Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.
The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.
The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. Infrastructure is composed of public and private physical improvements such as roads, tunnels, water supply, electrical grids, telecommunications. In general, it has been defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions". There are two general types of ways to view infrastructure, soft. Hard infrastructure refers to the physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industry; this includes roads, railways, etc. Soft infrastructure refers to all the institutions that maintain the economic, health and cultural standards of a country; this includes educational programs, official statistics and recreational facilities, law enforcement agencies, emergency services. The word infrastructure has been used in English since 1887 and in French since 1875 meaning "The installations that form the basis for any operation or system".
The word was imported from French, where it means subgrade, the native material underneath a constructed pavement or railway. The word is a combination of the Latin prefix "infra", meaning "below" and many of these constructions are underground, for example, tunnels and gas systems, railways; the army use of the term achieved currency in the United States after the formation of NATO in the 1940s, by 1970 was adopted by urban planners in its modern civilian sense. A 1987 US National Research Council panel adopted the term "public works infrastructure", referring to: "... both specific functional modes – highways, streets and bridges. A comprehension of infrastructure spans not only these public works facilities, but the operating procedures, management practices, development policies that interact together with societal demand and the physical world to facilitate the transport of people and goods, provision of water for drinking and a variety of other uses, safe disposal of society's waste products, provision of energy where it is needed, transmission of information within and between communities."
The American Society of Civil Engineers publish a "Infrastructure Report Card" which represents the organizations opinion on the condition of various infrastructure every 2–4 years. As of 2017 they grade 16 categories, namely Aviation, Dams, Drinking Water, Hazardous Waste, Inland Waterways, Parks & Recreation, Rail, Schools, Solid Waste and Wastewater. A way to embody personal infrastructure is to think of it in term of human capital. Human capital is defined by the Encyclopedia Britannica as “intangible collective resources possessed by individuals and groups within a given population"; the goal of personal infrastructure is to determine the quality of the economic agents’ values. This results in three major tasks: the task of economic proxies’ in the economic process. Institutional infrastructure branches from the term "economic constitution". According to Gianpiero Torrisi, Institutional infrastructure is the object of economic and legal policy, it compromises the grown and sets norms. It refers to the degree of actual equal treatment of equal economic data and determines the framework within which economic agents may formulate their own economic plans and carry them out in co-operation with others.
Material infrastructure is defined as “those immobile, non-circulating capital goods that contribute to the production of infrastructure goods and services needed to satisfy basic physical and social requirements of economic agents". There are two distinct qualities of material infrastructures: 1) Fulfillment of social needs and 2) Mass production; the first characteristic deals with the basic needs of human life. The second characteristic is the non-availability of infrastructure services. According to the business dictionary, economic infrastructure can be defined as "internal facilities of a country that make business activity possible, such as communication and distribution networks, financial institutions and markets, energy supply systems". Economic infrastructure support productive events; this includes roads, bridges, water distribution networks, sewer systems, irrigation plants, etc. Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services.
Social infrastructures are created to increase social act on economic activity. These being schools and playgrounds, structures for public safety, waste disposal plants, sports area, etc. Core assets have monopolistic characteristics. Investors seeking core infrastructure look for five different characteristics: Income, Low volatility of returns, Inflation Protection, Long-term liability matching. Core Infrastructure incorporates all the main types of infrastructure. For instance. Basic infrastructure refers to main railways, canals, harbors and
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia is an opera house and cultural centre in Valencia, Spain. It opened on 8 October 2005. Tenor and conductor Plácido Domingo has maintained a special relationship with the Palau since its founding and has established a young singers training program there. From its inception until early 2015, administration of the company was under the leadership of Helga Schmidt of London's Royal Opera House. Schmidt attracted some major artists to be involved with the Palau. Among them is Zubin Mehta, who leads an annual music and opera festival, the Festival del Mediterráneo, which began in 2007, he has appeared with the company every season since its creation. The resident orchestra at the Queen Sofía Palace of the Arts is the Valencian Community Orchestra; the theatre's first season was dated, 2006-2007. During the first and second seasons the theatre staged seven or eight operas per season, as well as an operetta, a zarzuela, vocal recitals. During the 2008-2009 season theatre staged seven operas and one zarzuela, in performances that conducted by Lorin Maazel.
