Hatfield Heath is a village, civil parish, an electoral ward in the Uttlesford district of Essex, at its west is close to the border with Hertfordshire. In close proximity are the towns of Sawbridgeworth. Stansted Airport is 5 miles to the north; the neighbouring Hatfield Broad Oak was a market town. As it declined Hatfield Heath in the parish of Hatfield Broad Oak, grew because of its proximity to main roads through the parish. In 1660 the fair at Hatfield Broad Oak was moved to Hatfield Heath. By the third quarter of the 18th-century the heath, had cottages around its edge, by the 19th century two schools, a church and a brewery; the 1870-72 Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales entry for Hatfield Heath describes:...a chapelry in Hatfield-Broad Oak parish, Essex. It was constituted in 1860. Pop. 622. Houses, 124; the manor belongs to Esq.. The living is a p. curacy in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £75.* Patron, the Vicar of Hatfield-Broad-Oak. The church was built in 1860. There is an Independent chapel.
Hatfield Heath became after 1860 an ecclesiastical district formed out of but remaining part of Hatfield Broad Oak. The settlement was a hamlet, one of two ecclesiastical chapelries of Hatfield Broad Oak, the other being Bush End. By 1901 Hatfield Heath, remaining an Hatfield Broad Oak ecclesiastical district and hamlet, had a population of 579. At the time both Hatfield Heath and Bush End were perpetual curacies together of a yearly value of £75, held under advowson of the vicar of Hatfield Broad Oak; the church supported three National Schools in the wider Hatfield Broad Oak parish, which contained "several" private schools. The National School at Hatfield Heath was built in 1899 for 201 mixed children, which in 1902 had an average attendance of 66. An 1894 will of George Cheveley provided interest from a trust for Hatfield Heath National School children's education, in 1905, the Cheveley Educational Foundation. An 1857-built day school in Hatfield Broad Oak provided non-religious teaching to 113 parish pupils.
The Hatfield Heath Congregational community dates to 1665, established by an incumbent ejected from the vicarage of Hatfield Broad Oak who became licensed as a Congregational minister. The community met in a meeting house, by 1724 in a barn, where the congregation numbered 300. A further house was acquired on which land the present enlarged church was built in 1875, building on a number of earlier church structures. By 1851 the congregation was 500, became part of the United Reformed Church in 1972, after which membership fell to 91 in 1980; the Hatfield Broad Oak Congregational church building, dating from 1818 and converted for Roman Catholic use, was until the 1920s a station of Hatfield Heath Congregational church. Kelly's Directory noted in 1902 at Hatfield Heath a Gothic style independent Congregational "chapel" seating 300, built in 1876; the church's front gable contained a stained glass window to Rev. C. Berry, the minister for over 50 years; the first British School associated with the Congregational community dated to 1827, with 18 pupils attending by 1833.
By the end of the decade it was reduced to a Sunday school. A second British School was built concurrently with the present church. An original bridge over Pincey Brook on the road to Matching south from Hatfield Heath dates to before the late 13th-century; the upkeep of the bridge was the responsibility of Hatfield Priory, after the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Down Hall manor and manorial lords. By the middle of the 17th-century these responsibilities were not always maintained; the bridge came under the auspices of the county in 1881. On the Chelmsford Road to the east of the village is Stone Bridge over the Pincey Brook; this bridge was the responsibility of two local famers until 1779, after which in 1800 it was maintained by the county, but was dilapidated by 1858. A significant estate at Hatfield Heath is'Gladwyns'; the early 19th-century house on the estate, within grounds of 3 acres, was in 1902 occupied by Horace Broke J. P. and was Grade II listed in 1981. The Lincoln's Inn barrister Horace Broke was secretary to Lord Justice Mellish.
