AIM-7 Sparrow

The AIM-7 Sparrow is an American, medium-range semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, as well as other various air forces and navies. Sparrow and its derivatives were the West's principal beyond visual range air-to-air missile from the late 1950s until the 1990s, it remains in service, although it is being phased out in aviation applications in favor of the more advanced AIM-120 AMRAAM. The early Sparrow was intended for use against larger targets and bombers, had numerous operational limitations in other uses. Against smaller targets, the need to receive a strong reflected radar signal made achieving lock-on at the missile's effective range difficult; as the launching aircraft's own radar needed to be pointed at the target throughout the engagement, this meant that in fighter-vs-fighter combat the enemy fighter would approach within the range of shorter-range infrared homing missiles while the launching aircraft had to continue flying towards its target.

Additionally, early models were only effective against targets at the same or higher altitudes, below which reflections from the ground became a problem. A number of upgraded Sparrow designs were developed to address these issues. In the early 1970s, the RAF developed a version with an inverse monopulse seeker and improved motor known as Skyflash, while the Italian Air Force introduced the similar Aspide. Both had the ability to be fired at targets below the launching fighter, were more resistant to countermeasures, much more accurate in the terminal phases; this basic concept was made part of the US Sparrows in the M model and some of these were updated as the P model, the last to be produced in the US. Aspides sold to China resulted in the locally produced PL10; the Japan Self-Defense Forces employ the Sparrow missile, though it is being phased out and replaced by the Mitsubishi AAM-4. The Sparrow was used as the basis for a surface-to-air missile, the RIM-7 Sea Sparrow, used by a number of navies for air defense of their ships.

Fired at low altitude and flying directly at its target through the lower atmosphere, the range of the missile in this role is reduced. With the retirement of the Sparrow in the air-to-air role, a new version of the Sea Sparrow was produced to address this concern, producing the much larger and more capable RIM-162 ESSM. NATO pilots use the brevity code Fox One in radio communication to signal launch of a Semi-Active Radar Homing Missile such as the Sparrow; the Sparrow emerged from a late-1940s United States Navy program to develop a guided rocket weapon for air-to-air use. In 1947 the Navy contracted Sperry to build a beam riding version of a standard 5-inch HVAR, the standard unguided aerial rocket, under Project Hotshot; the weapon was dubbed KAS-1 AAM-2, from 1948 on, AAM-N-2. The airframe was developed by Douglas Aircraft Company; the diameter of the HVAR proved to be inadequate for the electronics, leading Douglas to expand the missile's airframe to 8-inch diameter. The prototype weapon began unpowered flight-tests in 1947, made its first aerial interception in 1952.

After a protracted development cycle the initial AAM-N-2 Sparrow entered limited operational service in 1954 with specially modified Skyknights all weather carrier night fighters. In 1956, they were joined by the F3H-2M F7U Cutlass fighter aircraft. Compared to the modern versions, the Sparrow I was more streamlined and featured a bullet-shaped airframe with a long pointed nose. Sparrow I was a rather primitive weapon; the limitations of beam-riding guidance restricted the missile to attacks against targets flying a straight course and made it useless against a maneuvering target. Only about 2,000 rounds were produced to this standard; as early as 1950 Douglas examined equipping the Sparrow with an active radar seeker known as XAAM-N-2a Sparrow II, the original retroactively becoming Sparrow I. In 1952 it was given the new code AAM-N-3; the active radar made the Sparrow II a "fire and forget" weapon, allowing several to be fired at separate targets at the same time. By 1955 Douglas proposed going ahead with development, intending it to be the primary weapon for the F5D Skylancer interceptor.

It was selected, with some controversy, to be the primary weapon for the Canadian Avro Arrow supersonic interceptor, along with the new Astra fire-control system. For Canadian use and as a second source for US missiles, Canadair was selected to build the missiles in Quebec; the small size of the missile forebody and the K-band AN/APQ-64-radar limited performance, it was never able to work in testing. After considerable development and test firings in the U. S. and Canada, Douglas abandoned development in 1956. Canadair continued development until the Arrow was cancelled in 1959. A subvariant of the Sparrow I armed with the same nuclear warhead as the MB-1 Genie was proposed in 1958, but was cancelled shortly thereafter. Concurrently with the development of the Sparrow I, in 1951, Raytheon began work on the semi-active radar homing version of Sparrow family of missiles, the AAM-N-6 Sparrow III; the first of these weapons entered United States Navy service in 1958. The AAM-N-6a was similar to the -6, but used a new Thiokol liquid-fuel rocket engine for improved performance.

It included changes to the guidance electronics to make it effective at higher closing speeds. The -6a was selected to arm the Air Force's F-110A Spectre fighters in 1962, known to them as the AIM-101, it entered production in 1959, with 7500 being

Holy grail (web design)

The holy grail refers to a web page layout which has multiple, equal height columns that are defined with style sheets. It is desired and implemented, but for many years, the various ways in which it could be implemented with the current technologies all had drawbacks; because of this, finding an optimal implementation was likened to searching for the elusive Holy Grail. The limitations of CSS and HTML, the desirability of semantically meaningful pages that rank well in search engines, the deficiencies of various browsers combined to create a situation in which there was no way to create this type of layout that would be considered correct; as the underlying technologies did not provide a proper solution, web designers found various ways to work around the limitations. Common workarounds included changes in page structure, the addition of graphics and the creative use of CSS; these methods were imperfect and considered by some to be abuse of the web standards and their intent. More recent web standards have provided much more complete and robust solutions for implementing this layout.