Soloists included Plácido Domingo, Christopher Ventris, Vittorio Grigolo, Maria Guleghina, Cristina Gallardo-Domâs. The 2008-2009 Festival del Mediterrani included the complete Der Ring des Nibelungen cycle conducted by Zubin Mehta, again with Plácido Domingo; the Queen Sofía company promotes symphonic concerts, opera galas, vocal recitals. The company hosts the Centre de Perfeccionament Plácido Domingo, an advanced training program of international draw for young opera artists, named in honor of Plácido Domingo; the program is run under the famous tenor's aegis. Queen Sofía Palace of the Arts is the final structure built of a grand City of Arts and Sciences concept designed by the Valencia-born and internationally known architect Santiago Calatrava, which began in 1995; the building was constructed by a joint venture of Dragados and Necso and it was opened on 8 October 2005. The building includes three stories below ground, its height is 75 metres. Under the metallic, expansive curved-roof structure, 230 m in length, the 40,000 m2 building contains four auditoriums: The Sala Principal seats 1,470 people and functions for opera, but it may be converted for dance and other performing arts.
The hall has four tiers of seating, one of the largest stages in the world equipped with all major facilities, the third largest orchestra pit in the world, being capable of housing 120 musicians. The stage has room to build two complete opera settings which makes it possible to play two different operas in two days; the building suffered a number of incidents after its opening. The first of these was the collapse of the main stage platform while it was bearing the complete set of Jonathan Miller's production of Don Giovanni in December 2006; that forced the Palau to cancel the last performance of La Bohème and all of La Belle et la Bête, meant that the management had to reschedule the remainder of the inaugural opera season. In November 2007, the entire cultural complex suffered a series of floods; the re-built stage platform was paralysed once again because 2 m of water entered the lower floors of the building and wrecked the electronics and the motors of the complex stage equipment, forcing the management to re-schedule the season again, delaying the premiere of Carmen and canceling the opera 1984.
The Auditorium is located above the Main Hall. It seats 1,420 people and its facilities include sound and video systems capable of projecting displays of events taking place in venues below it. Given to the managing trust during the 2007–2008 season, it is a spectacular venue with multiple uses, from classical music concerts to political rallies. Aula Magistral is capable of seating 400 people and is used for chamber music performances and conferences. Martí i Soler Theatre was constructed below seats 400 people, it is used as a training centre for the main auditoria. This hall suffered vast damage during the 2007 flooding and its opening was delayed. No equipment had been installed before the flooding, however, so the estimated cost for reconstruction was much lower than it would have been shortly thereafter. On 21 January 2015, Spanish police arrested the company's general director, Helga Schmidt, for alleged financial irregularities at the house, she was relieved of her duties with the company on the same day.
Davide Livermore has since assumed Schmidt role as general director. In March 2015, the company appointed Fabio Biondi as joint music directors. Valencia City of Arts and Sciences Auditorio de Tenerife Spanish architecture Official website The Palau section from City of Arts and Science website City of Arts and Sciences website
S. A. or Société anonyme designates a type of corporation in countries that employ civil law. Depending on language, it means anonymous company, anonymous partnership, share company, or joint-stock company equivalent to public limited company in common law jurisdictions, it is different from private limited companies. Shareholders could be anonymous and collect dividends by surrendering coupons attached to their share certificates. Dividends were therefore paid to. Share certificates could be transferred and therefore the management of the company would not know who owned its shares. Like bearer bonds, illegal unregistered share ownership and dividend collection enabled money laundering, tax evasion, concealed business transactions in general, so governments passed laws to audit the practice. Nowadays, shareholders of S. A.s are not anonymous, though shares can still be held by holding companies in order to obscure the beneficiary. S. A. can be an abbreviation of: Sociedade Anónima in Galician and European Portuguese Sociedá Anónima in Asturian and Leonese Sociedade Anônima in Brazilian Portuguese Societat Anònima in Catalan Société anonyme in French Società Anonima in Italian Sociedad Anónima or Sociedad por Acciones in Spanish Mexican law takes into account the variability of the corporate stock, resulting in most S.