The 17th-century timber-framed White Horse inn is at the north of the village green, as is the 18th-century brick-built Stag, recorded as such in 1769, the earlier Horseshoe. Other inns ceasing trade in the 18th-century are The Bell, The White Hart. Over the last hundred-and-fifty years businesses established include machinists, a stonemason, a harness maker. Firms include civil engineers, a slaughterhouse, a sausage maker. Camp 116, a Second World War prisoner-of-war camp on Mill Lane, was built in 1941, it closed in 1955 but a 2003 English Heritage survey rated the camp as near complete. In 2018 a proposal by a construction company to redevelop the decaying site for housing was presented to Uttlesford District Council. A local petition was raised to save and restore the camp as a historical amenity and an application was made "to earmark the site as
The A47 is a trunk road in England linking Birmingham to Lowestoft, Suffolk. Most of the section between Birmingham and Nuneaton is now classified as the B4114, it is the only A road in Zone 4 to enter Suffolk. No roads from Zones 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 enter the counties, which lie in Zone 1. Between the Clickers Way roundabout in Earl Shilton and the B582 junction near Leicester, the A47 runs through a forest. Between Birmingham and Nuneaton is the B4114 road; the A47 road is a holiday road, through West Midlands, Leicestershire, Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, since it ends in Lowestoft, a tourist destination with a beach. On the way it passes the city of Norwich and the Norfolk Broads, both popular tourist destinations in their own right, its other main function is the transport of goods by road to and from the A1 into Norfolk, north Suffolk and the ports at Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. The original route of the A47 was Birmingham to Great Yarmouth, but there were some changes made to its route in the early years.
At its eastern end, the A47 ran through Filby and Caister, with the Acle Straight bearing the number B1140. The A47 was rerouted along the Acle Straight in 1935, with the old route being renumbered as the A1064 and part of the A149; the second change dates from 1935. The A47 ran via Downham Market, not King's Lynn. In 1935, it was rerouted via King's Lynn, replacing part of the A141 and part of the A17; the old route via Downham Market was renumbered as the A1122 and part of the A1101. The third change took place some time before 1932; the original route of the A47 between Guyhirn and Wisbech was via Wisbech St Mary, with the direct route being part of the A141. This is because there was no road bridge over the River Nene at Guyhirn, hence no junction between the A47 and the A141; some time between 1923 and 1932 a bridge was built, the A47 and the A141 swapped routes between Guyhirn and Wisbech. Major improvements were made from the late 1970s until early in the 1990s; the 7 mile £5 million part-dual-carriageway East Dereham Bypass built on part of the disused railway line was opened in spring 1978 followed by a five-mile part-dual-carriageway Swaffham Bypass, costing £5 million, opened in June 1981.
Bypasses for Uppingham and Blofield were opened in 1983 respectively. The southern section of the Great Yarmouth Western Bypass was opened in May 1985 and the northern section in March 1986 at a cost of £19 million followed by improvements to the one mile Postwick-Blofield section, opened in November 1987. In 1989 Acle Bypass was completed as a cost of £7.1 million and the £1.2 million East Norton Bypass was opened in December 1990. The three mile £9 million East Dereham-North Tuddenham Improvement opened in August 1992 and the £62 million Norwich southern Bypass in September 1992. Escalating road protests starting with Twyford Down in 1992 and culminating with the Newbury bypass in 1996 led to over 300 road schemes being cancelled in November 1995 and to the cancellation of further schemes including the Thorney bypass by the new Labour government in 1997. In 2002 the government announced a new road building programme which included the three mile dual-carriageway Thorney bypass which opened on 14 December 2005.
In February 2017 the Highways Agency redesignated the stretch of the A12 road between Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft as the A47. A study on the A47 which concluded in 2001 looked at improving New Road, i.e. the section of the A47 between Acle and Great Yarmouth known as the Acle Straight. The improvement of the Acle Straight has become a point of contention between interested parties due to its passage through the Norfolk Broads, an area of important ecological and conservation significance that limits development; the study which recommended widening rather than dualling of the Acle Straight was opposed by the Broadland District Council, Great Yarmouth Borough Council, Norfolk Police Authority and the majority of local respondents who believed that dualling of the road is necessary to improve road safety, decrease journey time and support the economic development of Great Yarmouth. Dualling was however opposed by the Environment Agency, the Council for National Parks and the Broads Authority due to its impact on biodiversity and internationally important wildlife sites.
These parties did cautiously support further investigation into the option for widening following further investigation of its environmental impact. In 2006 a programme of safety improvement for the Acle Straight were announced; this would include road resurfacing, better road markings, improved visibility and the installation of safety cameras at an estimated total cost of £1.6 million. The result would be monitored while long-term improvements, such as widening, are considered. In October 2009 after it was announced that a £40,000 feasibility study, to see whether roadside ditches along the nine-mile stretch could be moved further back without disturbing delicate marshland habitat had been delayed until autumn 2010 at the earliest. A £117 million road scheme to the north of Norwich, linking the A1067 and Norwich International Airport to the A47, sponsored and managed by Norfolk County Council, it was priority scheme for Norfolk County Council and it attracted strong opposition both locally and from environmental groups.
