The AEC Routemaster is a front-engined double-decker bus, designed by London Transport and built by the Associated Equipment Company and Park Royal Vehicles. The first prototype was completed in September 1954 and the last one was delivered in 1968; the layout of the vehicle was conventional for the time, with a half-cab, front-mounted engine and open rear platform, although the coach version was fitted with rear platform doors. Forward entrance vehicles with platform doors were produced as was a unique front-entrance prototype with the engine mounted transversely at the rear; the first Routemasters entered service with London Transport in February 1956 and the last were withdrawn from regular service in December 2005, although one heritage route is still operated by Routemasters in central London. The first London bus route to be operated by the Routemaster was route 2, on 8 February 1956, with RM1; the same bus, with a revised front end, appeared at the Lord Mayor's Show in November 1956. Most Routemasters were built for London Transport, although small numbers were built for British European Airways and the Northern General Transport Company.
A total of 2,876 Routemasters were built. A pioneering design, the Routemaster outlasted several of its replacement types in London, survived the privatisation of the former London Transport bus operators and was used by other operators around the UK. In modern UK public transport bus operation, the old-fashioned features of the standard Routemaster were both praised and criticised; the open platform, while exposed to the elements, allowed boarding and alighting in places other than official stops. Despite the retirement of the original version, the Routemaster has retained iconic status, is considered a British cultural icon. In 2006, the Routemaster was voted one of Britain's top 10 design icons which included Concorde, Supermarine Spitfire, London tube map, World Wide Web and the K2 telephone box. In the late 2000s, work began on a New Routemaster bus inspired by the Routemaster's traditional design, it entered service in February 2012. The Routemaster was developed between 1947 and 1956 by a team directed by AAM Durrant and Colin Curtis, with vehicle styling by Douglas Scott.
The design brief was to produce a vehicle, lighter, easier to operate and that could be maintained by the existing maintenance practices at the opened Aldenham Works, but with easier and lower-cost servicing procedures. The resulting vehicle seated 64 passengers, despite being three-quarters of a ton lighter than buses in the RT family, which seated 56; the first task on delivery to service was to replace London's trolleybuses, which had themselves replaced trams, to begin to replace the older types of diesel bus. The Routemaster was designed by London Transport and constructed at Park Royal Vehicles, with the running units provided by its sister company AEC. Both companies were owned by Associated Commercial Vehicles, taken over by Leyland Motors in 1962, it was an innovative design and used lightweight aluminium along with techniques developed in aircraft production during World War II. As well as a novel, weight-saving integral design, it introduced for the first time on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a automatic gearbox and power-hydraulic braking.
This surprised some early drivers, who found the chassis unexpectedly light and nimble compared with older designs as depicted on film on tests at the Chiswick Works skid pan. Footage of RM200 undergoing the skid test at Chiswick was included in the 1971 film On the Buses; the Routemaster was a departure from the traditional chassis/body construction method. It was one of the first "integral" buses, with a combination of an "A" steel sub-frame and a rear "B" steel sub-frame, connected by an aluminium body; the gearbox was mounted on the underside of the body structure with shafts to the engine and back axle. Pre-war London trolleybuses, had adopted chassisless construction; as part of the Transported by Design programme of activities, on 15 October 2015, after two months of public voting, the original Routemaster bus was elected by Londoners as one of the 10 favourite transport design icons. London Transport placed four prototype Routemasters in service between 1956 and 1958; the first two were built at the London Transport works at Chiswick, the third by Weymann at Addlestone and the fourth, an experimental Green Line coach, at Eastern Coach Works at Lowestoft.