A. turning into Sociedad Anónima de Capital Variable, or Sociedad Anónima Bursátil de Capital Variable for publicly traded companies. Mexico has Sociedad de Responsabilidad Limitada de Capital Variable, analogous to the limited liability company. Spółka Akcyjna in Polish Societate pe Acțiuni in RomanianIt is equivalent in literal meaning and function to: Naamloze vennootschap in Dutch Ανώνυμη Εταιρεία, Anonymi Etaireia in Greek Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka in Indonesia Berhad in Malaysia Anonim Şirket in Turkish Corporación anónima in VenezuelaIt is equivalent in function to: Shoqëri Aksionare in Albanian شركة مساهة عامة ذات مسؤولية محدودة ش.ذ.م.م, Sharikah musāhamah ʿāmmah dhāt mas'ūliyyah maḥdūdah in Arabic Dioničko društvo in Croatian and Bosnian Акционерно дружество, Aktsionerno druzhestvo in Bulgarian Акционерско друштво, Aktsionersko drushtvo in Macedonian Akciová společnost in Czech Aktieselskab in Danish Société anonyme égyptienne or (شركة مساهمة مصرية (ش.م.م in Egypt Osakeyhtiö in Finnish Aktsiaselts in Estonian Aktiengesellschaft in German Részvénytársaság in Hungarian Hlutafélag in Icelandic Public Limited in India Public limited company in the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth countries Kabushiki Gaisha or 株式会社 in Japan Jusighoesa or 주식회사 in Korea Société anonyme laotienne in Laos Akcinė bendrovė in Lithuanian Akciju Sabiedrība in Latvian Aksjeselskap in Norwegian Акционерное общество, Aktsionernoye obshchestvo in Russian Деоничарско друштво, Deoničarsko društvo, or Акционарско друштво, Akcionarsko društvo in Serbian Akciová spoločnosť in Slovak Delniška družba in Slovene Aktiebolag in Swedish Акціонерне товариство, Aktsionerne tovarystvo in Ukrainian Publicly traded company or Incorporated in the United States, though the former term does not appear in the names of business entities Compañía Anónima in Andorra ក.អ or Société anonyme cambodgienne in Cambodia Président-directeur général Global Witness on Anonymous Companies
Iberdrola is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country. Iberdrola has a workforce of around 31,330 employees in dozens of countries on four continents serving around 31.67 million customers. Subsidiaries include Scottish Power and Elektro Holding, amongst others; the largest shareholder of the company was, in 2013, Qatar Investment Holding. Since embarking on its growth and international expansion plan in 2001, Iberdrola has become Spain's largest energy group by market capitalisation, the global leader in wind energy and one of the world's largest utilities by market capitalisation; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Iberdrola was created on November 1, 1992 as a result of the merge between Hidroeléctrica Española and Iberduero. Hidroeléctrica Española known as Hidrola had started activity in 1907, while Iberduero started in 1944 as the result of the merge between Hidroeléctrica Ibérica and Saltos del Duero; the origin of Iberdrola lies in the Spanish industrialisation in the early 20th century, when Hidroeléctrica Ibérica was formed.