On 2 June 2015 the scheme was given the go ahead, in 2017 parts of the road were opened with the complete road scheduled to be completed in early 2018. In 2007 Norfolk County C
The A130 is a major road in England linking Little Waltham, near Chelmsford, the county town of Essex, with Canvey Island in the south of that county. It is a primary route for most of its length, only losing that status south of the A13 junction at Sadlers Farm roundabout as it nears its terminus on Canvey Island, it was a much longer cross-country route. The present route can be divided into three main sections, plus an overlap with the A12; the road now starts near the village of Little Waltham at a roundabout with the A131, which heads north-east to Braintree, the B1008, a former A130 alignment heading south into northern Chelmsford, north towards Great Dunmow. Either side of this junction, the B1008/A130 route is quite recent, named Essex Regiment Way, at the Chelmsford end, the A130 intersects with the other routes into northern Chelmsford, the A1016 and A138, the latter junction merging with the junction between the A130 and the A12 Chelmsford Bypass, a dual carriageway. Here, the A12 multiplexes/overlaps with the A130 for a few miles round the eastern edge of Chelmsford.
The second section starts a few miles to the south. The A1114 road is the old road heading back into town, but the A130 road reappears heading south away from the Chelmsford area as a new dual carriageway opened as as 2002; this is a "secret motorway" classified as A-road. It extends for 6 miles as far as a junction with the A132 near Wickford, whilst a newer section south of there continues the route as a standard dual carriageway as far as a junction with a spur connecting to the old road and the A127 Southend Arterial Road a few miles west of Southend-on-Sea; the new road here more or less follows the same path as the World War II GHQ Line hence the many pillboxes visible alongside the carriageway between the Howe Green and the A132 junctions. An older section of dual carriageway extends as far south as the A13 at the Sadlers Hall Farm, a roundabout near Benfleet; as with the A13 from London, the primary route section of the A130 ends here too. South of the Sadlers Farm roundabout, the final leg of the A130 continues as a non-primary single-carriageway route into Canvey Island on the River Thames.
Canvey Way is a causeway connecting "mainland" with island, connects with the older road through the island, the B1014. On the island itself, a final short stretch of dual carriageway leads to the built-up area where the road turns east and becomes single, before meeting the B1014 again at a one-way system in the central area, incorporating the High Street; the A130 was a much longer route. It started on the old A10 just south of Cambridge at Trumpington, ended on the A129 near Rayleigh; when the M11 Cambridge Western Bypass section was built in the early 1980s, the A10 through Cambridge was reclassified as A1309, whilst the A130 was truncated as far south as Great Dunmow on the A120, due east of London Stansted Airport. The section between Trumpington and Stump Cross became A1301, whilst the section between there and Great Dunmow became an extension of the B184; the A11 was reclassified to minor A-roads and B-roads at this time. In early 2008, the section between Great Dunmow and Little Waltham was declassified to become an extension of the B1008, itself a product of earlier re-routing.
During the mid-1980s, the A12 Chelmsford Bypass opened and this led to the A130 multiplexing with the former for a few miles to the north and east of Chelmsford. In more recent times, a new road between the village of Howe Green and the Chelmsford suburb of Springfield, Essex Regiment Way, directs traffic away from the northern suburbs; the original A130 through the villages north of Chelmsford and the town itself followed what is now an unclassified road B1008, a short section of A1016, A1060 and A1114 to the southeast, the latter two forming sections of the same dual carriageway, incorporating a tidal flow flyover at Army & Navy Roundabout. At the southern end, the route was extended as far as the A13 by the 1970s, onto Canvey Island via the Canvey Way causeway; the dual carriageway section between Chelmsford and the A127 was replaced by a new road in 2002-3. The older road is now unclassified through the village of Rettendon, A1245 between the A132 and A127 junctions. In early summer 2016, work was undertaken on the stretch between Rettendon and Howe Green to turn the existing hard shoulders into 3rd lanes, as the traffic volume had reached 50,000 vehicles per day.