The third and fourth had mechanical units. The Routemaster was first exhibited at the Earl's Court Commercial Motor Show in 1954. In 1961, 24 longer RMLs were built as a test, going into production from 1965. In 1962, the front entrance RMF concept was tried, with RMF1254 based on the trial RMLs; this toured, leading to the production of a small number of RMF and RMA buses. In 1964, just before commencement of mainstream production of the RML, the final front-engined Routemasters, AEC started work on a front-entrance, rear-engined prototype, FRM1. Completed in 1966, it saw regular London service on London Coaches tour operations, before being withdrawn in 1983, it was nicknamed the Fruitmaster. Production of mechanical components was undertaken chiefly at AEC's Southall site with body construction and final assembly at Park Royal Vehicles. Although regulations permitted 2-axle double deck buses up to 30 feet in length by t
A horreum was a type of public warehouse used during the ancient Roman period. Although the Latin term is used to refer to granaries, Roman horrea were used to store many other types of consumables. By the end of the imperial period, the city of Rome had nearly 300 horrea to supply its demands; the biggest were enormous by modern standards. The amount of storage space available in the public horrea can be judged by the fact that when the emperor Septimius Severus died in 211 AD, he is said to have left the city's horrea stocked with enough food to supply Rome's million-strong population for seven years. Smaller horrea were a standard feature of Roman towns and forts throughout the empire; the first horrea were built in Rome towards the end of the 2nd century BC, with the first known public horreum being constructed by the ill-fated tribune Gaius Gracchus in 123 BC. The word came to be applied any place designated for the preservation of goods; some public horrea functioned somewhat like banks, where valuables could be stored, but the most important class of horrea were those where foodstuffs such as grain and olive oil were stored and distributed by the state.
Rome's insatiable demands for foodstuffs meant that the amount of goods that passed through some of the city's horrea was immense by modern standards. The artificial hill of Monte Testaccio in Rome, which stands behind the site of the Horrea Galbae, is estimated to contain the remains of at least 53 million olive oil amphorae in which some 6 billion litres of oil were imported; the horrea of Rome and its port, stood two or more stories high. They were built with ramps, rather than staircases. Grain horrea had their ground floor raised on pillars to reduce the likelihood of damp getting in and spoiling the goods. Many horrea appear to have served as great trading areas with rows of small shops off a central courtyard. Others, such as those in Ostia, dispensed with the courtyard and instead had rows of tabernae standing back-to-back. In the Middle East, horrea took a different design with a single row of deep tabernae, all opening onto the same side. Unsurprisingly and fire protection were major concerns.
Horrea were built with thick walls to reduce the danger of fire, the windows were always narrow and placed high up on the wall to deter theft. Doors were protected with elaborate systems of bolts; the largest horrea only had two or three external doors, which were quite narrow and would not have permitted the entrance of carts. The arduous task of moving goods into, out of and around horrea was most carried out by manual labour alone. Roman horrea were individually named, some having names indicating the commodities they stored, such as wax and pepper. Others were named after emperors or other individuals connected with the imperial family, such as the aforementioned Horrea Galbae, which were named after the 1st century AD emperor Galba. A well-preserved horreum in Ostia, the Horrea Epagathiana et Epaphroditiana, is known from an inscription to have been named after two freedmen and Epaphroditus. RICKMAN, G.: Roman Granaries and store buildings. Cambridge. SALIDO DOMINGUEZ, J.: Horrea Militaria.
