South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Penalty shoot-out (association football)
A penalty shoot-out is a method of determining which team is awarded victory in an association football match that cannot end in a draw, when the score is tied after the regulation playing time as well as extra time have expired. In a penalty shoot-out, each team takes turns shooting at goal from the penalty mark, with the goal only defended by the opposing team's goalkeeper; each team has five shots. Shoot-outs finish as soon. If scores are level after five pairs of shots, the shootout progresses into additional "sudden-death" rounds. Balls kicked into the goal during a shoot-out do not count as goals for the individual kickers or the team, are tallied separately from the goals scored during normal play. Although the procedure for each individual kick in the shoot-out resembles that of a penalty kick, there are some differences. Most notably, neither the kicker nor any player other than the goalkeeper may play the ball again once it has been kicked; the penalty shoot-out is one of the three methods of breaking a draw that are approved by the Laws of the Game.
A shoot-out is used only after one or more of the other methods fail to produce a winner. The method of breaking a draw for a specific match is determined beforehand by the match organizing body. In most professional level competitions, two 15-minute extra time periods are played if the score is tied at the end of regulation time, a shoot-out is held if the score is still tied after the extra time periods. Although employed in football since the 1970s, penalty shoot-outs are disliked by many followers of the game, due to their perceived reliance on luck rather than skill and their dependence on individual duels between opposing players, arguably not in keeping with football as a team sport. Conversely, some believe the pressure and unpredictability involved makes it one of the most thrilling finales to any sport. During a shoot-out and players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the centre circle; the kicking team's goalkeeper stands at the intersection of the goal line and the line marking the penalty area near one of the assistant referees.
Goals scored during the shoot-out are not added to the goalscoring records of the players involved. A draw is a common result in football. Shoot-outs are only used in competitions that require a match-winner at the end of the game – this is predominantly in knockout "cup" ties, as opposed to round-robin "leagues". Extra time has been played first, but this is not necessary. Exceptionally, a shoot-out after a league or round-robin match may be provided for; this provision appears for occasions where opposing teams in a final-day match finish the group with identical records, which can result in an immediate shoot-out. This happened in Group A of the 2003 UEFA Women's Under-19 Championship; this rule is a recent innovation, for example did not apply in Group F of the 1990 World Cup, where the Republic of Ireland and the Netherlands were separated by drawing of lots after finishing their final-day match in a draw. Several leagues, such as the J. League, have experimented with penalty shoot-outs following a drawn league match, with the winner being awarded an extra point.
In the United States and Canada, Major League Soccer also had a shoot-out following the end of full-time during league matches, although these shoot-outs differed from standard penalty shoot-outs. A team that loses a penalty shoot-out is eliminated from the tournament but it does not count as a defeat, while the winning team in the shoot-out advances but does not get a match victory. For instance, the Netherlands are considered to have concluded the 2014 FIFA World Cup undefeated, despite being eliminated at the semi-final stage; the following is a summary of the procedure for kicks from the penalty mark. The procedure is specified in Law 10 of the IFAB's Laws of the Game document; the referee tosses a coin to decide the goal. The choice of goal by the coin toss winner may only be changed by the referee for safety reasons or if the goal or playing surface becomes unusable; the referee tosses the coin a second time to determine. All players other than the kicker and the goalkeepers must remain in the pitch's centre circle.
Each kick will be taken in the general manner of a penalty kick. Each kick will be taken from the penalty mark, 12 yards from the goal line and equidistant from each touch line, with the goal defended only by the opposing goalkeeper; the goalkeeper must remain between the goal posts on his goal line until the ball has been kicked, although he can jump in place, wave his arms, move side to side along the goal line or otherwise try to distract the shooter. Each team is responsible for selecting from the eligible players the order in which they will take the kicks; each kicker can kick the ball only once. Once kicked, the kicker may not play the ball again; the decision on a rekick is at the referee's discretion. No other player on either team, other than the designated kicker and goalkeeper
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Pohang Steelers is a South Korean professional football club based in Pohang, North Gyeongsang. They were called Pohang Steelworks, after the Pohang Iron and Steel Company that owned it; the club is one of Korean football's most successful sides. They are the most successful team in Asia with three AFC Champions League titles. Founded as a semi-professional football club, as the Pohang Steelworks Football Club in 1973, the club turned professional from the 1984 season and changed its name to Pohang Steelworks Dolphins. A further name changed occurred for the 1985 season, during which they were called the Pohang Steelworks Atoms. 1986 saw them win their first Championship, they enjoyed a great spell of domination in the league. The club achieved a Korean football'first' at the end of 1990 with the opening of their purpose-built 20,000 seater Steelyard Stadium. 1995 saw yet another name change. This name change was an attempt to further strengthen local ties with the region, in 1997 they adopted their current name, the Pohang Steelers.
