Eveready Battery Company
Eveready Battery Company, Inc. is an American manufacturer of electric battery brands Eveready and Energizer, owned by Energizer Holdings. It should not be confused with the identically named and defunct UK battery company, Ever Ready, its headquarters are located in Missouri. The predecessor company began in 1890 in New York and was renamed in 1905. Today the company makes batteries in the United States and China, production facilities around the world. On January 10, 1899, American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company obtained U. S. Patent No. 617,592 from David Misell, an inventor. This "electric device" designed by Misell was powered by "D" batteries laid front-to-back in a paper tube with the light bulb and a rough brass reflector at the end. Misell, the inventor of the tubular hand-held "electric device", assigned his invention over to the American Electrical Novelty and Manufacturing Company owned by Conrad Hubert. In 1905, Hubert changed the name again to The American Ever Ready Company, selling flashlights and batteries under the trademark Ever Ready.
In 1906 the British Ever Ready Electrical Company was formed for export of batteries. In 1914, The American Ever Ready Company became part of National Carbon Company. Hubert stayed on as the president; the trademark was shortened to Eveready. In 1917, National Carbon Company merged with Union Carbide to form the Union Carbide and Carbon Company. From 1917 until 1921, Eveready used the trademark "DAYLO" for their flashlights and on their batteries. In 1957, employees Lewis Urry, Paul Marsal and Karl Kordesch invented a long-lasting alkaline battery using a zinc/manganese dioxide chemistry while working for Union Carbide's Cleveland plant; the company did not aggressively market the invention and instead continued to market the zinc-carbon battery. As a result, the company lost significant market share to Duracell. Prior to March 1, 1980, the company's alkaline battery had been called the Eveready Alkaline Battery, Eveready Alkaline Energizer and Eveready Alkaline Power Cell. On March 1, 1980, it was rebadged under Energizer.
In 1986, Union Carbide sold its Battery Products Division to Ralston Purina Company for $US1.4 billion, becoming the Eveready Battery Company, Inc. a wholly owned subsidiary. At that time, the Eveready and Energizer batteries held 52 percent market share; the company under Ralston lost market share to rival Duracell. In 1992, it bought the British Ever Ready Electrical Company from Hanson Trust, bringing its former subsidiary back under common ownership. In 1999, Eveready sold its rechargeable battery division, although it still markets them for retail sale. In 2000, Ralston spun off Eveready, it was listed on the New York Stock Exchange as a holding company, Energizer Holdings, Inc. with Eveready Battery Company, Inc continuing as its most important daughter company. The company's current US production facilities for batteries and battery parts are located in Asheboro, North Carolina; the majority of batteries are made in China. There are numerous production facilities outside the US. In the 1920s, the company sponsored The Eveready Hour on radio.
In 1941 after the United States entered World War II, the slogan changed to "Change your batteries, get a nickel!" to encourage economic growth. In the 1970s, actor Robert Conrad was the spokesman for Eveready Alkaline Power Cells, in which he compared his tough physique to the performance of the battery placed on his shoulder, daring someone to knock it off. In the early 1980s, it utilized the slogan, "Energized, for life!", showing people using Energizers in everyday situations. In 1986, the company highlighted an advertising campaign best known for Mary Lou Retton averring: "It's supercharged!" In the late 1980s, there was an advertising campaign featuring Mark'Jacko' Jackson and his pitch line "Energizer! It'll surprise you! Oi!". Since 1988, the well-known Energizer Bunny has been featured in its television ads; the bunny was based on the similar Duracell Bunny used in the UK. The bunny would appear in competition with inferior rival battery Supervolt, based on Duracell. In Asia, Australia, NZ, the UK, the mascot for Energizer is a muscle-bound anthropomorphic AA battery.
He performs his actions with extreme speed, intended to illustrate that Energizer batteries are long lasting. This is because Duracell advertises their batteries in the market using the Duracell Bunny. Since about 1998, rock band Local H has parodied Eveready's 9-Lives logo in a series of t-shirts that were released to promote the band's Pack Up The Cats album; the back of the shirts read "Neveready". Both the Eveready and Energizer marques are used under license by auto parts magnate Pep Boys for their in-house car batteries; the Energizer logo used by Pep Boys is similar to the 1980s-era logo first used with the consumer dry cell batteries. Both Eveready and Energizer are marketed as different brands in some markets in Asia; this has led to the availability of both "Eveready Gold" Alkaline batteries and Energizer Alkaline batteries on store shelves. However, both are targeted at different market segments and Eveready batteries tend to be marketed for lower end devices while Energizer batteries are marketed for power-hungry devices, are priced accordingly.