El aprovisionamiento de grano al ejército en el occidente del Imperio romano, Anejos de Gladius 14, Madrid. SALIDO DOMINGUEZ, J.: “Los graneros militares romanos de Hispania”. En MORILLO, A. HANEL, N. & MARTÍN, E.: Limes XX. Estudios sobre la Frontera Romana. Anejos de Gladius 13. Volumen 2. Madrid, 679-692. I. S. B. N. 978-84-00-08856-9. SALIDO DOMINGUEZ, J.: “La investigación sobre los horrea de época romana: balance historiográfico y perspectivas de futuro”. CUPAUAM 34, 105-124. I. S. B. N. 978-84-00-08856-9 http://www.uam.es/otros/cupauam/pdf/Cupauam34/3405.pdf SALIDO DOMINGUEZ, J.: “Los sistemas de almacenamiento y conservación de grano en las villae hispanorromanas”. En FERNÁNDEZ OCHOA, C. GARCÍA-ENTERO, V. & GIL SENDINO, F.: Las villae tardorromanas en el Occidente del Imperio. Arquitectura y función. IV Coloquio Internacional de Arqueología de Gijón. 26, 27 y 28 de Octubre de 2006, Gijón, 693-706. I. S. B. N.: 978-84-9704-363-2. Regio I - Insula VIII - Horrea Epagathiana et Epaphroditiana - plans and images of an excavated horreum at Ostia Antica
For the American poet and translator, see Geoffrey Brock. Geoffrey Graeme Brock is a South Australian politician, representing the seat of Frome in the South Australian House of Assembly as an independent since the 2009 Frome by-election. Following the 2014 election Brock was Minister for Regional Development and Minister for Local Government in the Weatherill Labor cabinet until it was defeated at the 2018 election. Brock had worked in Port Pirie's lead smelter, acquired by Nyrstar, since arriving in the town in 1976, he was first elected to the Port Pirie Regional Council in 1989, served on numerous community committees before being elected mayor in May 2003, defeating sitting mayor Ken Madigan by 3,297 votes to 2,173. He retired from Nyrstar in September 2007, he and his second wife Lyn have 12 grandchildren between them. Brock had a shock win at the 2009 Frome state by-election, defeating the Liberal candidate Terry Boylan, he had a high local profile prior to the election, having served for six years as council mayor.
Independent Senator Nick Xenophon campaigned for Brock. On 23.6 percent of the primary vote and 51.7 percent of the two-candidate-preferred vote, Brock's election depended on preferences from Labor, Nationals SA, the SA Greens, the former two having placed him second on their how-to-vote card. His own how-to-vote card saw him preference the Nationals, Liberal and One Nation, in that order; the by-election was contested, with the result being uncertain for over a week. Initial reports suggested a slight swing to the Liberal candidate Terry Boylan on the two-party-preferred count against Labor, with Brock close behind Labor. By 21 January 2009, both the ABC's Antony Green and the state electoral office were indicating a 2-point swing against the Liberals toward Labor on 51.4 percent, but not enough to lose the seat. Liberal leader Martin Hamilton-Smith claimed victory on behalf of the party. However, the result hinged on the performance of Brock against Labor in the competition for second place.
Brock won the primary vote in the Port Pirie area and picked up enough National and Green preferences to overtake the Labor candidate for second place by 30 votes. He picked up enough Labor preferences to take the seat off the Liberals on a two-candidate-preferred vote of 51.7 percent, despite a slight improvement in the Liberal vote since the previous count. Brock increased his primary vote to 37.7 percent and two-candidate vote to 57.5 percent at the 2010 election. Labor won from the Liberals the two-party-preferred vote on 50.1 percent. Brock increased his primary vote to 45.2 percent and two-candidate vote to 58.8 percent at the 2014 election. The election resulted in a hung parliament with 23 Labor seats, 22 Liberal seats, two independents; the balance of power was held by crossbench independents Bob Such. Such did not indicate who he would support in a minority government before he was diagnosed and hospitalised with a brain tumour and took medical leave one week after the election. University of Adelaide Professor and Political Commentator Clem McIntyre said Such's situation guaranteed Brock would side with Labor.
With 24 seats required to govern, Brock backed Labor. McIntyre said: If Geoff Brock had gone with the Liberals the Parliament would have been tied 23 to 23, so once Bob Such became ill and stepped away Geoff Brock, I think had no choice but to side with Labor. Brock accepted the cabinet positions of Minister for Regional Development and Minister for State and Government Local Relations. Brock agreed to support the Labor government on confidence and supply while retaining the right to otherwise vote on conscience. Martin Hamilton-Smith resigned from the Liberals and joined the Labor cabinet two months after the election. Labor achieved majority government when Nat Cook won the 2014 Fisher by-election, triggered by the death of Such. Despite this, the Jay Weatherill Labor government kept Brock and Hamilton-Smith in cabinet, giving the government a 26 to 21 parliamentary majority. In the Weatherill Ministry, between 2014 and 2018 Brock has served as the minister with responsibilities for regional development and for local government.