The side scaled Asian football heights, winning the Asian Champions Cup in 1997 and 1998 to establish themselves as one of Asia's top teams. The club suffered something of a fall from grace in the 2000s, struggling near the foot of the table, but bounced back to the forefront of Korean football by winning the first stage of the 2004 K-League Championship; the club qualified for the final Championship match of the 2004 season, but lost 4–3 on penalties to Suwon Samsung Bluewings. In 2007, the club won the Championship play-off by beating Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma, who finished in 1st place in the regular season of the K-League. Pohang won the first leg play-off game at home 3–1, traveled to Seongnam for the second leg game, recording a 1–0 victory to seal a 4–1 aggregate triumph; the Steelers had ended the K-League season in 5th place, but defeated Daejeon Citizen, Suwon Samsung Bluewings and Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma in the play-offs to win the championship. Pohang again made the play-offs in the 2008 season by finishing the season 5th in the league, but were knocked out in their play-off game by Ulsan Hyundai in a penalty shoot-out.
However, the club fared much better in the Korean FA Cup. After defeating Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma in the quarter-final with a penalty shoot-out following a 1–1 draw after regular and extra time, Pohang knocked out Daegu FC in the semi-final, Gyeongnam FC in the final to ensure qualification for the 2009 AFC Champions League by virtue of winning the 2008 Korean FA Cup; the Steelers enjoyed a dream run in the Champions League, which saw the club defeat Umm-Salal of Qatar 2–1 to advance to their first AFC Champions League final. The Steelers defeated Saudi club Al-Ittihad 2–1 at the National Stadium in Tokyo, Japan to claim the title. For the 2009 K-League season, Pohang once again qualified for the play-off phase of the league by finishing the regular season in 2nd place, equal with FC Seoul on points, but ahead on goal difference; the Steelers lost to Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma. Nonetheless, their regular season placing saw them qualify for the 2010 AFC Champions League Group Stage. Following the conclusion of the 2009 K-League season, at the 2009 FIFA Club World Cup in December, the Steelers finished in third place after defeating Atlante 4–3 on penalties.
In 1994, Pohang Steelworks Atoms wore a green kit and a white kit with a multicolored sun in the center, in 1997 Pohang Steelers wore a white shirt with black shoulders stripes and black shorts, while in 2000 the first kit consisted of a sky blue shirt and white shorts, while the away kit was a black and red hooped shirt and black shorts. In 2002 the kit was red with a black V in the chest. K League 1Winners: 1986, 1988, 1992, 2007, 2013 Runners-up: 1985, 1987, 1995, 2004Korea Football League/National LeagueWinners: 1975 Spring, 1981 Fall, 1982, 1986 Fall, 1988 Fall Runners-up: 1977, 1989 Spring FA CupWinners: 1996, 2008, 2012, 2013 Runners-up: 2001, 2002, 2007League CupWinners: 1993, 2009 Runners-up: 1996, 1997sNational Football ChampionshipRunners-up: 1977, 1985President's CupWinners: 1974 Runners-up: 1989 AFC Champions LeagueWinners: 1996–97, 1997–98, 2009Asian Super CupRunners-up: 1997, 1998A3 Champions CupRunners-up: 2005 FIFA Club World CupThird place: 2009Afro-Asian Club ChampionshipRunners-up: 1997, 1998 Lunar New Year CupWinners: 2010King's CupRunners-up: 1987 Domestic doubleK League and FA Cup Champions: 2013Continental doubleChampions League and League Cup Champions: 2009 KeyTms.
