Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, 128 miles north of London, 45 miles northeast of Birmingham and 56 miles southeast of Manchester, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making and tobacco industries, it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination. In 2017, Nottingham had an estimated population of 329,200; the population of the city proper, compared to its regional counterparts, has been attributed to its historical and tightly-drawn city boundaries. The wider conurbation, which includes many of the city's suburbs, has a population of 768,638, it is the second-largest in The Midlands. Its Functional Urban Area the largest in the East Midlands, has a population of 912,482; the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn.
The city was the first in the East Midlands to be ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system, it is a major sporting centre, in October 2015 was named'Home of English Sport'. The National Ice Centre, Holme Pierrepont National Watersports Centre, Trent Bridge international cricket ground are all based in or around the city, the home of two professional league football teams; the city has professional rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, the Aegon Nottingham Open, an international tennis tournament on the ATP and WTA tours. This accolade came just over a year. On 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a "City of Literature" by UNESCO, joining Dublin, Edinburgh and Prague as one of only a handful in the world; the title reflects Nottingham's literary heritage, with Lord Byron, D. H. Lawrence and Alan Sillitoe having links to the city, as well as a contemporary literary community, a publishing industry and a poetry scene.
The city has two universities—Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham—both of which are spread over several campuses in the city, with a total university student population of over 61,000. The city predates Anglo-Saxon times and was known in Brythonic as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling"; when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham". Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form". Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen; the Anglo-Saxon settlement was confined to the area today known as the Lace Market and was surrounded by a substantial defensive ditch and rampart, which fell out of use following the Norman Conquest and was filled by the time of the Domesday Survey. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts.
A settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. The space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later. Defences, consisted of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century; the ditch was widened, in the mid-13th century, a stone wall built around much of the perimeter of the town. A short length of the wall survives, is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham, it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham alabaster.
The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire. One of those impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway. … Nottingham … with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry.
Loughborough is a town in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, seat of Charnwood Borough Council, home to Loughborough University. The town had a population of 57,600 in 2004, making it the second largest settlement in Leicestershire, it is close to the Nottinghamshire border and within short distances of Nottingham, East Midlands Airport and Derby. The town has the world's largest bell foundry – John Taylor Bellfounders – which made bells for the Carillon war memorial, a landmark in the Queens Park in the town, of Great Paul for St Paul's Cathedral, for York Minster; the first mention of Loughborough is in the 1086 Domesday Book. Loughborough's earliest historical reference was to "Lucteburne" in the 1086 Domesday Book, it appeared in a charter from the reign of Henry II as Lucteburga, in the Pipe Rolls of 1186 as Luchteburc. The name means "Luhhede's burgh or fortified place"; the first sign of industrialisation in the Loughborough district came in the early years of the 19th century, when John Heathcoat, an inventor from Derbyshire patented in 1809 an improvement to the warp loom, known as the twisted lace machine, which allowed mitts with a lace-like appearance to be made.
Heathcoat, in partnership with the Nottingham manufacturer Charles Lacy, moved his business from there to the village of Hathern, outside Loughborough. The product of this "Loughborough machine" came to be known as English bobbinet. However, the factory was attacked in 1816 by Luddites thought to be in the pay of Nottingham competitors and 55 frames were destroyed; this prompted Heathcoat to move his business to a disused woollen mill in Devon. In 1888 a charter of incorporation was obtained, allowing a corporation to be elected; the population increased from 11,000 to 25,000 in the following ten years. Among the factories established were Robert Taylor's bell foundry John Taylor & Co and the Falcon works, which produced steam locomotives motor cars, before it was taken over by Brush Electrical Machines. In 1897, Herbert Morris set up a factory in the Empress Works in Moor Lane which become one of the foremost crane manufacturers by the mid-20th century. There was strong municipal investment: a new sewage works in 1895 a waterworks in Blackbrook and a power station in Bridge Street in 1899.