Eveready East Africa Eveready Industries India Battery holder Energizer Europe
The AAAA battery is 42.5 mm long and 8.3 mm in diameter. The alkaline cell weighs around 6.5 g and produces 1.5 V. This size battery is classified as R8D425 and 25; the alkaline battery in this size is known by Duracell type number MN2500 or MX2500 and Energizer type number E96. Its consumer electronics use was limited, only since the 2010s has it made its appearance in the stores where one would buy its more common AAA relative; this battery size is most used in small devices such as laser pointers, LED penlights, powered computer styluses, glucose meters, small headphone amplifiers. These batteries are not as popular as AAA or AA type batteries, are not as available; some models of alkaline nine-volt battery contain six LR61 cells connected by welded tabs. These cells are similar to AAAA cells and can be used in their place in some devices though they are 3.5 millimetres shorter. Battery Battery nomenclature Battery recycling Brand Neutral Drawing Of AAAA Alkaline battery based on ANSI Specifications
A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights and electric cars. When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode; the terminal marked negative is the source of electrons that will flow through an external electric circuit to the positive terminal. When a battery is connected to an external electric load, a redox reaction converts high-energy reactants to lower-energy products, the free-energy difference is delivered to the external circuit as electrical energy; the term "battery" referred to a device composed of multiple cells, however the usage has evolved to include devices composed of a single cell. Primary batteries are discarded. Common examples are the alkaline battery used for flashlights and a multitude of portable electronic devices. Secondary batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using an applied electric current.
Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones. Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to small, thin cells used in smartphones, to large lead acid batteries or lithium-ion batteries in vehicles, at the largest extreme, huge battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby or emergency power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year, with 6% annual growth. Batteries have much lower specific energy than common fuels such as gasoline. In automobiles, this is somewhat offset by the higher efficiency of electric motors in converting chemical energy to mechanical work, compared to combustion engines; the usage of "battery" to describe a group of electrical devices dates to Benjamin Franklin, who in 1748 described multiple Leyden jars by analogy to a battery of cannon.
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800. This was a stack of copper and zinc plates, separated by brine-soaked paper disks, that could produce a steady current for a considerable length of time. Volta did not understand, he thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, that the associated corrosion effects at the electrodes were a mere nuisance, rather than an unavoidable consequence of their operation, as Michael Faraday showed in 1834. Although early batteries were of great value for experimental purposes, in practice their voltages fluctuated and they could not provide a large current for a sustained period; the Daniell cell, invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniell, was the first practical source of electricity, becoming an industry standard and seeing widespread adoption as a power source for electrical telegraph networks. It consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper sulfate solution, in, immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid and a zinc electrode.
These wet cells used liquid electrolytes, which were prone to leakage and spillage if not handled correctly. Many used glass jars to hold their components, which made them fragile and dangerous; these characteristics made. Near the end of the nineteenth century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced the liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical. Batteries convert chemical energy directly to electrical energy. In many cases, the electrical energy released is the difference in the cohesive or bond energies of the metals, oxides, or molecules undergoing the electrochemical reaction. For instance, energy can be stored in Zn or Li, which are high-energy metals because they are not stabilized by d-electron bonding, unlike transition metals. Batteries are designed such that the energetically favorable redox reaction can occur only if electrons move through the external part of the circuit. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells; each cell consists of two half-cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing metal cations.
One half-cell includes electrolyte and the negative electrode, the electrode to which anions migrate. Cations are reduced at the cathode; some cells use different electrolytes for each half-cell. Each half-cell has an electromotive force relative to a standard; the net emf of the cell is the difference between the emfs of its half-cells. Thus, if the electrodes have emfs E 1 and E 2 the net emf is E 2 − E 1.
Rechargeable alkaline battery
A rechargeable alkaline battery known as alkaline rechargeable or rechargeable alkaline manganese, is a type of alkaline battery, capable of recharging for repeated use. The first generation rechargeable alkaline batteries were introduced by Union Carbide and Mallory in the early 1970s. Several patents were introduced after Union Carbide's product discontinuation and in 1986, Battery Technologies Inc of Canada was founded to commercially develop a 2nd generation product based on those patents, their first product to be licensed out and sold commercially was to Rayovac under the trademark "Renewal". The next year, "Pure Energy" batteries were released by Pure Energy. After reformulating the Renewals to be mercury free in 1995, subsequent licensed RAM alkalines were mercury free and included ALCAVA, AccuCell and EnviroCell. Subsequent patent and advancements in technology have been introduced; the formats include AAA, AA, C, D, snap-on 9-volt batteries. Rechargeable alkaline batteries are manufactured charged and have the ability to hold their charge for years, longer than NiCd and NiMH batteries, which self-discharge.