= Number of teams Pos. = Position in league As of 20 March 2019Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Coaching staff Manager: Choi Soon-ho Assistant Manager: Kim Gi-dong 1st Team Coach: Hwang Ji-Soo Physical Coach: Irwin Goalkeeper Coach: Seo Dong-myung Trainer: Lee In-cheol, Park Joon-young Interpreter: Kong Wan-baeYouth Club Staff U-18 Manager: Yoon Hee-joon U-18 Coach: Baek Ki-tae U-15 Manager: Kim Dong-young U-15 Coach: U-12 Manager: Kim Sung-jin U-12 Coach: Oh Jin-kwang Goalkeeper Coach: Gjorgji Jovanovski Youth Academy Coach: Lee Young-hwan Youth Academy Coach: Na Yeong-chae Youth Academy Officer: Shin Joo-hyun As of end of season. Only K-League matches are counted. Italics denotes manager was there for interim period List of football clubs in South Korea Poh
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Police Tero F.C.
Police Tero Football Club known as BEC Tero Sasana is a Thai professional football club based in Bangkok. The club finished runners-up in the inaugural AFC Champions League competition in 2003. BEC Tero Sasana merged with Police United in the 2017 season and changed its official name to Police Tero Football Club in the 2018 season; the team was established in 1992. It was known as Sasana Witthaya School team and was founded by Mr. Worawi Makudi; the first football match the team entered was in Division 3 of the football royal cup in 1993. In 1994, the team played in Division 2 of the football royal cup. In 1995, the team played in Division 1 of the football royal cup and in 1996, the team entered the Thai League for the first time, it was during this year, that Mr. Worawi Makudi and Mr. Brian L. Marcar, managing director of BEC-TERO Entertainment Public Co. Ltd. joined hands and renamed the team as Tero Sasana Football Club. The team was placed in 12th position among 18 teams in the Thai League.
In 1997, Tero Sasana Football Club played in the Thai League and this time was placed in fifth place. In 1998, BEC-World Public Company Limited supported the Tero Sasana Football Club and changed the team's name to BEC Tero Sasana FC; the team won the third place. They were one of the eight final teams to enter the final round of the Thai FA Cup. In 1999, the team again won third place. In the same year, they were among the final teams in the Thai FA Cup.2000 was a eventful year for BEC Tero Sasana FC. The team won its first championship award by winning the Thai League, it received the championship award for the King's Cup. In 2001, BEC Tero Sasana FC was able to keep its championship and won the Thai Premier League for the second consecutive year; this increased the fan base. The club's success continued for a few years and culminated with finishing runner-up in the 2002–03 AFC Champions League. In 2012 the club appointed Robert Procureur, former general manager of Muangthong United, to be the new Director of Football.
He built up a great team by pushing up many young players such as Peerapat Notchaiya, Tanaboon Kesarat, Chanathip Songkrasin, Tristan Do, Chenrop Samphaodi, Jaturong Pimkoon and the fan called "Golden Generation", the important to help the team win the Thai League Cup Trophy in 2014, its first trophy in 12 years. In 2016 after the club was relegated, club president Brian L. Marcar sold the team to Inspire Entertainment related company to Siamsport the owner of Muangthong United. Mr. Robert Procureur quit and the superstar player as Peerapat Notchaiya, Tanaboon Kesarat, Chanathip Songkrasin, Tristan Do, Tristan Do joined Muangthong United. In 2017 the club takeover by Police Group merged Police United; the club name change was not recognized in 2017, so in 2018 the club will change the name to Police Tero Football Club due to AFC Club Licensing. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. For details on former players, see Category:BEC Tero Sasana F. C. players. Head coaches by years Thai League 1 Winners: 2000, 2001-02 Runners-up: 2002–03, 2003–04 FA Cup Runners-up: 2009League Cup Winners: 2014Kor Royal Cup Winners: 2000 Runners-up: 2002, 2004Queen's Cup Runners-up: 2009 AFC Champions League Runners-up: 2002–03 ASEAN Club Championship Runners-up: 2003 official fanpage