The corporation took over Loughborough Gas Company in 1900. In 1841, Loughborough was the destination for the first package tour, organised by Thomas Cook for a temperance group from Leicester; as Loughborough grew larger throughout the 20th century, it began to acquire new suburbs. Thorpe Acre is located in the north-west of Loughborough; until the mid-20th century, it was a hamlet of about twenty houses or cottages, several of which survive. There is a 19th-century church and an old hostelry, The Plough Inn; the population is included in Loughborough–Garendon Ward of Charnwood Council. Many of the roads are named after famous poets. After the Second World War, part of Thorpe Acre was developed further in the 1950s for employees of Brush Engineering Works, 100 dwellings being built of no-fines concrete. In the 1960s and early 1970s, Thorpe Acre was chosen for a new estate. Two of Loughborough's secondary schools, Charnwood College and De Lisle College, are located on the edge of the estate; the suburb bounds Garendon Park, a large deer park from the 18th century.
Stonebow, at the upper end of Maxwell Drive, was built in the 1980s. Further development started in 2004, to link Maxwell Drive to Mitchell Drive, where Stonebow Primary School is located; the original Dishley, off Derby Road, was developed, with Thorpe Acre, in the 1970s. Dishley Church is now a ruin in Derby Road; the agriculturalist Robert Bakewell is buried there. Shelthorpe and surrounding area are new suburbs in the south of Loughborough. Work on the original Shelthorpe started in 1929, but was halted by World War II and resumed in 1946, it now has two rows of shops. A magnificent but overlooked piece of architecture is a group of twelve houses surrounding the crossroads at Castledine Street Extension, Woodthorpe Road, Shelthorpe Road. Fairmeadows Way and the surrounding area to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university date from the 1970s; the area stretches from Holywell Drive to Hazel Road. Rainbows, a children's hospice, Woodbrook Vale secondary school are on the edge of the suburb.
Grange Park is to the south of these. Construction began in 2006 after the completion of Terry Yardley Way to One Ash Roundabout. By 2018 the developers William Davis had built 1000 houses. Other developers are building to the west of Shelthorpe and the south of the university. William Davis came under fire in 2018 from residents saying they had been promised public amenities like shops and a place of worship, but were living on "a construction site" after William Davis submitted a planning application for 30 more houses on a site that could have been used for public purposes. Loughborough station is a mainline station serving the town. In 2012, Network Rail redeveloped the station increasing the length of the platforms and improving access. East Midlands Trains is the primary operator providing services on the Midland Main Line south to Leicester, Bedford and London St Pancras stations and north to Lincoln, Sheffield and York stations; the link to London provides a link to Europe via Eurostar.
Leicester and Derby stations allow transfers to CrossCountry trains running between the north-east of Scotland and the south-west of England. There were at one time three railway routes to the town: the s
The A616 is a road that links Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire, to the M1 motorway at Junction 30 reappears at Junction 35A and goes on to Huddersfield, West Yorkshire. The road ran continuously from Newark to Huddersfield, via Sheffield city centre; the section of route between the M1 Junction 30 and Sheffield was re-numbered A6135, the route north-west of Sheffield renumbered the A6102. Similar to the A57, this section of the road is used to connect traffic heading to and from West and South Yorkshire with routes for the A1 to the south-east; the advantages of the A616 are that it is less well known than the A57 as a through-route and does not pass through large centres of population. It starts in the south at the busy roundabout with the A617 and A46, known as the Cattle Market Island; this is the third position of its southern terminus. When the A1 ran through Newark, before July 1964, it met the A1 further towards Newark Castle railway station, by continuing from its present route down Debdale Hill through Kelham, where it met the A617, along the present-day A617 near what is the present-day Trent Valley Way.
After the A1 bypass was built, the A1 through Newark became the A6065, the former A616 became an unclassified road from Toll Bar Farm to Kelham, the A617 from Kelham to Newark. The A616 followed a former unclassified road to South Muskham, where it met the A6065; when the Newark Bypass was built in 1989, the A6065 was removed and the A616 extended from South Muskham to Newark along the former A6065. The former A1 into Newark from the roundabout is the B6326. For just under two miles it follows the former A1 north to South Muskham, passing a large British Sugar sugar beet processing plant on the right; this is now one of the main sugar beet factories left. It runs parallel to the East Coast Main Line. On the former Great North Road, it passes over a causeway built in 1770 by John Smeaton. At Muskham Bridge it crosses the River Trent. At South Muskham the road leaves to the west with the northern former A1 continuing as the B6325, it passes through part of South Muskham parish. It meets a road from Kelham, to the left.