The resurfacing and re-marking of the hard shoulders needed to turn them into 3rd lanes was completed, but problems were discovered in the crash barriers and subsequently the strength of the embankments supporting the road. The new lanes were coned off, the road left at 2 lanes in each direction with no hard shoulder; as of 18 April 2018, the southbound lane has been re-opened whilst work continues on the northbound side. Roads x 10 entry on the SABRE website South East England road photos
Rickmansworth is a small town in southwest Hertfordshire, England 17 miles northwest of central London and inside the perimeter of the M25 motorway. The town is to the north of the Grand Union Canal and the River Colne; the nearest large town is Watford 5 miles to the east. Rickmansworth is the administrative seat of the Three Rivers District Council; the confluence of the Chess and the Gade with the Colne in Rickmansworth inspired the district's name. The enlarged Colne flows south to form a major tributary of the River Thames; the town is served by the Metropolitan line of the London Underground and Chiltern Railways from London Marylebone to Aylesbury. The name Rickmansworth comes from the Saxon name Ryckmer, the local landowner, worth meaning a farm or stockade. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it was recorded as the Manor of Prichemaresworde. Other spellings include Rykemarwurthe, Rykemerewrthe, Rikesmareswrth, Rikmeresworth & Rykemerysworth. There was a settlement in this part of the Colne Valley in the Stone age.
Rickmansworth was one of five manors with which the great Abbey of St Albans had been endowed when founded in 793 by King Offa. Local tithes supported the abbey, which provided clergy to serve the people until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. Around the time of the Domesday Book, the population of "Prichemareworth" may have been about 200. Cardinal Wolsey, in his capacity as Abbot of St Albans, held the Manor of le More in the valley; the manor house was replaced by the hill-top mansion Moor Park, which became the residence of Admiral Lord Anson, who commissioned Capability Brown to remake the formal gardens, in 1828 of the Barons Ebury. The wider area, including Croxley Green, Moor Park, Mill End, West Hyde and Chorleywood, formed the original parish of Rickmansworth. In 1851, the population had grown to 4,800, the parish was divided. St Mary's Church serves the parish concentrated in the town and extending to Batchworth and parts of Moor Park; the town had a population of 14,571 recorded at the 2001 census.
The three rivers, the Colne and Gade, provided water for the watercress trade and power for corn milling, silk weaving, paper making and brewing, all long gone. Other industries have included leather-tanning, soft drinks, straw-plaiting and stocking production. Now, the rivers and flooded gravel pits provide for recreation. West Mill, a water mill, existed at the time of the Domesday Survey, it was leased to the abbot and convent of St Albans by Ralph Bukberd for a term of years ending in 1539. In 1533, they leased it from the end of this term for twenty-six years to Richard Wilson of Watford, he was to keep in repair the mill and two millstones, 10 inches thick, 4 ft 8 in in breadth. The mill was leased in 1544 to William Hutchinson, yeoman of the spicery, Janet his wife for their lives, it afterwards came to John Wilson, was granted in 1576–77 to Richard Master. There was a water-mill called Batchworth Mill, a fishery called Blacketts Mill in Rickmansworth. Batchworth Mill was used as a cotton mill, but was bought in 1820 by Messrs.
John Dickinson & Co. and converted into paper mills, now the site of Affinity Water. Scotsbridge Mill was productive but now is home to a restaurant with the unusual feature of a salmon run. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries many of the principal inhabitants were described as'clothiers,' from which it may be inferred that the manufacture of cloth was at one time carried on in the parish, but this industry has long since ceased. There were silk and flock mills here, described in 1808 as built. A long-running dispute over water levels in the Batchford area, following construction of the Grand Junction Canal, was resolved in 1825, when an 8-foot-3-inch obelisk was erected in a pond, to act as a water gauge, it records the agreement made between the canal company, John Dickinson the miller at Batchworth Mill, R. Williams of Moor Park the landowner. In July 1860 Lord Ebury obtained powers to construct a 4 1⁄2-mile single-track railway line between Rickmansworth and Watford, which opened in October 1862.
Rickmansworth station was opposite the church to the south of the town with interchange sidings with the nearby Grand Union Canal. The line had a depot in Watford. A further Parliamentary authorisation was obtained a year to construct an extension from Rickmansworth to connect with the Great Western Railway's Uxbridge branch, but this was never realised. Despite hopes the railway would bring economic development and serve the factories and warehouses that had developed along the Grand Union Canal, it was Watford that grew at a faster pace and drew business from Rickmansworth; the railway was dogged with financial problems and a further Act of Parliament in 1863 authorised the issue of further shares to the value of £30,000. The service consisted of five trains each way; the line was worked from the outset by the London and North Western Railway, which paid the WRR 50% of the gross earnings. The railway was never financially successful and the official receiver was called in four years after opening.