Electoral results for the district of Frome GeoffBrock.com.au official website Parliament Profile The other side of Geoff Brock: A biography by'The Recorder' 26/2/2009 Frome MP Geoff Brock not aligned to any party: ABC Video 3/2/2009
Steven Dale Ittel is an American chemist specializing in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. Ittel attended Miami University in Oxford, where he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1968, he was commissioned as an officer in the United States Public Health Service and studied photochemical smog in the New York City metropolitan area from 1968 to 1970. He attended Northwestern University, where he received his PhD in chemistry under the direction of James A. Ibers in 1974. Ittel worked on hydride activation of lanthanides for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power at Monsanto's Mound Laboratories for a short time. Upon receiving his PhD from Northwestern, he joined DuPont’s Central Research Department at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware. Ittel is best known for his contributions to organometallic homogeneous catalysis, he discovered fluxional processes in both diamagnetic and paramagnetic π-allyl organometallic complexes bearing M-H-C agostic interactions. He was responsible for a series of C-H activation reactions based upon fleeting zero-valent iron complexes bearing bidentate phosphorus ligands.
While working on the air oxidation of cyclohexane to adipic acid he discovered a series of bisisoindoline complexes of cobalt to be effective catalysts for the decomposition of the intermediate cyclohexylhydroperoxide. He led and contributed to DuPont’s technology for cobalt-catalyzed chain transfer in acrylic radical polymerization; the resulting macromonomers are utilized commercially in a broad range of automotive finishes. As a manager at DuPont, he directed the work of 100 DuPont scientists over the years. One major effort was on DuPont Versipol post-metallocene catalysts for ethylene coordination polymerization and copolymerization. Late in his career, his research interests became more diverse, yet he never left his central focus of transition metal chemistry. Biopanning produced polypeptides that would selectively bind minerals such as clays and calcium carbonate to cellulose, skin and other surfaces, his contributions to nanotechnology and the electronics and displays industries include printing carbon nanotubes for plasma displays, spin printing and inkjet printing of nanomaterials, fluoro-resists for printing OLED displays.
Ittel coauthored the definitive textbook, Homogeneous Catalysis, with George Parshall, his work is recorded in over 150 citations in Chemical Abstracts. Ittel practices the art of bonsai, curates the bonsai collection at Longwood Gardens, has displayed trees at Longwood Gardens and the Brandywine River Museum, he contributes to Wikipedia and maintains a website on North American bonsai potters. Ittel's father was a superintendent of a rural school district and a YMCA camp director, so he spent the first 19 summers of his life at Camp Campbell Gard, he is married with two children. Ittels of the World
Jorge Manuel Rebelo Fernandes, known as Silas, is a Portuguese former footballer who played as a midfielder, a manager. He amassed Primeira Liga totals of 236 matches and 30 goals over nine seasons, representing in the competition União de Leiria, Marítimo and Belenenses, he played professionally in four other countries Spain and Cyprus. Silas was born in Lisbon. After making his professional debut with local Atlético Clube de Portugal he emigrated to Spain, representing lowly AD Ceuta who loaned him for one season to Elche CF in Segunda División. Silas first made his name at U. D. Leiria, with whom he achieved a couple of top six Primeira Liga finishes making the Taça de Portugal final in 2003. During the 2001–02 campaign he was managed by up-and-coming José Mourinho and, the following year, made his first appearance for the Portugal national team, in a 1–0 friendly win over Macedonia on 3 April 2003. Silas signed for newly promoted Premier League club Wolverhampton Wanderers in July 2003, for an initial fee of £1 million.
However, he endured a frustrating time in England, failing to settle in the country and establish himself in the squad. In the summer of 2004, Silas returned to his homeland and joined top division side C. S. Marítimo on a season-long loan; the following campaign, still not featuring in the Wolves manager's plans he was loaned out to another team in the country and tier, this time C. F. Os Belenenses. At the end of the season, having made 28 appearances with four goals, Silas decided to make his move permanent, joining on a free transfer as his contract at Wolverhampton had expired, he continued to be an undisputed starter from 2006 to 2009, after which he was released and returned to Leiria, freshly returned to the main division. From 2011 to 2014, Silas competed in the Cypriot First Division, representing AEL Limassol, AEP Paphos FC and Ethnikos Achna FC. In July 2014, after a 16-year absence, he returned to Atlético, now in the Segunda Liga. C. Farense players with a bribe to facilitate Atlético's win, but nothing was proven.