In particular, the CSS Flexible Box Layout and CSS Grid Layout modules have both provided full solutions. Many web pages require a layout with multiple columns, with the main page content in one column, supplementary content such as menus and advertisements in the other columns; these columns require separate backgrounds, with borders between them, should appear to be the same height no matter which column has the tallest content. A common requirement is that the sidebars have a fixed width, with the center column adjusting in size to fill the window. Another common requirement is that, when a page does not contain enough content to fill the screen, the footer should drop to the bottom of the browser window instead of leaving blank space underneath. There were many obstacles to accomplishing this: CSS, although quite useful for styling, had limited capabilities for page layout; the height of block elements is determined by their content. So two divisions, side by side, with different amounts of content, will have different heights unless their height is somehow set to an appropriate value.

HTML is meant to be used semantically. The appearance of a web page as rendered by a user agent should be determined independently by style rules. Many implementations misuse HTML by using tables for non-tabular data, or nesting multiple div elements without semantic purpose. Non-semantic use of HTML confuses users or user agents who are trying to discern the structure of the page content, is an accessibility issue; as search engines may consider content in the beginning of a web page's source code to be more relevant, content is read in source code order when viewed by some user agents such as screen readers, web designers desire the ability to place the content in the page source in an arbitrary order, without affecting the appearance of the page. Because of incorrect rendering of content by different browsers, a method that works in a standards-compliant browser may not work in one that does not implement CSS correctly. Before the widespread implementation of CSS, designers used tables to lay out pages.

Sometimes they achieved their desired layout by nesting several tables inside each other. Although placing the columns inside table cells achieves the desired visual appearance, using a table is semantically incorrect, although the "role" WAI-ARIA HTML attribute can be set to "presentation" to regain semantic context. There is no way to control the order of the columns in the page source, it is possible to make columns equal height using the CSS display property. This requires nested container divisions that are set to display: table and display: table-row, columns that are set to display: table-cell; this is semantically correct. However, this method lacks the ability to control the order of the source code, it will not work with some older, unsupported browsers, such as Internet Explorer 7. This method uses a background image which provides the background colors and vertical borders of all three columns; the content of each column is enclosed in a division, positioned over its background using techniques such as floats, negative margins, relative positioning.

The background is only a few pixels high, is made to cover the page using the "repeat-y" attribute. This works fine for fixed-width layouts, can be adapted for percentage-based variable-width pages, but cannot be used for fluid center pages. In this method, after the page is loaded, a script measures the height of each of the columns, sets the height of each column to the greater value; this will not work in browsers that do not have JavaScript disabled. In this method, the corners of the column divisions are locked in a specific place on the page; this may be acceptable or desired, but does not solve the holy grail problem as it is a different layout. The consequences of this method may include having content appearing below the columns fixed at the screen bottom, blank space under the column content, requiring scrollbars for each column to view all the content. A division with its background will grow in height to contain its content; this behavior is used to solve the problem by creating three divisions nested inside each other which provide the three backgrounds.

These divisions are placed in their proper location using positioning techniques, the three content divisions are placed inside the innermost background division, positioned over their r

Anthony Gill (basketball)

Anthony Remeral Gill is an American basketball player for Khimki of the VTB United League and the EuroLeague. He played college basketball for the Virginia Cavaliers. Anthony was born October 1992 to Sandi Summers and Anthony Gill, he has a brother named two sisters named Nichole and Kaytlyn. Gill was born with nerve damage. Gill attended Charlotte Christian School in Charlotte, North Carolina. While at Charlotte Christian, he played on the same team as Akil Mitchell. Gill average 9 rebounds his senior year, earning all-state honors in the process. Gill committed to the University of South Carolina on October 27, 2009, selecting the Gamecocks over offers from Virginia and Wake Forest. Gill started in 26 of them. Following the firing of head coach Darrin Horn, Gill was given permission to transfer from South Carolina. Gill receiving interest from Ohio State and North Carolina but elected to transfer to the University of Virginia. After sitting out his redshirt season, Gill played an important role off the bench for the Cavaliers during a season where the team won both the ACC regular season and tournament titles.

He injured his ankle during Virginia's loss to Michigan State in the Sweet Sixteen round of the 2014 NCAA Tournament. During his junior season, Gill led the Cavaliers in rebounding with 6.5 rebounds per game and ranked third in scoring with 11.6 points per game. Following the season, he was named third-team All-ACC and voted onto the coaches' All-ACC Defensive Team. After going undrafted in the 2016 NBA draft, Gill signed with MHP Riesen Ludwigsburg in Germany. However, he left the team prior to the season's start after failing a medical exam on August 23, 2016. Gill signed with Yeşilgiresun Belediye of the Basketbol Süper Ligi. On June 24, 2017 Gill signed a contract to play for the Charlotte Hornets during the 2017 NBA Summer League. Note: The EuroLeague is not the only competition in which the player participated for the team during the season, he played in domestic competition, regional competition if applicable. Off the court, Gill has a reputation of being a prankster, he makes up stories during interviews, such as owning a two-headed Siamese cat and being a magician in his free time.

Anthony married his high school sweetheart, Jenna Jamil, on April 8, 2016. Teammates Malcolm Brogdon, Devon Hall, London Perrantes and Darius Thompson were groomsmen. Gill majored in anthropology. Virginia bio Anthony Gill at Anthony Gill at Anthony Gill on Instagram