Rechargeable alkaline batteries can have a high recharging efficiency and have less environmental impact than disposable cells. Unlike disposable alkaline batteries, rechargeable alkaline batteries are designed by the manufacturer to be rechargeable. Rechargeable alkaline cells are constructed similarly to disposable alkaline cells. A cathode paste is pressed into a steel can; the negative electrode consists of zinc powder suspended in a gel, with a steel nail contact that runs to the base of the cell to form the negative terminal. Features of the rechargeable alkaline that differ from a disposable alkaline cell include the presence of barium sulfate or other additives in the cathode mix, which improve cycling and increase capacity by preventing the formation of insoluble manganese compounds; the cathode has a catalyst to recombine any hydrogen that forms. Zinc oxide is added to the cathode mix to reduce generation of hydrogen gas; the separator between anode and cathode is formulated to be resistant to growth of zinc grains, which could penetrate and short-circuit the cell.
The cells are manufactured in the charged state, ready to use. Although these batteries can be used in any device that supports a standard size, they are formulated to last longest in periodical use items; this type of battery is better suited for use in low-drain devices such as remote controls or for devices that are used periodically such as flashlights, television remote control handsets, portable radios, etc. If they are discharged by less than 25%, they can be recharged for hundreds of cycles to about 1.42 V. If they are discharged by less than 50%, they can be fully recharged for a few dozen cycles, to about 1.32 V. After a deep discharge, they can be brought to their original high-capacity charge only after a few charge-discharge cycles. Manufacturers do not support recharging of disposable alkaline batteries, warn that it may be dangerous. Despite this advice, alkaline batteries have been recharged, chargers have been available; the capacity of a recharged alkaline battery declines with number of recharges, until it becomes unusable after about ten cycles.
Low-ripple direct current is not suitable for charging disposable alkaline batteries. Pulsed charging appears to reduce the risk of electrolyte—usually potassium hydroxide —leakage; the charging current is low to prevent rapid production of gases. Cells that have leaked electrolyte are a safety unsuitable for reuse. Discharged cells recharge less than only depleted cells if they have been stored in a discharged state —battery charger manufacturers do not claim to recharge dead cells. Attempting to recharge a discharged alkaline battery can cause the production of gas within the canister; as the canister is sealed, pressure generated by rapid accumulation of gas can open the pressure relief seal and cause leakage of electrolyte. Potassium hydroxide in the electrolyte is corrosive and may cause injury and damage corroding the battery contacts in the equipment; as an alkaline battery is discharged, chemicals inside the battery react to create an electric current. As the chemicals are used up and the products of the reaction accumulate the battery is no longer able to deliver adequate current, the battery is depleted.
By driving a current through the battery in the reverse direction, the equilibrium can be shifted back towards the original reactants. Different batteries rely on different chemical reactions; some reactions are reversible, some are not. The reactions used in most alkaline batteries fall into the latter category. In particular, the metallic zinc generated by driving a reverse current through the cell will not return to its original location in the cell, may form crystals that damage the separator layer between battery anode and electrolyte; the rechargeable alkaline battery was, at one time, cheaper than other rechargeable types. Cells can be manufactured in the charged state and retain capacity well, their capacity is about 2/3 that of primary cells. They are of dry-cell construction sealed and not requiring maintenance. Cells have a limited cycle life, affected by deep discharge.
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering and applications that deal with the emission and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. The identification of the electron in 1897, along with the invention of the vacuum tube, which could amplify and rectify small electrical signals, inaugurated the field of electronics and the electron age. Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, diodes, integrated circuits and sensors, associated passive electrical components, interconnection technologies. Electronic devices contain circuitry consisting or of active semiconductors supplemented with passive elements; the nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible. Electronics is used in information processing, telecommunication, signal processing; the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information-processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed electronic components into a regular working system, called an electronic system.
An electronic system may be a component of a standalone device. Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, switching and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms; this distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters and vacuum tubes; as of 2018 most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering; this article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics. Digital electronics Analogue electronics Microelectronics Circuit design Integrated circuits Power electronics Optoelectronics Semiconductor devices Embedded systems An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system.