It passes Debdale Hill Farm as Ollerton Road. Over the brow of the hill, it enters Caunton parish, where the road has been straightened, leaving lay-bys on both sides of the road, it passes Dean Hall Farm and there is a crossroads for Knapthorpe to the left and Caunton to the right. There is a left turn for Maplebeck near Beesthorpe Hall, a right turn from Caunton, it passes Caunton Common Farm. On the parish boundary between Kneesall and Kersall, there is a crossroads for Kersall to the left and Laxton and Norwell to the right, near Kersall Lodge, it passes Buckshaw Farm a straightened bend with a layby on the right, through Kneesall, passing the church of St Bartholomew and the Angel Inn. It passes through the small village of Ompton, it climbs Grimston Hill, entering the parish of Wellow. It passes through Wellow, meeting a road from the left from Eakring, passing the Durham Ox. There is an angled crossroads for Rufford to the left and New Ollerton to the right, the road passes of a former railway.
It enters Ollerton. There is a roundabout with the A6075, to the left for New Ollerton, with which the road overlaps for a half-mile to the west; the B6461 is to the left, the road crosses the River Maun. There is a roundabout at Sherwood Heath with the north-south A614 and the A6075 to the south-west for Thoresby Colliery and Edwinstowe, at which there is the Shell Ollerton garage, a fish and chip restaurant, the Texaco Ollerton Star Service Station, it passes through what is Sherwood Forest at Bilhaugh in Edwinstowe parish, meets Swincote Road to the left, from Edwinstowe, overlaps with the road. In Perlethorpe cum Budby, it passes through Budby as Worksop Road and crosses the River Meden to the west of Thoresby Lake. At Budby North Forest the A6034 leaves to the right, further north is a crossroads with Netherfield lane. At Hazel Gap the road continues due west and is crossed by the Robin Hood Way near Hazel Gap Farm in the parish of Norton; the road enters Bassetlaw and passes along the northern edge of Gleadthorpe Breck Plantation and Hatfield Plantation, north of Welbeck Colliery.
There is a right turn for Norton and the road meets the north-south A60 at Cuckney, where the A632 leaves for Bolsover to the south-west. In the village the road passes the Greendale Oak, it leaves to the west as Creswell Road. It passes Woodend Farm and there is a crossroads for Whaley and Holbeck; the road enters the district of Bolsover, south of Creswell. Entering the village of Creswell it meets the B6042 to the right, for Creswell Crags, a limestone gorge. There is a left turn for Elmton Road, for the model village. There is a height indicator across the road with dangling chains for the approaching railway bridge which has a height of 4.1 metres. Towards Clowne the road follows to the north of a disused railway, passes the Creswell Campus of Chesterfield College, before crossroads, for Elmton to the left. Entering Clowne there is a crossroads, it passes the JET Woodall Garage, meets the B6418 from the left and the terminus of the A618, Rotherham Road for Killamarsh, to the right. It leaves as Barlborough Road.
The road now passes to the south. The Crown Carveries De Rodes Arms is on the former roundabout with the A619, it leaves the former r
Rempstone is a village and civil parish in the Rushcliffe district of Nottinghamshire, although its closest town and postal address is Loughborough across the border in Leicestershire. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 367, it is situated at the crossing of the A6006 roads. It has no schools. Rempston is mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book; the first church in Rempstone, St Peter in the Rushes, stood half a mile north-east of the present village near the Sheepwash Brook next to a moated Manor House now a fishing lake, a Holy spring is at this location. An archaeological dig, 1960–1962, revealed the foundations of a 12th-century tower with square buttresses. Earthworks near the brook indicate the original site of the village; the present church, All Saints' Church, was built from the materials of the old church and was consecrated by the Archbishop of York in 1773. About 20 headstones mark the site of the original churchyard and during the last 200 years of this church there were 950 burials including that of six former Rectors of Rempstone.'Kinchbus 9' passes through Rempstone along the A60 between Nottingham and Loughborough daily, including into the late evenings from Monday to Saturday.