The season ended in relegation, but the team was spared at the expense of S. C. Beira-Mar who dropped down a division due to irregularities. On 8 July 2015, shortly before his 39th birthday, Silas signed a six-month deal with Indian Super League club NorthEast United FC, he made his debut on 6 October, playing the full 90 minutes in 1–3 loss at Kerala Blasters FC. On 11 November, a minute after coming on as a substitute for his compatriot Simão, he scored his first goal for the Guwahati-based team, the decisive one in a 2–1 victory away to Chennaiyin FC. Silas returned to his homeland on 12 February 2016, joining C. D. Cova da Piedade, he helped them to the third division title and a first promotion to the professional leagues, scoring the winning penalty in the final shootout against F. C. Vizela on 5 June 2016. Silas retired at the end of the season, at the age of 40. On 16 January 2018, he replaced Domingos Paciência as manager of former club Belenenses, his first game in charge occurred four days and he led his team to a 0–0 away draw against Marítimo.
Silas was dismissed from his position at the reorganised Belenenses SAD on 4 September 2019, after the team did not score in their first four games of the campaign. Late in the same month, he succeeded Leonel Pontes at the helm of Sporting CP on a contract running until June 2020. In one of his first matches on 17 October, the side lost 2–0 at F. C. Alverca in the third round of the Portuguese Cup. On 4 March 2020, Silas was relieved of his duties and replaced by S. C. Braga's Rúben Amorim; as of match played 3 March 2020 AEL Limassol Cypriot First Division: 2011–12Cova da Piedade Campeonato de Portugal: 2015–16 Silas at ForaDeJogo Silas at BDFutbol Silas at Soccerbase Silas at National-Football-Teams.com Silas at Soccerway
Cristóvão Lopes was a Portuguese painter. Cristóvão Lopes was the son and disciple of royal painter Gregório Lopes, who died in 1550. Cristóvão succeeded his father as the royal painter of King John III in 1551. Since no works are known by him before the death of his father, it is assumed that up to this time Cristóvão worked in his father's workshop. Few paintings are by his hand, since he did not sign his works. Cristóvão Lopes' painting style suggest that he may have worked with Dutch portrait painter Antonis Mor who had come to Portugal in the 1550s to paint the royal family. Cristóvão Lopes is the painter of an altarpiece for the Convent of Madre de Deus in Lisbon, in the high choir of the church, which carry portraits of the royal couple, John III and his wife Catherine of Austria. Other royal portraits attributed to him are now on display in the National Museum of Ancient Art, in Lisbon, he is the painter of an allegory of Mercy for the Misericórdia Church in Sesimbra. Since Lopes did not sign his works, many of these paintings are only attributed to him.
Many were copies of the works such as of Antonis Mor. Portrait Queen Catherine of Austria, wife of King John III of Portugal - Oil on wood, 65.0 x 50.5 cm, Museu de S. Roque, inv. 50. Portrait King John III of Portugal - Oil on wood, 65.0 x 50.5 cm, Museu de S. Roque, inv. 51. Portrait Queen Catherine of Austria with St. Catherine - Oil on wood, 198.2 x 150 cm, Convent of Madre de Deus, inv. PINT 1. Portrait King John III of Portugal with St. John the Baptist - Oil on wood, 199 x 147.3 cm, Convent of Madre de Deus, inv. PINT 2. Portrait Queen Catherine of Austria with St. Catherine - Oil on wood, 177.5 x 84 cm, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, inv. 968. Portrait King John III of Portugal with St. John the Baptist - Oil on wood, 177 x 91.5 cm, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, inv. 967. Allegory of Mercy, Igreja da Misericórdia, Sesimbra. Paintings by Cristóvão Lopes