Components are intended to be connected together by being soldered to a printed circuit board, to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Components may be packaged singly, or in more complex groups as integrated circuits; some common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, transistors, etc. Components are categorized as active or passive. Vacuum tubes were among the earliest electronic components, they were solely responsible for the electronics revolution of the first half of the twentieth century. They allowed for vastly more complicated systems and gave us radio, phonographs, long-distance telephony and much more, they played a leading role in the field of microwave and high power transmission as well as television receivers until the middle of the 1980s. Since that time, solid-state devices have all but taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, specialist audio equipment, guitar amplifiers and some microwave devices.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market. The 608 contained more than 3,000 germanium transistors. Thomas J. Watson Jr. ordered all future IBM products to use transistors in their design. From that time on transistors were exclusively used for computer logic and peripherals. Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has a mix of the two types. Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage or current as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits; the number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge because a'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components.
Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One finds modern circuits that are analog; these days analog circuitry may use digital or microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital. Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear
Eneloop is a brand of 1.2-volt low self-discharge nickel–metal hydride rechargeable batteries and accessories developed by Sanyo, introduced in 2005. Eneloop cells lose their charge much more than the 0.5–4% per day loss by older-technology NiMH batteries, retaining about 85% of their charge for a year after charging. This allows them to be sold ready for use, unlike older types; because they can replace a large number of alkaline batteries over their life cycle, they are marketed as being eco-friendly. Sanyo was acquired by Panasonic in 2009 and sold its NiMH battery business to Fujitsu subsidiary FDK; the original Eneloop batteries were introduced in AA and AAA size, with capacities of 2,000 mAh and 800 mAh. They could be held up to 75 % of their charge after one year; the part numbers for first generation generation cells are HR-3UTG and HR-4UTG. The second generation of Eneloop AA and AAA batteries was introduced in 2010, it endured 1,500 recharge cycles and held 85% of the charge after one year and 75% after three years.
The part numbers for second generation generation cells are HR-3UTGA and HR-4UTGA. Sanyo introduced C- and D-sized Eneloop batteries with a minimum capacity of 2,700 mAh and 3,000 mAh in 2009, along with a new universal charger; as these sizes were only available in Japan and Singapore, Sanyo offered adapter sleeves to fit AA batteries in devices that take C or D batteries. In October 2011 the batteries were again improved to retain up to 90% of their capacity after one year, 80% after three years and 70% after five years; the batteries can be recharged up to 1,800 times, rather than the 1,500 times of the previous revision. The part numbers for third generation cells are HR-3UTGB and HR-4UTGB. At the same time, the C- and D-sized Eneloop batteries' stated minimum capacities were increased to 3,000 mAh and 5,700 mAh respectively, they were available in Japan from November 2011. European models went on sale from the beginning of October 2012. Following the acquisition of Sanyo by Panasonic, a fourth generation was introduced in April 2013.
The number of charges per cell was increased from 1800 to 2100 cycles for both AAA models. In some countries the batteries are branded as Panasonic; the Eneloop Lite line was released in Japan in June 2010. They addressed two downsides of alkaline and other NiMH batteries: the initial cost and the long charging time—both achieved by reducing the capacity of the battery; the batteries find suitable applications in low-drain devices such as remote control devices and alarms, where high capacity is not an issue. The AAs have 1,000 mAh of capacity. Due to reduction of the capacity compared to the regular Eneloop cells, the charging time is halved for the AA and reduced by 25% for the AAA. On the other hand, they can be recharged 3,000 times; the reduction in capacity reduced the production cost, which decreased the initial investment for rechargeable batteries. They weigh 30% less; the product numbers are HR-3UQ and HR-4UQ. Along with the upgrade of the regular Eneloop cells in April 2013, the Lite version was upgraded.
According to Panasonic, it can now be recharged up to 3,000 times. The upgraded batteries retain 90% of the charge after one year like the regular Eneloop cells; the Eneloop Pro series was introduced in 2011. At that time, no AAA version was produced, they have a higher capacity than regular Eneloop cells, 2,500 mAh for AA. However, they retain only 75% of their initial charge after one year, can only be recharged 500 times; the product numbers are HR-3UWX and HR-3UWXA. In January 2013, Sanyo announced the second generation of Eneloop XX, along with a slight renaming. Eneloop Pro appears instead of the "Eneloop XX" brand in batteries; the new generation has a 50 mAh higher capacity, the self-discharge rate was decreased. They introduced an AAA version of the Eneloop XX boasting a nominal capacity of 950 mAh. After the acquisition by Panasonic, they were renamed Eneloop Pro in Europe and the Americas. Eneloop Plus cells have a PTC thermistor built-in that cuts the power in case the batteries are overheating.
This makes them suitable for toys and devices that generate an increased amount of heat. Other specifications are identical to the second-generation Eneloop batteries; the product number is HR-3UPT, the battery was released in Japan in December 2011. Official website Eneloop encyclopedia