As of 2011 and with the integration of Scottish Power and Energy East, now renamed Iberdrola USA, the company has become a major multinational group. In 1840, a group of American entrepreneurs created the Hartford City Light Company, setting in motion the incorporation on the eastern seaboard of the US of Energy East, which would much become Iberdrola USA. Meanwhile, thousands of kilometres away in Spain, a similar process was underway. In 1901 in Bilbao, a group of entrepreneurs headed by engineer Juan de Urrutia established Hidroeléctrica Ibérica. In 1907, Hidroeléctrica Ibérica shareholders created Hidroeléctrica Española to supply Madrid and Valencia. A decade Saltos del Duero was founded, opening the country's first hydroelectric facility in 1935, the Ricobayo power plant. World War I forced the industry to seek new sources of energy and to install large distribution networks. Amid huge instability, US power companies began to join forces, attempting to become strong enough to withstand the economic and financial uncertainty.
However, no one foresaw the magnitude of the stock market crash of 1929, which brought these emerging groups to the verge of ruin. In Spain, which had experienced a period of economic growth at the start of the 20th century, the industry suffered a severe setback in 1936 whose impact would be felt for the following two decades: the Civil War abruptly halted development, destroyed facilities and made maintaining the little equipment that remained difficult. Spain suffered international isolation in the 1940s and experienced extreme difficulty in acquiring technology and materials, prices of which were soaring, it was against this backdrop that Hidroeléctrica Ibérica and Saltos del Duero joined forces to form Iberduero. In 1955, the South of Scotland Electricity Board came into being, paving the way for the creation of Scottish Power four decades in 1990. Two years after that, Hidroeléctrica Española and Iberduero teamed up. In the latter part of the 20th century, Iberdrola began expanding into Latin America Mexico and Brazil.
With ScottishPower and Iberdrola formed in Europe, in 1998 Energy East Corporation came into being in the US following New York State Electric & Gas's acquisition of Central Maine Power, Southern Connecticut Gas Company, Connecticut Natural Gas Company, Berkshire Gas Company and RGS Energy Group. Following the arrival of Jose Ignacio Sanchez Galan in 2001 Iberdrola began focusing on renewable energy. In 2007, the company continued its international expansion, increasing its presence in the UK and the US via the integration of Scottish Power and Energy East. Iberdrola has faced several merger attempts and made additional acquisitions: Attempted merger between Iberdrola and Repsol in 1997, which failed due to a lack of agreement between the companies. Attempted merger between Iberdrola and Repsol in 1999, rejected by La Caixa. Attempted merger between Iberdrola and Endesa in 2000, stopped due the conditions imposed by Spanish Prime Minister José María Aznar. Attempted hostile takeover bid by Gas Natural for Iberdrola in 2003, vetoed by Spain's National Energy Commission.
Acquisition of Scottish Power by Iberdrola in November 2006, which led to the integration of this company in April 2007. This gave rise to Europe's third largest utility. Acquisition of US company Energy East by Iberdrola in 2008. Acquisition of Brazilian company Elektro in 2011. Acquisition of US company United Illuminating in 2015. Hidrola chairmenLucas de Urquijo Urrutia José Luis de Oriol y Urigüen Fernando María de Ybarra José María de Oriol y Urquijo Íñigo de Oriol Ybarra Iberduero chairmenPedro de Careaga and Baseabe, Conde de Cadagua Pedro de Areitio Manuel Gómez de Pablos Iberdrola chairmenIñigo de Oriol Ybarra Jose Ignacio Sanchez Galan Iberdrola's liberalised business combines power generation, gas and electricity supply; the company had assets with combined installed capacity of 46.471 MW at the end of 2015. Iberdrola manages its production assets, comprising hydroelectric, combined-cycle gas, nuclear and co-generation plants located in 40 countries in Europe, North America and Latin America.