Started in 1956 the Steam and Traction Engine rally has outgrown the village and nowadays takes place in nearby Wymeswold on the second full weekend in July. It has always donated its profits to National Charities; the event now extends over 65 Acres with 25 Acres of exhibits including Vintage Vehicles, 40 Steam Traction Engines, Countryside exhibitions and a real ale bar. Costock East Leake Hoton Stanford on Soar Wymeswold St Peters in the Rushes GENUKI entry for Rempstone Rempstone Steam and Country Show
Costock is a village and civil parish in the Rushcliffe district of Nottinghamshire, England. The population of the civil parish taken at the 2011 Census was 621. Although Costock is in Nottinghamshire, its closest town and the postal address are Loughborough, across the border in Leicestershire. Costock lies next to the A60 road. Costock has a Church of England primary school. St Giles's Church, built in 1350, stands back from the main street of the village; the Anglican Community of the Holy Cross has had a small convent at Highfields, since 2011. Premiere Travel operates the Red 9 bus service between Nottingham and Loughborough, which passes through the village on the A60. East Midlands Airport is 10 miles away; the German traveller C. P. Moritz stayed the night on a walking tour in 1782: "There were three inns adjacent to each other in Costock, which, to judge by their exteriors, were dens of the most abject poverty. At the one where I stayed only the landlady was at home.... During the evening I felt a kind of fever, slept disturbed that night and lay in bed long the next morning until my landlady woke me up, saying she was getting worried on my account.
I decided to travel on beyond Leicester by coach." Bunny East Leake Rempstone Wysall GENUKI entry for Costock Thoroton Society excursion, Spring 1902: Costock
The A61 is a major trunk road in England connecting Derby and Thirsk in North Yorkshire by way of Alfreton, Clay Cross, Sheffield, Wakefield, Leeds and Ripon. The road is paralleled by the M1 motorway between Derby and Leeds. Heading south, the road begins as single carriageway from Thirsk which bypasses Ripon and travels towards Harrogate passing through Harrogate town centre. Here, the road divides into two major one-way streets which enclose the town centre and run along The Stray, a 200-acre stretch of grassland in Harrogate; as Leeds Road, it passes through the southern suburbs of Harrogate before meeting the A658 near the village of Pannal. The A61 continues through Harewood before approaching the north's metropolis, where a sudden urban fringe approaches; as the road enters Leeds and crosses the A6120 outer ring road, the road becomes Scott Hall Road, a main dual carriageway and artery for north Leeds. There are sections of guided bus route using kerb guidance near Potternewton. Here, the A61 rises and a panoramic view of Leeds skyline is revealed.
The descent into Leeds is quick and the road soon turns into a multi-lane road, as it approaches Sheepscar Interchange. Fast-flowing traffic is directed onto the A61, although some traffic is directed off the A61 to avoid Leeds City Centre as it routes around the back of Quarry House; the A61 meets it shortly after. After crossing the river, the road splits again before taking traffic out to the motorways; the road continues out of Leeds towards Wakefield and Barnsley. South of Barnsley it crosses the M1 at Junction 36 heads towards Sheffield. Between the M1 at Junction 36 and the Westwood roundabout intersection with the A616, the road is designated as a trunk road under the responsibility of Highways England; the A61 travels into Sheffield through Grenoside and Hillsborough, passing next to the Sheffield Wednesday football stadium. At this point it forms a major artery into the City Centre from the north, before becoming the Sheffield Inner Ring Road, it meets the A57 twice. The A61 takes a southerly course past Sheffield United football stadium through Heeley as Chesterfield Road and climbs up to Norton and Greenhill roundabout.
Between Sheffield and Chesterfield is a dual carriageway, avoids Dronfield as the eponymous by-pass. The road used to go through Chesterfield town centre, passing by the famous crooked spire, but was congested; this was alleviated by the construction of the Chesterfield bypass in the 1980s on the alignment of the former Great Central Railway. The road reverts to single carriageway south of Chesterfield, passing through Clay Cross and Alfreton. South of Alfreton, the A61 merges with the dual carriageway A38, but the old A61 continues as the B6179 through Swanwick and Denby, meeting the A38 again just north of the City; the A61 road continues towards the city centre along Sir Frank Whittle Road until it ends at the junction with the A52 near to the headquarters of Derbyshire County Cricket Club. Route of A61 overlaid on Google Maps In June 2008 a 6.2-mile stretch of the A61 between Barnsley and Wakefield was named as the most dangerous road in Britain, when motorcycle accidents were excluded. In the latest EuroRAP findings from the Road Safety Foundation, this stretch of road was found to be the most dangerous road in Yorkshire and Humber.
With 22 fatal and serious injury accidents in the three years analysed, this single carriageway route was rated as Red — the second highest risk category. UK roads: A61 EuroRAP GB Tracking Survey Results Road Safety Foundation
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate