia. The Limkokwing Botswana campus is in the country's capital and was launched on 14 May 2007. Limkokwing Cambodia, located in Phnom Penh. Limkokwing Lesotho is located in the capital of Kingdom of Lesotho; the campus was launched by the Right Honorable Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili on 15 October 2008. The occasion marked the first entry of a Malaysian university into Lesotho and the establishment of Limkokwing's second campus in Africa; the Limkokwing Malaysia is the flagship campus. It is in a township in Malaysia; the Limkokwing campus in Cyberjaya is home to 9,500 students from nearly 145 countries. The campus is the winner of the Highest Enrolment of Foreign Students Award and Special Award for Globalizing Malaysian Education from the Malaysian Ministry of Education and the Export Excellence Award from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

Limkokwing United Kingdom campus is in the centre of London at 106 Piccadilly. The Limkokwing Swaziland campus is in Eswatini; the Limkokwing Sierra Leone campus in Freetown, opened in March 2017. The Limkokwing Uganda campus in Namataba, is expected to open in 2019. Limkokwing offers foundation, degree, DrBA, PhD, professional courses; as of 2018, the university maintained the following academic faculties: Faculty of Information & Communication Technology Faculty of Business Management & Globalization Faculty of Communication, Media & Broadcasting Faculty of Architecture & The Built Environment Faculty of Design Innovation Faculty of Multimedia Creativity Faculty of Fashion & Lifestyle Creativity Sound and Music Design Academy Through these centers, the university offers instruction in many specialties, including the following:Animation, Business, Fashion Design, Film Production, Games Design, Global Campus Learning, Graphic Design, Industrial Design, Interior Design, Islamic Banking, Mass Communication, Mobile Computing, Software Engineering, Urban Planning and Web Design.

The university has been granted a number of awards, including the following: Global Innovation Leadership in Education, in 2010. Outstanding Achievement in Web Development for Education Standard of Excellence, Portal Standard of Excellence, University Standard of Excellence, in 2010; the International Arch of Europe Award for Quality, Leadership and Innovation. The Commander of the Most Meritorious Order of Mohlomi by His Majesty King Letsie III of the Kingdom of Lesotho. In April 2017, the Accreditation Service for International Colleges and Universities from the United Kingdom bestowed Limkokwing University with the Global TVET Model University Award and Tan Sri Limkokwing with the Transformation Leadership in Global TVET Education Award; the consortium is made up of institutions that partner with Limkokwing University. These include: RMIT University Curtin University of Technology University of Melbourne University of East London The Robert Gordon University Anglia Ruskin University Limkokwing through its training arm, Malaysia Design Innovation Centre, has signed memoranda of understanding with many industry partners.

One of the objectives is to lend support to state governments, quasi-government organisations and small- and medium-size industries or enterprises in enhancing their creative capacity. Through the resources of the university and MDI, the partners co-operate in areas such as brand development, packaging design, research and development. Media related to Limkokwing University of Creative Technology at Wikimedia Commons

4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase

In enzymology, a 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + glyoxylateHence, this enzyme has one substrate, 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate, two products and glyoxylate. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds; the systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate glyoxylate-lyase. Other names in common use include 2-oxo-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase, hydroxyketoglutaric aldolase, 4-hydroxy-2-ketoglutaric aldolase, 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutaric aldolase, 4-hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate aldolase, 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase, 2-oxo-4-hydroxyglutaric aldolase, DL-4-hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate aldolase, hydroxyketoglutarate aldolase, 2-keto-4-hydroxybutyrate aldolase, 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate glyoxylate-lyase; this enzyme participates in arginine and proline metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1WAU and 2C0A.

KURATOMI K, FUKUNAGA K. "THE METABOLISM OF GAMMA-HYDROXYGLUTAMATE IN RAT LIVER. I. ENZYMIC SYNTHESIS OF GAMMA-HYDROXY-ALPHA-KETOGLUTARATE FROM PYRUVATE AND GLYOXYLATE". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 78: 617–28. Doi:10.1016/0006-300291027-8. PMID 14089442. Lane RS, Shapley A, Dekker EE. "2-keto-4-hydroxybutyrate aldolase. Identification as 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase, catalytic properties, role in the mammalian metabolism of L-homoserine". Biochemistry. 10: 1353–64. Doi:10.1021/bi00784a013. PMID 5580656. Nishihara H, Dekker EE. "Purification, substrate specificity and binding, -decarboxylase activity, other properties of Escherichia coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase". J. Biol. Chem. 247: 5079–87. PMID 4560498. Boyer, P. D; the Enzymes, 3rd ed. vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1972, p. 281-302