Output in Spain: 58,076 GWh in 2013, of which 14,795 GWh were produced at hydroelectric plants. As a result, 79% of Iberdrola's production in Spain was CO2 emissio
Unión Fenosa, S. A. was, until its acquisition by Gas Natural, a large Spanish company dedicated to the production and distribution to end users of gas and electricity. It installed capacity of 8.9 million customers. The headquarters were in Madrid and the chairman was Pedro López Jiménez. A constituent of the IBEX 35 index, the company is a part of the Gas Natural group; the company was founded in 1912 as Unión Eléctrica Madrileña and it traded under that name until 1970 when the name was changed to Unión Eléctrica. In 1982 it merged with Fuerza Eléctrica de Noroeste, S. A. to form Unión Eléctrica Fenosa. In 2000 the name was shortened to Unión Fenosa. In 2008 the company was acquired by Gas Natural; the company had the following businesses: Domestic generation and marketing Domestic distribution Gas International electrical business Other interests Indra Prior to 2008 around 45% of the shares were owned by Grupo ACS. In July 2008, Gas Natural agreed to buy Grupo ACS's stake worth €7.6 billion. Unión Fenosa website—.:Union Fenosa Investing in India" "Union Fenosa´s ongoing dispute in Guatemala"
The IBEX 35 is the benchmark stock market index of the Bolsa de Madrid, Spain's principal stock exchange. Initiated in 1992, the index is administered and calculated by Sociedad de Bolsas, a subsidiary of Bolsas y Mercados Españoles, the company which runs Spain's securities markets, it is a market capitalization weighted index comprising the 35 most liquid Spanish stocks traded in the Madrid Stock Exchange General Index and is reviewed twice annually. Trading on options and futures contracts on the IBEX 35 is provided by MEFF, another subsidiary of BME. Highest close 8 November 2007 15,945.70 Highest intraday 9 November 2007 16,040.40 The IBEX 35 was inaugurated on January 14, 1992, although there are calculated values for the index back to December 29, 1989, where the base value of 3,000 points lies. Between 2000 and 2007, the index outperformed many of its Western peers, driven by strong domestic economic growth which helped construction and real estate stocks. While the record highs to date of the FTSE 100, CAC 40 and AEX, for example, were set during the dot-com bubble in 1999 and 2000, the IBEX 35's all-time maximum of 15,945.70 was reached on November 8, 2007.
The week of the January 2008 stock market downturn was characterised by extreme volatility in the markets, saw both the biggest one day percentage fall and rise in the IBEX 35's history. The index closed 7.5% down on January 21, 2008, the second biggest fall in the Spanish equity market since 1987, rose a record 6.95% three days later. The composition of the IBEX 35 is reviewed twice per year by the so-called Technical Advisory Committee, which consists of "representatives of the stock exchanges and derivatives markets, as well as... renowned experts from the academic and financial fields". If any changes are made, they come into effect the following trading day after the third Friday of the rebalance month In general, at each review, the 35 companies with the highest trading volume in Euros over the previous six months are chosen for inclusion in the index, provided that the average free float market cap of the stock is at least 0.3% of the total market cap of the index. Any candidate stock must have either been traded on at least a third of all trading days in the previous six months, or rank in the top twenty overall in market cap.
The IBEX 35 is a capitalization-weighted index. The market cap used to calculate the weighting of each constituent is multiplied by a free float factor depending on the fraction of shares not subject to block ownership. Any company with 50% or more of its shares considered free float is given a free float factor of 1. Unlike many other European benchmark indices, the weightings of companies in the IBEX 35 are not capped; as of 2015, international funds based abroad owned 43% of the index, vs. 16% in 1992. Such rate of foreign investment was about 5% above the EU average; the index value of the IBEX 35 index is calculated using the following formula: I = I × ∑ i = 1 35 C a p i with t the moment of calculation. The formula can be adjusted to accommodate changes in index structure, such as the temporary suspension of companies pending news; as of March 21, 2019, the following 35 companies make up the index: Economy of Spain ^IBEX: Summary for IBEX 35- Yahoo! Finance Official IBEX 35 website Bloomberg page for IBEX:IND IBEX 35 composition and prices from the Bolsa de Madrid IBEX 35 profile via Wikinvest Reuters page for.