The company attempted to remedy its financial problems by opening several freight branches, the most notable being to the Croxley printers and to the Grand Union Canal at Croxley Green. The company was absorbed by the burgeoning LNWR whose station it shared at Watford Junction in 1881. Rickmansworth grew durin
Hertingfordbury is a small village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, close to the county town of Hertford. The population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census is 630, it was mentioned in the Domesday Book. Hertingfordbury lies one mile west of Hertford on the A414 road. Ribbon development along that road has yet to reach the village; the village straddles the River Mimram, on, built a water mill in the 18th century, lies just north of the River Lea. The northern boundary of the village is Panshanger Park, with its Great Oak, considered by some to be the oldest oak in England; the parish includes the hamlet of Letty Green to the west, with its grade II listed deconsecrated St John's Church. The village was mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Hertfordingberie, meaning "Stronghold of the people of Hertford". "Ralph himself holds Hertfordingberie. It is assessed at 5 hides. There is land for 10 ploughs. In demesne are 3 hides and 1 virgate, there are 2 ploughs, there can be a third. There 5 villans with 1 Frenchman and 6 bordars have 5 ploughs, there can be 2 more.
There are 11 cottars and 4 slaves, 2 mills rendering 6s, meadow for 3 ploughs, pasture for the livestock of the vill and woodland for 200 pigs. From woodland pasture, 7s. In all it is worth £8. Alwine, a thegn of Earl Harold, could sell. St. Mary's Church is situated on rising ground to the east of the village, overlooking the water meadows that lead down to the River Mimram. A church seems to have stood on this spot as early as the 13th century. Construction is of local flints with stone dressing, the roof is tiled. Extensive alterations and restorations were carried out in 1845 and 1890. Inside the church is some interesting alabaster work, including the pulpit, oak carvings by a native of Oberammergau; the churchyard contains the unmarked grave of Jane Wenham, erroneously believed to be the last person to be sentenced to death for witchcraft in England. She was condemned by a Hertford court in 1712 but was given a reprieve from the death sentence and granted a Royal pardon by Queen Anne. From Walkern her cause was adopted by William Cowper, 1st Earl Cowper, she lived out her days in a cottage on his land at Panshanger Park.
Buried in the churchyard are members of the Cowper family, under the yew tree by the west door, Benjamin Truman, owner of the Truman Brewery in the 18th Century, at one time the biggest brewery in the world. The Camden Town Group artist, Spencer Gore, whose mother lived in Hertingfordbury, was buried in the churchyard, after dying in Richmond. An American heiress, Pauline Payne Whitney, who had married Lord Queenborough, is buried there as is their daughter, Dorothy Paget, a racehorse owner, whose horses won the Cheltenham Gold Cup seven times and the Champion Hurdle four, her funeral procession included a string of race horses. Both Hertingfordbury Park, former residence of the Cowper family, St Joseph's in the Park, a private primary school, stand to the east of St. Mary's. Houses in the village include a Georgian brick house; the White Horse is a 15th-century Georgian-fronted building that in the past was a staging post for the Reading to Cambridge coach. To the north-east of the church is the Old Rectory home of the Addis family, descendants of William Addis, inventor of the first mass-produced toothbrush.
There was an Addis brush factory in Hertford from 1920 to the 1990s. Mayflower Place was commissioned by Countess Cowper and built in 1910, it was for the workers and their families from the Panshanger Estate. It is now owned by the East Herts Lodge of Freemasons. A by-pass was constructed in 1974. Since the village has changed in character and now provides homes for those who commute daily to London rather than for farm workers. Hertingfordbury was served by Hertingfordbury railway station on the Hertford to Hatfield line; this was built for the Hertford & Welwyn Junction Railway and appeared in passenger timetables by 1858. Passenger services ceased in 1951 and the line fell victim to the Beeching Axe when goods traffic ceased in 1966; the station was the setting for scenes in the 1936 film When Knights Were Bold, a BBC children's TV programme, Catweazle in 1970, It has now been converted into a residence. The disused railway line is now the Cole Green Way, popular with walkers and cyclists. Hertingfordbury Cricket Club plays at the recreation ground as does Hertingfordbury Tennis Club, formed at a public meeting in 1961.
