Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, a advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; the history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place, land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABC's first outside broadcast van; the van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, opened on 29 January 1958, replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956.
In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programs across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year with ABD-6 Darwin completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions. International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998; the ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000.
In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel. ABC2, now ABC Comedy, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005, running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October 2006. In the lead-up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children; the new channel, titled ABC3, was to aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.
At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC Television was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. ABC has four digital services; as of 2009, ABC announced an Australia-wide upgrade to its Digital service, that it would provide a seven-day Electronic Program Guide and give new logical channel numbers for all of ABC’s television services. The new ABC logical channel numbers are below; these services are available nationally through digital terrestrial television, all the digital TV services are available through the VAST free-to-air satellite service. Only the primary ABC channel is available on the Optus Aurora satellite platform. In June 2010, playout was moved to a new facility shared with WIN Television at Ingleburn. On 6 December 2016, ABC upgraded its HD format from 720p to 1080i. Within Australia, the ABC operates four television channels, all of them non-commercial. ABC, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama and news and current affairs.
In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7 pm nightly. ABC Comedy, launched in 2005, shows comedic content in addition to some repeats from ABC TV of which the amount has decreased since ABC Comedy's inception, it is not a 24-hour channel, but is
ABC Local Radio
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. ABC Local Radio stations broadcast across the continent using terrestrial transmitters and satellites, its programming consists of news, current affairs, entertainment, sport and local affairs. They are reckoned as the flagship ABC radio stations in their areas. Depending on the time of day and the day of the week, programming can either be purely local, broadcast from the state or territory capital city ABC station, or simulcast across all ABC Local Radio services across the country. Local Radio was known internally as ABC Radio 1 in metropolitan regions and ABC Radio 3 in regional areas. Radio 1 was a local format while Radio 3 was more networked and included content from the national programme, Radio 2. In the 1980s, Radio National emerged from Radio 2 and Radio 3 dropped its Radio 2 content with Radio 1 becoming ABC Metro Radio and Radio 3 becoming ABC Regional Radio.
The Regional Radio stations provided local programming in breakfast and drive but networked common content for most of their broadcasting hours. Some different, local market formats emerged, including the Darwin Metro 8DDD, FM105.7 and Gold Coast Regional, ABC Coast FM, 91.7. Up until the mid-1990s, the majority of the local radio stations identified on-air as. In the 1990s, a different convention was used as ABC Radio or FM. In 2000, these two identical networks merged as ABC Local Radio. From this point all ABC Local Radio stations ceased to identify themselves according to their callsigns or other existing names, instead use the format ABC, or ABC where there are multiple frequencies broadcasting the same service. However, as the callsigns were used continuously for up to seventy years and are much shorter than the new names, many long-term listeners still use these callsigns to refer to ABC Local Radio stations. In January 2017, ABC Local Radio rebranded with a new logo; the new round logo reflects the dropping of the call numbers of each local radio station as part of the network's multiplatform philosophy.
All stations now use the format ABC Radio with the region. There are sixty ABC Local Radio stations, including 51 regional stations and 9 metropolitan stations; the metropolitan stations are: ABC Radio Sydney ABC Radio Melbourne ABC Radio Brisbane ABC Radio Adelaide ABC Radio Perth ABC Radio Hobart ABC Radio Canberra ABC Radio Darwin The regional stations are: 999 ABC Broken Hill 92.5 ABC Central Coast ABC Central West ABC Coffs Coast 97.3 ABC Illawarra ABC Mid North Coast ABC New England North West 1233 ABC Newcastle ABC North Coast ABC Riverina ABC South East NSW ABC Upper Hunter ABC Western Plains 107.9 ABC Ballarat ABC Central Victoria ABC Gippsland ABC Goulburn Murray ABC Mildura Swan Hill 97.7 ABC Shepparton ABC South West Victoria ABC Western Victoria ABC Northern Tasmania ABC Capricornia 91.7 ABC Gold Coast ABC Far North ABC North Queensland ABC North West Queensland ABC Southern Queensland 90.3 ABC Sunshine Coast ABC Tropical North ABC Western Queensland ABC Wide Bay ABC North and West SA ABC Riverland ABC South East SA ABC West Coast SA ABC Goldfields-Esperance ABC Great Southern ABC Kimberley ABC Midwest & Wheatbelt ABC North West WA ABC South Coast ABC South West WA 783 ABC Alice Springs 106.1 ABC Katherine The metropolitan and regional stations originate most of their own programming.
Until 2015, the regional stations simulcast one of the metropolitan stations when they weren't airing local programming. They simulcast their state's capital city station. In 2015, the ABC formed a Regional Division to again split its regional stations from the metropolitan counterparts. 1233 ABC Newcastle was transferred from the metropolitan network to the new regional division and 14 of the regional network's member stations began streaming. It was announced from 2016 that the regional Local Radio stations would broadcast live each weekday and Saturday morning in a restructure of services, as well as a local Country Hour program at midday and afternoon drive time. During the mid-afternoon and evening, the regional stations will act as satellites of the nearest metropolitan station the capital city station. Despite the loss of 100 websites from the ABC, the Regional network introduced local news websites for its 48 stations containing a mix of news and lifestyle content for regional audiences.
Radio National Radio Australia Timeline of Australian radio ABC Local Radio Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Beerwah is a rural town and a locality in the hinterland of the Sunshine Coast Region, Australia. It is situated north of Glass House Mountains 80 kilometres north of Brisbane, just south of Landsborough; the main road through Beerwah is called Steve Irwin Way. It was known as the Glasshouse Mountain Tourist Route and is accessed by the Bruce Highway, which bypassed the town in 1985. Beerwah is administered by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council; the name Beerwah comes from the Kabi language word birrawaman, with birra meaning sky and wandum meaning climbing up. Beerwah Post Office opened by August 1907; the Coochin Creek Provisional School opened in November 1888, becoming Coochin Creek State School on 1 January 1909. In about November 1928, it was renamed Beerwah State School. On 10 July 1952, another Coochin Creek State School opened, but it closed on 11 March 1962. Beerwah State High School opened on 1 January 1992; the Beerwah Library opened in 2000. Beerwah is a growing hinterland town. Transport links to Brisbane and northbound destinations at Beerwah railway station on the Nambour and Gympie North railway line.
A small bypass was constructed south of the town, including an overpass of the railway, a large roundabout at Roberts Road, traffic signals at Kilcoy-Beerwah Road and Steve Irwin Way. This work opened to traffic in October 2009; as part of that project, the original level crossing was closed and demolished, causing concern among local residents who claimed it sliced the town in two. In 2010, many residents began to complain about the lack of signage to the town center; the town entrance now features two distinctive large directional signs, one at the Steve Irwin Way entrance, one at the roundabout after travelling over the railway bridge. Australia Zoo is located in Beerwah; the zoo was founded by Bob Irwin and made famous by his son, Steve Irwin. It is a major tourist attraction and is visited daily by large numbers of local and international tourists. Another attraction, the Glass House mountain range, is located nearby; the largest mountain in the range, at 555m, is Mount Beerwah. Access to the Mount Beerwah summit route has been closed since 2008 due to the erosion and destabilization of some walking tracks, leading to a high risk of rock fall.
The Big Mower, one of Australia's big things, is located in Beerwah. Beerwah has three schools: Beerwah State School, Beerwah State High School, Glasshouse Christian College, a private college; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates a public library at 25 Peachester Road. There are a range of national supermarkets, specialty shops, a retirement village; the Beerwah branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 39 Simpson Street. In the 2016 census, Beerwah recorded a population of 6,769 people, 48 % male; the median age was 39 years, compared to the national median age of 38. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 2.8% of the population. 77.2% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 5.1% and New Zealand 4.8%. 90.8% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion in Beerwah were No Religion 32.8%, Anglican 17.2% and Catholic 14.4%. Lawrence Daws Steve Irwin Terri Irwin Bindi Irwin Robert Irwin Beerwah: Queensland Places Beerwah cemetery
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was