There is an annual fete on the third Saturday in June to raise funds for the upkeep of the recreation ground. British History Online: pages on Hertingfordbury Cole Green Way Media related to Hertingfordbury at Wikimedia Commons
A12 road (England)
The A12 is a major road in England. It runs north-east /south-west between London and the coastal town of Lowestoft in Suffolk and follows a similar route to the Great Eastern Main Line. A section of the road between Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth became the A47, this forms part of the unsigned Euroroute E30. Unlike most A roads, a significant portion of the A12 has junction numbers as; the 84 km section of the A12 through Essex has sections of dual two lanes and dual three lanes with eight changes in width between the M25 to Ipswich. It was named as Britain's worst road because of "potholes and regular closures due to roadworks" in a 2007 survey by Cornhill Insurance; the A12 is covered by A120 Route Management Strategy. Starting just north of the Blackwall Tunnel where it connects end on to the A102, it heads north through Bow and Hackney Wick northeast through Leyton and Romford into Essex, passing Brentwood and Colchester. In Suffolk, it passes Ipswich and Saxmundham follows the coast through Lowestoft before entering Norfolk, passing through Gorleston-on-Sea and ending at Great Yarmouth, as of February 2017, the route was renumbered between Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft to become the A47 so the road now terminates at the Bascule Bridge south of Lowestoft town centre.
The A12 was formed in 1922 as part of the Great Britain road numbering scheme, the route went from Stratford to Gallows Corner along the present A118 road before continuing to Great Yarmouth. This section in London was rerouted to run on Eastern Avenue by the mid-1940s, extended to follow the current route from Blackwall Tunnel along the East Cross Route, the M11 link road in 1999; the route from London to Essex has long been important, with Old Ford being the location of an ancient Celtic crossing of the River Lea. The route was altered by the Romans who created a paved road from London to Colchester, part of Inter V on the Antonine Itinerary, parts of this were used by a turnpike road, the Great Essex Road; the crossing of the Lea moved to its current location at Bow around 1110 when Matilda, wife of Henry I, ordered a distinctively bow-shaped, three-arched bridge to be built over the river. A map from 1766 shows a route from London to Great Yarmouth which follows much of the current A12.
The "Ipswich to South Town and Bungay Turnpike Trust" was established in 1785, operating between Ipswich and Great Yarmouth. The trust was wound up in 1872 following the arrival of the East Suffolk Line, operational between the two towns in 1859. Following the demise of the Turnpike trust, responsibility reverted to parish responsibility until the new county councils took over in 1889. A new section of the A12, known as the "M11 link road" or "A12 Hackney-M11 Link Road", was built in the early 1990s in the face of the major M11 link road protest and opened in October 1999; the section of road had been proposed in 1903 in a Royal Commission on London Traffic. A public inquiry had been held in September 1961 and a further three public inquiries, a Parliamentary Bill and a High Court challenge had been required before the work started. Initiated in 2000, the London to Ipswich Multi-modal study reported its conclusions late in 2002. In 2008 improvements were made to the junction between the A12 and the M25 to increase slip-road capacity, in particular for clockwise M25 traffic turning north onto the A12, to ease congestion on the Brook Street Roundabout.
The bascule bridge in Lowestoft, built in 1972, was refurbished in spring 2008. Essex County Council carried out its own inquiry into the road in 2008. Work on a £12.4m scheme for the a new junction on the A12 at Cuckoo Farm, Colchester adjacent to the Colchester Community Stadium started in December 2009. It was promoted by Essex County Council who prepared plans in 2001. and received funding from the Community Infrastructure Fund. It opened on 16 December 2010; the section of A12 between Brentwood and Ipswich and between Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft, now classified as a Southern extension of the A47 was classed as a major trunk road, therefore managed by Highways England, whereas the section between Ipswich and Lowestoft was de-trunked in 2001 and therefore passed control over from Highways England to Suffolk County Council, hence why this section is single carriageway and poorly invested in, therefore the A12 has only now been labelled as a main trunk road between Brentwood and Ipswich with the Northern half after the A14 being deemed a non-primary extension, a lesser important road.
The Eastern Avenue was built in the 1920s as a bypass for the section between Romford and Ilford, meeting what was the A11 at Leytonstone. It was numbered A106 until the 1930s when it became part of the A12; the 5-mile long Brentwood bypass was opened in November 1965. A bypass for Chelmsford was first included in the roads programme in 1968. Draft orders for the southern bypass were published in 1974, however the public inquiry in 1975 suggested that the government should re-examine the appropriateness of a'central route' and the government delayed the road. In 1979 the government announced that it would proceed with the southern dual two lane route which opened in 1986. Ipswich's'Southern by-pass' via the Orwell Bridge was opened in 1982; this section was designated as part of the A14. The Martlesham bypass was completed in 1987/1988. A white paper, Roads for Prosperity, published in 1989, proposed to widen the Chelmsford Bypass and the section from
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate